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MASSACHUSETTS 



HORTICULTURAL 



SOCIETY. 



"And the Lord God planted a garden; and there he put the man, 

WHOM HE HAD FORMED." — Qen. 




BOSTON, 

PRESS OF ISAAC R. BUTTS— WILSON'S LANE. 
MDCCCXXIX. 



CONTENTS. 



Page 

Proceedings on the Establishment of the Massachusetts 

Horticultural Society, 7 

First Meeting, 7 

Second Meeting, 8 

Officers of the Society, 9 

Standing Committees, 11 

Committee on the Synonymes of Fruits, 13 

Act of Incorporation, 14 



CONSTITUTION. 
SECTION I, 

The Officers of the Society, 17 

SECTION II. 

The President, 17 

SECTION III. 

The Vice Presidents, 18 

SECTION IV. 

The Treasurer, 18 

SECTION v. 
The Corresponding Secretary, 19 

SECTION VI. 

The Recording Secretary, 19 

SECTION VII. 

The Election of Officers and Members, 19 



4 



CONTENTS. 



SECTION VIII. 

The Discontinuance of Members, 20 

SECTION IX. 

The Anniversary of the Society, 20 

section x. 
The Meetings of the Society, 20 

SECTION XI. 

Amendments to the Constitution, how made, 21 

BY-LAWS. 

ARTICLE I. 

The Period of Elections, 22 

ARTICLE II. 

The Notice of Elections, 22 

ARTICLE III. 

The Mode of Balloting, 23 

ARTICLE IV. 

The Method of Filling Vacancies, 24 

ARTICLE V. 

The Duties of the Treasurer, 24 

ARTICLE VI. 

The Duties of Corresponding Secretary, 25 

ARTICLE VII. 

The Council, how Formed, 25 

ARTICLE VIII. 

The Presiding Officer of the Council, 25 



CONTENTS. O 

ARTICLE IX. 

Page 

The Time and Place of Meeting of the Council, 26 

article x. 
The Order of Business in the Council, 26 

ARTICLE XI. 

The Council may Establish By-Laws for its Government, ... 26 

ARTICLE XII. 

The Disposition of Papers and Communications, .27 

ARTICLE XIII. 

The Objects and Distribution of Rewards, 27 

ARTICLE XIV. 

The Manner of Presenting Rewards, 28 

ARTICLE xv. 
The Council to Recommend the Persons for Officers, ..... 29 

ARTICLE XVI. 

Each Member Entitled to a Copy of the Charter, Constitution, 

and By-Laws, 29 

ARTICLE XVII. 

The Mode of Admitting Members, 29 

ARTICLE XVIII. 

The Fee of Admission, 30 

ARTICLE XIX. 

The Annual Contribution, 39 

ARTICLE XX. 

The Consequence of not Paying Contributions, 30 

ARTICLE XXI. 

The Admission of Members to be Recorded, 31 

ARTICLE XXII. 

A Quorum for Business, 31 



6 CONTENTS. 

ARTICLE XXIII. 

Page 

Honorary and Corresponding Members, 31 

ARTICLE XXIV. 

Who may be Honorary Members, 31 

ARTICLE XXV. 

The Rights of Honorary Members, 32 

ARTICLE XXVI. 

Who may be Corresponding Members, 32 

ARTICLE XXVII. 

The Expenses of Corresponding Members to be Paid, 32 

ARTICLE XXVIII. 

The Rights of Corresponding Members, 33 

ARTICLE XXTX. 

Honorary and Corresponding Members to be furnished with 

Diplomas, 33 

ARTICLE XXX. 

Practical Gardeners may be Admitted as Members, 33 

ARTICLE XXXI. 

Lecturers on Botany, Entomology, and Horticultural Chemistry, 34 



Reports of Standing Committees. 

1. On Fruits, 35 

2. On Gardens, 38 

3. On Trees, 40 

Members of the Society, 43 

Honorary Members, 49 

Corresponding Members, 51 



PROCEEDINGS 



ESTABLISHMENT 



OF THE 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



FIRST MEETING. 

On the 24th of February, 1829, a meeting of 
sixteen gentlemen was convened at the office of 
Zebedee Cook, jr., 1\ Congress street, for the 
purpose of instituting a Horticultural Society, 
when the Hon. John Lowell, of ftoxbury, was 
chosen Moderator, and Zebedee Cook, jr. ap- 
pointed Secretary. 

It was then voted that 

Messrs. HENRY A. S. DEARBORN, 
ZEBEDEE COOK, Jr., 
SAMUEL DOWNER, 

be a committee to prepare a Constitution and 
By-Laws, for the government of the Society, 
and to report the same at a future meeting, to 
be held at the time and place the committee may 
designate. 



s 



PROCEEDINGS, &c. 



Messrs. JOHN B. RUSSELL, 
ENOCH BARTLETT, 
ZEBEDEE COOK, Jr., 
SAMUEL DOWNER, 
CHEEVER NEWHALL, 

were appointed a committee to obtain sub 
scribers. 

The meeting was then adjourned. 

ZEBEDEE COOK, Jr., Sec'y. 



SECOND MEETING. 

On the 17th of March, 1829, a meeting was 
held at the same place, as was the preceding, for 
the purpose of hearing the report of the commit- 
tee, appointed to prepare a Constitution and By- 
Laws, for the use of the Society. 

The Hon. John Lowell being prevented by 
illness from attending, the meeting was organized 
by the choice of William H. Sumner, Esq. as 
Moderator. 

The draft of the Constitution and By-Laws as 
reported by the committee, having been read 3 it 
was moved, that the same be adopted, as the 
Constitution and By-Laws of The Massachu- 
setts Horticultural Society, and the same 
were adopted unanimously. 



i . ...... 



OFFICERS 



OF THE 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



PRESIDENT. 

HENRY A. S. DEARBORN, Roxbunj. 

VICE-PRESIDENTS. 

ZEBEDEE COOK, Jr., Dorchester. 
JOHN C. GRAY, Boston. 
ENOCH BARTLETT, Roxbunj. 

TREASURER. 

CHEEVER NEWHALL, Boston. 

CORRESPONDING SECRETARY. 

JACOB BIGELOW, M. D., Boston. 

RECORDING SECRETARY. 

ROBERT L. EMMONS, Boston. 

COUNSELLORS. 

AUGUSTUS ASPINWALL, Brookline. 
THOMAS BREWER, Roxbunj. 
HENRY A. BREED, Lynn. 

2 



10 OFFICERS. 

BENJ. W. CROWNINSHIELD, Salem. 

J. G. COGSWELL, Northampton. 

NATHANIEL DAVENPORT, Milton. 

E. HERSEY DERBY, Salem. 

SAMUEL DOWNER, Dorchester. 
, OLIVER FISKE. Worcester. 

B. V. FRENCH, Boston. 
1 J. M. GOURGAS, Weston. 

T. W. HARRIS, M D., Milton. 

WILLIAM JACKSON, Plymouth. 

SAMUEL JAQUES, Jr. Charlestoivn. 

JOS. G. JOY, Boston. 

WILLIAM KENRICK, Newton. 

WILLIAM LINCOLN, Worcester. 

J. P. LELAND, Sherburne. 

JOHN LEMIST, Roxbury. * 

ELIAS PHINNEY, Lexington. 

BENJAMIN RODMAN, New Bedford. 

JOHN B. RUSSELL, Boston. 

CHARLES SENIOR. Roxbury. 
, WILLIAM H. SUMNER, Dorchester. 

CHARLES TAPPAN, Boston. 

JACOB TIDD, Roxbury. 

M. A. WARD, M. D., Salem. 

JON A. WINSHIP, Brighton. 

WILLIAM WORTHINGTON, Dorchester. 

SAMUEL WARD, Roxbury. 

AARON D. WILLIAMS, Roxbury. 

PROFESSOR OF BOTANY AND VEGETABLE PHYSIOLOGY. 

MALTHUS A. WARD, M. D. 

PROFESSOR OF ENTOMOLOGY. 

T. W. HARRIS, M. D. 

PROFESSOR OF HORTICULTURAL CHEMISTRY. 

J. W. WEBSTER, M. D. 



STANDING COMMITTEES 



OF THE 



COUNCIL. 



I. 

ON FRUIT TREES, FRUITS, &C. 

To have char-ge of whatever relates to the 
multiplication of fruit trees and vines, by seed, 
scions, buds, layers, suckers, or other modes; 
the introduction of new varieties ; the various 
methods of pruning and training them, and 
whatever relates to their culture, and that of all 
other fruits ; the recommendation of objects for 
premiums, and the awarding of them. 

-ELI AS PHTNNEY, Chairman. 
SAMUEL DOWNER, 
OLIVER FISKE, 
ROBERT MANNING, 
CHARLES SENIOR. 

II. 

ON THE CULTURE AND PRODUCTS OF THE KITCHEN GARDEN. 

To have charge of whatever relates to the lo- 
cation and management of Kitchen Gardens; the 
cultivation of all plants appertaining thereto; 
the introduction of new varieties of esculent, me- 



12 STANDING COMMITTEES. 

dicinal, and all such vegetables as are useful in 
the arts, or are subservient to other branches of 
national industry; the structure and manage- 
ment of hot-beds ; the recommendation of objects 
for premiums, and the awarding of them. 

* JACOB TIDD, Chairman. 
SAMUEL WARD, 
AARON D. WILLIAMS, 
JOHN B. RUSSELL. 

III. 

ON ORNAMENTAL TREES, SHRUBS, FLOWERS, AND GREEN-HOUSES. 

To have charge of whatever relates to the 
culture, multiplication, and preservation of orna- 
mental trees and shrubs, and flowers of all kinds ; 
the construction and management of green 
houses, the recommendation of objects for pre- 
miums, and the awarding of them. 

ROBERT L. EMMONS, Chairman. 
JONATHAN WINSHIP, 
JOSEPH G. JOY, 
WILLIAM CARTER. 

IV. 

ON THE LIBRARY. 

To have charge of all books, drawings, and 
engravings, and to recommend from time to 
time such as it may be deemed expedient to pro- 
cure ; to superintend the publication of such 
communications and papers as may be directed 



STANDING COMMITTEES. 13 

by the council; to recommend premiums for 
drawings of fruits and flowers, and plans of 
country houses, and other edifices and structures 
connected with horticulture ; and for communi- 
cations on any subject in relation thereto. 

- H. A. S. DEARBORN, Chairman, 

JOHN C. GRAY, 

JACOB BIGELOW, 
~T. W. HARRIS. 



COMMITTEE ON THE SY2STONYMES OF FRUITS. 

At a meeting of the Society, June 20, the 
following gentlemen were chosen a Committee 
to facilitate an interchange of fruits with the 
Philadelphia, New York, and Albany Horticul- 
tural Societies, and others, for the purpose of 
establishing their synonymes. 

JOHN LOWELL, Chairman. 
SAMUEL G. PERKINS, 
- SAMUEL DOWNER. 



ACT OF INCORPORATION. 



COMMONWEALTH OF MASSACHUSETTS. 

IN THE YEAR OF OUR LORD ONE THOUSAND EIGHT HUNDRED AND 

TWENTY-NINE. 

An Act to incorporate the Massachusetts Horticultural Society. 

Section 1. Be it enacted by the Senate and 
House of Representatives in General Court as- 
sembled, and by the authority of the same, That 
Zebedee Cook, Jr., Robert L. Emmons, Wil- 
liam WORTHINGTON, B. V. FRENCH, JOHN B. 

Russell, J. R. Newell, Cheever Newhall, 
and Thomas G. Fessenden, their Associates and 
Successors, be and they hereby are incorporated 
under the name and by the description of the 
Massachusetts Horticultural Society, for the 
purpose of encouraging and improving the 
science and practice of Horticulture, and pro- 
moting the amelioration of the various species 
of trees, fruits, plants, and vegetables, and the 
introduction of new species and varieties ; with 
power to make by-laws not inconsistent with 
the Laws of the Commonwealth, for the regula- 
tion of said Society, and the management of the 
same and of its concerns ; to receive donations, 
bequests and devises for promoting the objects 



ACT OF INCORPORATION, 1 5 

of said Society ; to lay and collect assessments 
on the Members, not exceeding two dollars per 
annum ; to enforce the payment of such assess- 
ments by action for the same ; to purchase and 
hold real estate to the amount of ten thousand 
dollars, and personal estate to the amount of 
twenty thousand dollars ; to elect a Treasurer, 
Secretary, and other officers — the appointment 
of which shall be provided for in the by-laws of 
said Society ; the meeting for the election of 
such officers to be called at the times and in the 
manner provided in such by-laws ; to empower 
the President, Directors, Comptrollers, Treas- 
urer, Committees, or other Officers or Members, 
or any Attorneys, Agents, or Representatives of 
said Society, to transact the business, manage and 
apply the funds, discharge the functions, and 
promote the objects thereof; to authorise any of 
the Members or Officers of said Society to fill 
vacancies in the various offices of the same that 
may happen in the intervals between the meet- 
ings of the Members for choosing Officers; and 
to commence and defend suits. 

Section 2. Be it further enacted, That in 
case the said Corporation shall at any time con- 
tract debts beyond their means and ability to 
pay at the time of contracting the same, the 
Officers or other Agents of said Corporation so 
contracting such debts shall be personally liable 
for the same. 



16 ACT OF INCORPORATION. 

Section 3. Be it further enacted, That any 
Member of said Corporation may cease to be a 
Member thereof, by giving notice to that effect 
to the President, Treasurer, Secretary, or other 
Officers, and paying the amount due from him to 
the Society. 

Section 4. Be it further enacted, That the 
first meeting of the Members of said Corpora- 
tion may be called by any two or more of the 
persons named in the first section, by giving one 
week's notice, or more, by advertisement in any 
newspaper printed in Boston. 

Section 5. Be it further enacted, That this 
Act may be altered or repealed at the discretion 
of the Legislature. 

In House of Representatives, June 12, 1829. 
Passed to be enacted. 

WM. B. CALHOUN, Speaker. 

In Senate, June 12, 1829. 
Passed to be enacted. 

SAMUEL LATHROP, President 



June 12th, 1829. 
Approved, 

LEVI LINCOLN. 



A true Copy of the Original Act. 

Attest, EDWARD D. BANGS, Sec'y of the CommHth. 



CONSTITUTION 



OF THE 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



SECTION I. 
The Officers of the Society. 

The officers of this Society shall consist of 
one President, not less than two Vice Presidents, 
a Treasurer, a Corresponding Secretary, and a 
Recording Secretary, and Council, who shall be 
elected annually, and shall hold their offices for 
one year, and until others are installed in their 
places. 

SECTION II. 
The President, 

The business of the President shall be to pre- 
side in all the meetings of the Society, to keep 
order, to state the business lying before the So- 
ciety ; to state and put questions which shall 
have been moved and seconded, and in case of 
an equal division on any question, to give the 
3 



1 8 CONSTITUTION. 

casting vote ; to call for accounts and reports 
from all committees ; to call all extra meetings 
of the Society, when requested so to do, by any 
five of its members ; and generally to execute, 
or superintend the execution of such by-laws and 
regulations, as the Society shall from time to 
time enact or adopt. 

SECTION III. 
The Vice Presidents. 

In case of the absence of the President from 
any of the meetings of the Society, it shall be the 
duty of the senior Vice President then present, 
to take the chair, who shall for the time, have 
and exercise all the authority, privileges and 
power of the President ; and in case neither the 
President, or either of the Vice Presidents shall 
be present at any meeting of the Society, the 
Society shall then choose viva voce, a President 
pro tempore, who shall for the time be invested 
with all the power and authority of the President. 

SECTION IV. 
The Treasurer. 

The Treasurer shall receive for the use of 
the Society all sums of money due or payable 
thereto, and shall keep and disburse the same, 
as shall be prescribed from time to time, by the 
regulations and by-laws of the Society. 



CONSTITUTION. 1 9 

SECTION V. 
The Corresponding Secretary. 

The Corresponding Secretary shall prepare 
all letters to be written in the name of the Soci- 
ety, and conduct its correspondence. He shall 
receive and read all letters and papers addressed 
to the Society, in the order in which they may 
have been received, and shall preserve or dispose 
of them in such manner as shall be prescribed by 
the By-Laws, or directed by the Society. In the 
absence of the Corresponding Secretary, the 
Recording Secretary shall perform his duties 
under the direction of the President. 

SECTION VI. 
The Recording Secretary. 

The Recording Secretary shall keep the min- 
utes of the proceedings of the Society, and shall 
regularly record the same in a book to be pro- 
vided and kept for that purpose. In the absence 
of the Recording Secretary, the Corresponding 
Secretary shall perform his duties. And in the 
absence of both secretaries, the President shall 
appoint either a Corresponding, or Recording 
Secretary, or both, pro tempore. 

SECTION VII. 
The Election of Officers and Members. 

All elections for Officers of this Society, shall 
be by ballot, and all the members of this Society 



20 CONSTITUTION. 

shall be elected by ballot. Candidates for ad- 
mission, shall only be proposed and balloted for 
at a stated meeting of the Society. 

SECTION VIII. 
The Discontinuance of Members. 

Whensoever any member shall, after notice, 
neglect for the space of one year, to pay his an- 
nual assessment, his connexion with the Society 
shall cease ; and any member may, at any time, 
withdraw from the Society, on notice given to 
the Secretary, but he shall be responsible for the 
annual assessments, up to the period of such 
notice. 

SECTION IX. 
The Anniversary of the Society. 

The Anniversary of the Society shall be ob- 
served on the third Saturday of September in 
each year. 

SECTION X. 
The Meetings of the Society. 

The stated meetings of the Society shall be 
held on the first Saturday of March, of June, of 
September, and of December, at such time and 
place as shall be directed by the Society. And 
such number of members as shall from time to 
time be prescribed by the By-Laws, shall form a 
quorum for the transaction of business. 



CONSTITUTION, 2 1 

SECTION XI. 
Amendments to the Constitution, how made. 

This Constitution may be amended in manner 
following. Any amendment, or amendments, 
thereto may be proposed at any stated meeting 
of the Society. They shall be entered on the 
minutes, and the President shall read, or direct 
them to be read by the Secretary, and stated for 
discussion at the next stated meeting of the 
Society, and if three fourths of the members 
present, shall vote in favor of adopting them, 
they shall be recorded as part of the Constitu- 
tion. 



BY-LAWS 



OF THE 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



ARTICLE 1. 
The Period of Elections. 

All the officers directed to be chosen by the 
Constitution of this Society, and all other officers 
which may be provided for by the By-Laws there- 
of, shall be elected at the anniversary meeting 
of the Society, on the third Saturday of Septem- 
ber in each year, and shall enter on the duties 
of their respective offices, at the stated meeting 
next ensuing that on which they were elected. 
Provided that nothing contained in this article 
shall be construed to affect the election of offi- 
cers at the adoption of the Constitution and 
organization of the Society. 

ARTICLE II. 
The Notice of Elections. 

At least ten days notice shall be given by the 
Recording Secretary, of every annual election, 



BY-LAWS. 23 

by publishing the same in two or more newspa- 
pers printed in this city. The notice shall spe- 
cify particularly the time and place, when and 
where the said election is to be held, and the 
different officers to be voted for. And unless 
thirteen members at least shall attend on the 
third Saturday in September, and give in their 
votes, the President or presiding officer shall 
adjourn the said election to some convenient day, 
prior to the next stated meeting of the society, 
of which adjourned election the like notice shall 
be given, as of the regular annual election, and 
the election shall then proceed, whatever may 
be the number of members present. 

ARTICLE III. 
The Mode of Balloting. 

The names of the persons voted for, to fill the 
offices established by the Constitution, shall be 
contained on the same ballot, and the office for 
which they are respectively intended, shall be 
distinctly designated. The names of the persons 
voted for, to fill the other offices which may from 
time to time be instituted or provided for by the 
By-Laws, shall be contained on another ballot. 
As soon as the poll shall be closed, the President 
or presiding officer, shall appoint two of the 
members present to examine the ballots, who 
shall report aloud to the President the number of 
votes given, and the President shall thereupon 



24 BY-LAWS. 

declare the persons elected, to the respective 
offices, by a majority of the votes given. 

ARTICLE IV. 
The Method of filling Vacancies. 

When any vacancy shall happen, either by 
death or resignation, in any of the offices estab- 
lished by the Constitution or By-Laws of the So- 
ciety, it shall be filled at the next stated meeting 
of the Society, after the vacancy shall have hap- 
pened, unless the election shall be postponed to 
a subsequent day, by a majority of the members 
then present, and the election shall be conduct- 
ed as nearly as may be, after the manner herein 
prescribed for the annual election of officers. 

ARTICLE V. 
The Duties of the Treasurer. 

The Treasurer shall demand and collect all 
moneys due to the Society, and shall keep regu- 
lar accounts of all sums received and disbursed 
by him. Every sum of money exceeding ten 
dollars shall be paid by order of the Council. 
The accounts of the Treasurer shall be audited 
annually, at least one week previous to the anni- 
versary meeting of the Society, by a Committee 
consisting of three members, to be appointed 
by the Council, and of the President and Secre- 
tary, who shall be members ex officio. The 



by-laws. 25 

said committee shall report at the anniversary 
meeting, the balance in the Treasurer's hands ? 
and the general state of the funds of the 
Society. 

ARTICLE VI. 
The Duties of the Corresponding Secretary. 

It shall be the duty of the Corresponding 
Secretary, and of the Recording Secretary, to 
attend at all the meetings of the society, and the 
Corresponding Secretary shall attend the meet- 
ings of the Council. He shall keep minutes of 
their proceedings, and record the same as they 
may direct. The Recording Secretary shall 
keep and record the minutes of the Society, as 
directed by the Constitution. He shall prepare 
and give notice of all the meetings of the So- 
ciety, and shall superintend the printing of its 
transactions under the direction of the Council. 

ARTICLE VII. 
The Council. 

The Council to consist of not less than twen- 
ty four members. The President and all the 
officers of the Society, shall be ex officio mem- 
bers of the Council, and five members shall be 
a quorum for the transaction of business. 

ARTICLE VIII. 
The Presiding Officer of the Council. 

The President or senior Vice President 
present, and in case neither the President nor 
4 



26 BY-LAWS. 

either of the Vice Presidents shall attend, then 
the senior member present shall preside at the 
meetings of the Council. 

ARTICLE IX. 
The Time and Place of Meeting of the Council. 

The Council may convene at such times and 
places as it may deem expedient, and the Presi- 
dent or presiding officer of the Society, shall 
have power to convene meetings of the Council 
at his discretion, and the Corresponding Sec- 
retary shall give due notice of every meeting 
directed to be convened. 

ARTICLE X. 
The Order of Business in the Council. 

The chairman shall determine the order in 
which the business before the Council shall be 
taken into consideration, and all questions which 
shall be considered, shall be decided by a ma- 
jority of votes, the chairman giving the casting 
vote in case of an equal division. 

ARTICLE XI. 
The Council May Establish By-Laws for its Government. 

The Council shall have power, as occasion 
may require, to make and establish such By- 
Laws and regulations, not repugnant to the Con- 
stitution of this Society, as shall be deemed 



BY-LAWS. 27 

useful and necessary for the government thereof. 
Such By-Laws and regulations shall be subject, 
however, to be altered, modified, or repealed by 
the Society at its stated meetings, two thirds of 
the members present concurring in such altera- 
tions, modification, or repeal ; and any of the 
By-Laws of this Society may in like manner be 
altered, modified, or repealed by the votes of 
two thirds of the members present at any stated 
meeting. 

ARTICLE XII. 

The Disposition of Papers and Communications. 

All papers or communications directed or sent 
to the society, shall be referred to the particular 
consideration of the Council, who may direct 
the same to be published in the transactions of 
the Society, or otherwise disposed of. 

ARTICLE XIII. 
The Objects and Distribution of JReivards. 

The Council may annually in its discretion, 
direct rewards to be given to such members as 
may in the opinion of the Council, have essen- 
tially advanced the objects of the Society, 
either by frequent communications thereto, which 
shall have been deemed worthy of publication 
in its transactions, or by having made impor- 
tant additions to the science of horticulture, or 
who by diligence and exertions in the service 



28 BY-LAWS. 

of the Society, shall have merited distinction ; 
and may also award premiums to the members 
of the Society, of such value, in such manner, 
and under such regulations as may be deemed 
proper and expedient, either for the invention 
or discovery of any new matter in horticulture, 
or some important improvement therein; or 
for the exhibition to the Society, of any fruits, 
vegetables, or plants of their growth or cultiva- 
tion, and either new in their kind, or of uncom- 
mon excellence as to quality ; or for any new 
and successful method of cultivating any kind 
of esculent vegetables, fruits, ornamental flowers, 
or ornamental shrubs, or trees, or any other 
subjects connected with horticulture. Provided 
that seeds, cuttings, scions, or plants, as the 
case may be, or the fruit, vegetables or plants 
shall have been given to the Society for distribu- 
tion, and the fruit, vegetables, or plants have 
been exhibited at some one of the meetings 
of the Society. 

ARTICLE XIV. 
The Manner of Presenting Rewards. 

If at any time, rewards or premiums shall be 
awarded by the council, they shall be presented 
and given to the persons entitled thereto, or to 
their representatives, by the President or presiding 
officer of the Society, at its next stated meeting. 
The names of all persons to whom rewards or 
premiums shall have been awarded, in the course 



BY-LAWS. 29 

of the year, shall be duly recorded, and such 
publicity given thereto as the Council shall 
direct. 

ARTICLE XV. 
The Council to Recommend the Persons for Officers. 

It shall be the duty of the Council, at the 
stated meeting preceding every anniversary 
election, to lay before the President and the 
Society, a list of the persons whom they recom- 
mend to be elected as President, Vice Presidents, 
Treasurer, and Secretaries of the Society, and 
another list containing the names of those whom 
they recommend to be elected members of the 
Council, and to fill the other offices provided 
for by the By-Laws, and shall cause a sufficient 
number of each list to be printed and furnished 
at the anniversary election for the use of the 
members. 

ARTICLE XVI. 
Each Member entitled to a Copy of the Charter, Constitution and 

By-Laws. 

Every member, at the time of his admission, 
shall be presented, by the Recording Secretary, 
with a printed copy of the Charter, Constitu- 
tion and By-Laws of the Society. 

ARTICLE XVII. 
The Mode of Admitting Members. 

Every candidate for admission into the Socie- 
ty, shall be proposed and recommended at a 



30 BY-LAWS. 

stated meeting of the Society by at least two 
of its members, and shall be balloted for at 
the time proposed, or at some subsequent stated 
meeting. 

ARTICLE XVIII. 
The Fee of Admission. 

Each member before he receives his certifi- 
cate or takes his seat, shall pay the sum of five 
dollars. 

ARTICLE XIX. 
The Annual Contribution. 

The Annual Contribution shall be payable at 
the time of his election ; but any member of 
the Society may at any time compound for his 
future contribution, by the payment of thirty 
Dollars. 

ARTICLE XX. 
The Consequences of not Paying Contributions. 

No member of the Society shall be entitled 
to receive any publication of the society, or to 
vote at any election or meeting of the society, 
or be eligible to any office therein, who has for 
more than twelve months, omitted to pay his 
annual contribution. And if his contribution 
shall at any time be in arrears for more than one 
year, he may be ejected from the society, by 
the votes of two thirds of the members present, 
at any stated meeting. 



BY-LAWS. 31 

ARTICLE XXI. 
The Admission of Every Member to be Recorded. 

The election and admission of every member, 
with the time thereof, shall be recorded. 

ARTICLE XXII. 
A Quorum for Business. 

Six members exclusive of the President or 
presiding officer, shall be a quorum for the trans- 
action of business. 

ARTICLE XXIII. 
Honorary and Corresponding Members. 

There shall be two classes of members, ex- 
clusive of ordinary members, to wit, honorary 
members, and corresponding members. 

ARTICLE XXIV. 
Who may be Honorary Members. 

Honorary members shall be eminent persons, 
distinguished either in this or other countries, 
for their attainments in the science of horticul- 
ture. They shall be proposed only by the Coun- 
cil, at a stated meeting of the Society, and 
elected at that or a subsequent stated meeting, 
by the votes of two thirds of the members 
present. 



32 BiT-LAWS. 

ARTICLE XXV. 
The Rights of Honorary Members. 

Honorary members shall be exempt from the 
payment of fees or contributions. They shall 
not be entitled to vote at any election or meet- 
ing of the Society, nor be eligible to any office 
therein, but shall have the privilege of attend- 
ing all meetings thereof. 

ARTICLE XXVI. 
Who may be Corresponding Members. 

The Corresponding members of the Society 
shall be citizens of the United States of Amer- 
ica, or any other country, distinguished for their 
practical skill and knowledge in the science of 
horticulture. The President or Secretary of 
the Society shall hold a correspondence on sub- 
jects relating to horticulture, with such of them 
as shall be deemed convenient or expedient. 

ARTICLE XXVII; 
Expenses of Corresponding Members to be Paid. 

All the expenses incurred by any correspond- 
ing member, in promoting, under the direction 
of the President or Secretary, the object of this 
Society, as well as any remuneration for per- 
sonal trouble, shall be paid out of the funds 
of the society, under the direction of the Coun- 
cil. 



BY-LAWS. 33 

ARTICLE XXVIII. 
The Rights of Corresponding Members. 

The corresponding members shall not be 
subject to the payment of fees or contributions, 
nor be entitled to any of the privileges of mem- 
bers, except that of attending the meetings of 
the society, and may receive such rewards and 
honors as the Council may deem expedient to 
bestow, in consideration of meritorious services. 
They shall be proposed and elected in like man- 
ner as honorary members. 

ARTICLE XXTX. 

Honorary and Corresponding Members to be Furnished with 

Diplomas. 

There shall be transmitted to each honorary 
member, and to each corresponding member, as 
soon as may be after his election, a diploma or 
certificate of his election, under the seal of the 
Society, signed by the President, and counter- 
signed by the Secretary. 

ARTICLE XXX. 
Practical Gardeners may be admitted as Members. 

Any person exercising the trade or profession 
of a gardener, who shall have received any re- 
ward from the Society, or who shall have com- 
municated a paper, which shall have been read, 
at a general meeting of the Society, and which 



34 BY-LAWS. 

shall be deemed worthy of publication, or who 
may be recommended by the Council, may be 
admitted a member of the Society, and shall be 
entitled to all the privileges and benefits of a 
member, upon the payment of two dollars for 
his admission fee, and one dollar in each year 
for his contribution, instead of the fee and an- 
nual contribution, named in the eighteenth and 
nineteenth sections. 



ARTICLE XXXI. 



Lecturers on Botany and Vegetable Physiology, Entomology and 

Chemistry. 

Lecturers on botany and vegetable physiology, 
on entomology, so far as it relates to horticulture, 
and on horticultural chemistry, shall be ap- 
pointed. They shall be nominated by the coun- 
cil at a stated meeting of the Society, and elect- 
ed at that, or a subsequent stated meeting, by 
a majority of votes. 



REPORTS 



OF THE 



STANDING COMMITTEES. 



NO. I. 
ON FRUIT TREES AND FRUITS. 

The Committee who have in charge what- 
ever relates to the multiplication of Fruit Trees, 
Fruit, &c. — the recommending of objects for 
premiums, and the awarding of them, have 
attended to that duty, and submit the following 
report. 

FIRST — ON NURSERIES. 

For the best nursery of Apple Trees 
of the most approved kinds of fruit, 
not less than one thousand in num- 
ber, and not less than two years 
old from the budding or grafting, $10 00 

For the best nursery of Pear Trees 
of the most rare and approved 
varieties, not less than one thou- 
sand in number, and not less than 
two years old from the budding or 
engrafting, a premium of - - 10 00 



36 REPORTS. 

For the best nursery of Peach Trees 
of the greatest variety of the. best 
kinds, not less than two thousand 
in number, a premium of - - $ 10 00 

For the best nursery of Cherry Trees, 
not less than five hundred, and not 
less than two years old, and of the 
best kinds, a premium of - - 5 00 

For the best nursery of Plum and 
Apricot Trees of approved varie- 
ties, not less than three hundred in 
number, a premium of - - 5 00 

SECOND — ON FRUITS. 

For the best Apples, not less than 

two dozen, a premium of - - 4 00 
For the best Pears, not less than one 

dozen, a premium of - - 4 00 

For the best Peaches, not less than 

one dozen, a premium of - - 4 00 
For the best Plums, not less than one 

dozen, a premium of - - 3 00 

For the best Apricots, not less than 

one dozen, a premium of - - 3 00 
For the best foreign Grapes, not less 

than three bunches, a premium of - 3 00 
For the best native Grapes, not less 

than six bunches, a premium of 3 00 

For the best Gooseberries, not less 

than one quart, a premium of - 2 00 



REPORTS. 37 

For the best Strawberries, not less 
than one quart, a premium of - $2 00 

THIRD — ON THE CULTURE AND MANAGEMENT OF FRUIT 
TREES, AND THE DISEASES INCIDENT TO THEM. 

To the person who shall offer to the 
Society at their annual meeting 
in September, the best treatise, in 
manuscript, on the cultivation and 
management of fruit trees, a pre- 
mium of - - - - 5 00 

To the person who shall offer to the 
Society, at their annual meeting in 
September, the best treatise, in man- 
uscript, on any one, or more, of the 
insects that attack fruit trees, with 
the best method of preventing or 
destroying the same, a premium of - 5 00 

To the person who shall offer to the 
Society, at their annual meeting in 
September, the best treatise, in 
manuscript, on any one, or more, of 
the diseases to which fruit trees are 
liable, with the best method of pre- 
venting the same, a premium of 5 00 

FOURTH— NEW VARIETIES. 

To the person who shall introduce 
and propagate the greatest number 
of the new and most approved vari- 
eties of fruit trees, a premium of - 10 00 



38 REPORTS. 

The times and places for exhibiting the vari- 
ous kinds of fruit, to be fixed by the Committee 
and published. 

Discretionary premiums to be awarded on 
fruits presented by members, or others, when 
rare and of excellent sorts. 

All which is respectfully submitted, by order 
of the Committee. 

E. PHINNEY, Chairman. 



NO. II. 
ON KITCHEN GARDENS. 

The Standing Committee of the Massachu- 
setts Horticultural Society, on the Culture and 
Products of the Kitchen Garden, consisting of 
Jacob Tidd, Samuel Ward, Aaron D. Wil- 
liams, and John B. Russell, have attended 
to that duty, and submit the following list of 
premiums. 

Asparagus, 50 in a bunch, earliest and 

best in open ground, - - $2 00 

Cucumbers, best pair, on or before the 

4th of July, in open ground, - - 2 00 
Cabbages, Early, the best 4 heads, - 2 00 
Carrots, twelve roots, the earliest and 

best, 2 00 

Beets, twelve roots of the earliest and 

best, by 4th of July, - - - 2 00 



REPORTS. 39 

Potatoes, early, one peck, the best, by 
the 4th of July, - - - - $2 00 

Potatoes, for winter, not less than twenty 
bushels, having regard to their pro- 
ductiveness, as well as quality, - 4 00 

Celery, six plants, earliest and best, - 4 00 

Beans, Large, Lima, 2 quarts, shelled, 2 00 

Beans, the earliest and best, 2 quarts, - 1 00 

Beans, the earliest and best, dwarf shell, 

2 quarts, 1 00 

Lettuce, four heads, the finest and 

heaviest of the season, - - - 1 00 

Cauliflowers, 4 heads, finest and heaviest 

of the season, - - - - 1 00 

Broccoli, 4 heads, do. do. 2 00 

Squashes, Winter Crook Neck, the 

largest and best pair, - - - 1 00 

Peas, one peck, the earliest and best by 

the first Monday of June, - - 1 00 

Savoy Cabbages, six heads, best in the 
season, 2 00 

Melons, Water, the largest and best 

pair, - - - -'" - 1 00 

Melons, Musk, the finest pair in the 

season, - - - - - 1 00 

Indian Corn, for boiling, 12 ears, hav- 
ing regard to the size of the ears, their 
earliness, and the quality of the com, 1 00 



40 



REPORTS. 



The Committee attend, generally, every Sat- 
urday, at the Society's Hall, No. 52 North Mar- 
ket Street, for the examination of any articles 
that may be left for examination or premiums. 
Per order, J. TIDD, Chairman. 



NO. Til. 
ON ORNAMENTAL TREES, SHRUBS AND FLOWERS. 

The Standing Committee on Ornamental 
Trees, Shrubs, Flowers, and Green-Houses, beg 
leave respectfully to report the following sub- 
jects for premiums, viz. 

For the most successful cultivation of 
the American Holly ; the number of 
trees, not less than four, which have 
been transplanted at least three years, $10 00 

For the four best flowering plants of 
the Magnolia Glauca, which have 
been transplanted at least three years, 10 CO 

For the most successful cultivation of 
the Rhododendron Maximum, the 
number of plants not less than four, 
which have been transplanted three 
years, - - - - - 5 00 

For the five best plants of the Kalmia 
Latifolia, which have been trans- 
planted not less than three years, - 2 00 



REPORTS. 4 1 

For the best seedling plants of either 
of the above, not less than ten in 
number, of three years growth, and 
upwards, - - - - ^f5 00 

For the best specimens of Chinese 
Chrysanthemums, not less than five 
varieties, 3 00 

For the best half dozen of Tulips, - 2 00 
do. do. Hyacinths, 2 00 

do. do. Ranunculus, 2 00 

For the best pot of Auriculas, - - 2 00 
do. do. Anemonies, - 2 00 

do. do. Pinks, - - 2 00 

do. do. Carnations, - 2 00 

For the best half dozen cultivated 

native Flowers, - - - - 2 00 

For the finest Roses, not less than five 

varieties, - - - - - 4 00 

For the best bunch of double and single 

Dahlias, - - - - - 2 00 

For the greatest number and finest 

kinds of the Camellia Japonica, - 3 00 
Discretionary premiums to be awarded on 

plants, or flowers, not enumerated above, but 

no premiums will be awarded until the year 

1 830. Of the times when, and the places where, 

due notice will be given by the Committee. 
In the selection of objects for premiums, your 

Committee have had chiefly in view, the intro- 
6 



42 



REPOHTS. 



duction into our gardens of some of those in- 
digenous shrubs, whose rare beauty (in their 
opinion) deserve, and which they confidently 
hope will obtain the notice of the Society. 
They have no doubt that our own country is 
rich in ornamental trees and shrubs, which if 
more generally known and cultivated, would be 
as generally admired and appreciated ; and they 
cannot but regret, that while so much labor and 
care have been bestowed upon exotics inferior 
in beauty, our native plants have literally been 
left " to waste their fragrance on the desert air." 
Feeling confident that many if not all the indi- 
genous shrubs abounding in our vicinity, may be 
naturalized to an upland soil, and even improved 
by cultivation, they have been induced to offer 
premiums for such as they think will well re- 
pay the labor of cultivation. All which is re- 
spectfully submitted, by order of the Committee. 
R. L. EMMONS, Chairman. 



Note. None but the members of the Society 
are entitled to the premiums offered in the re- 
ports of the three Committees, 



The Committees No. 1 and 2. meet at the Society's Hall, No. 52, 
North Market Street, every Saturday, generally, for the examination of 
any articles that may be left for premium, or exhibition. 



MEMBERS 



OF THE 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



ASPINWALL, AUGUSTUS, Brookline. 
ADAMSON, JOHN, Roxbury. 
AMES, JOHN W. Dedham. 
ANDREWS, JOHN H., Salem-. 
ANDREWS, EBENEZER T., Boston. 
ANTHONY, JAMES, Providence. 

B 

BARTLETT, ENOCH, Roxbury. 
BRIDGE, NATHAN, Charleslown. 
BREWER, THOMAS, Roxbury. 
BRIMMER, GEORGE W., Boston. 
BRADLEE, JOSEPH P., 
BREED, EBENEZER, " 

BUSSEY, BENJAMIN, 
OREED, HENRY A„ Lynn. 
BIGELOW, JACOB, Boston. 
BALDWIN, ENOCH, Dorchester. 
; 5REED, JOHN, Charlestoivn. 
BREED, ANDREW, Lynn. 
BAILEY, KENDALL, Charlestown. 
BROWN, JAMES, Cambridge. 
BARTLETT, EDMUND, JVewburyport. 
BUCKMINSTER, LAWSON, Framingham. 
BUCKMINSTER, EDWARD F., « 
BRECK, JOSEPH, Pepperell. 



44 MEMBERS. 



COOK, ZEBEDEE, Jr., Dorchester. 
CODMAN, JOHN, 
CUNNINGHAM, J. A., 
CLAPP, NATHANIEL, 
COOLIDGE, JOSEPH, Boston. 
CORDIS, THOMAS, « 

COPELAND, B. F., Roxbury. 
COGSWELL, J. G., Northampton. 
CARTER, WILLIAM, Cambridge. 
CHAMPNEY, JOHN, Roxbury. 
COWING, CORNELIUS, « " 
CHANDLER, DANIEL, Lexington. 
CAPEN, LEMUEL, South Boston. 
CHASE, HEZEKIAH, Lynn. 
COLMAN, HENRY, Salem. 
CARNES, NATHANIEL G., New York. 
CURTIS, EDWARD, Peperell. 
CHANDLER, SAMUEL, Lexington. 
CAPEN, AARON, Dorchester. 
CROWNINSHIELD, BENJ. W., Salem. 

D 

DEARBORN, H. A. S., Roxbury. 
DAVIS, ISAAC, 

DOWNER, SAMUEL, Dorchester. 
DICKSON, JAMES A., « 
DOWSE, THOMAS, Cambridgeport. 
DUDLEY, DAVID, Roxbury. 
DOGGETT, JOHN, Boston. 
DREW, DANIEL, 

DAVENPORT, NATHANIEL, Milton, 
DAVIS, CHARLES, Roxbury. 
DORR, NATHANIEL, « 
DEARBORN, HENRY, « 
DODGE, PICKERING, Salem. 
DEAN, WILLIAM, " 

DERBY, E. H., 
DODGE, PICKERING, Jr., Salem. / 



MEMBERS. 45 



E 



EMMONS, ROBERT L., Boston. 
EVERETT, EDWARD, Charlestown. 
EUSTIS, JAMES, South Reading. 
EDWARDS, ELISHA, Springfield. £ 



\ F 

FRENCH, BENJAMIN V., Boston. 
FESSENDEN, THOMAS G., « 
FROTHINGHAM, SAMUEL, « 
FORRESTER, JOHN, Salem, 
FISKE, OLIVER, Worcester. 
FOSDICK, DAVID, Charlestown. 

G 

GRAY, JOHN C, Boston. 
GREENLEAF, THOMAS, Quincy. 
GOURGAS, J. M., Weston. 
GREEN, CHARLES W., Roxbury. 
GORE, WATSON, 
GREENOUGH, DAVID S., " 
GANNETT, T. B., Cambridge. 
GARDNER, W. F., Salem. 
GARDNER, JOSHUA, Dorchester. 
GOODALE, EPHRAIM, Bucksport. 
GOODWIN, THOMAS J., Charlestown. 

H 

HARRIS, SAMUEL D., Roxbury. 
HUNTINGTON, JOSEPH, « 
HASKINS, RALPH, 
HUNTINGTON, RALPH, Boston. 
HEARD, Jr., JOHN, 
HILL, JEREMIAH, " 

HOLLINGSWORTH, MARK, Milton. 
HARRIS, WILLIAM T., 
HOLBROOK, AMOS, 
HARRIS, THADDEUS M., Dorchester. 
HOWE, RUFUS, 
HAYDEN, JOHN, Brookline. 



46 MEMBERS. 

HOWES, FREDERICK, Salem. 
HAGERSTON, DAVID, Charlestown, 
HUNT, EBENEZER, Northampton. 
HOWLAND, JOHN, Jr., JVew Bedford, 

I 

IVES, JOHN M., Salem. 



< JAQUES, SAMUEL, Jr., Charlestown. 
JOHNSON, SAMUEL R., 
JACKSON, PATRICK T., Boston. 

t>. JOY, JOSEPH G., 
JONES, THOMAS K., 
JACKSON, JAMES, " 

JOHONNOT, GEORGE S., Salem. 
JACKSON, WILLIAM, Plymouth. 

K 

KENRICK, WILLIAM, Newton. 



LINCOLN, LEVI, Worcester. 
LINCOLN, WILLIAM, « 
LOWELL, JOHN, Roxbury. 
LEE, THOMAS, Jr., " 
LEWIS, HENRY, 
LEMIST, JOHN, 

LYMAN, THEODORE, Jr., Boston. 
LOWELL, JOHN A., 
LAWRENCE, ABBOTT, 
LYMAN, GEORGE, " 

LAWRENCE, CHARLES, Salem. 
LITTLE, HENRY, Bucksport, Maine. 
LELAND, DANIEL, Sherburne. 
LELAND, J. P., " ai-/ 

M 

MANNING, ROBERT, Salem. 
MANNERS, GEORGE, Boston. 
MINNS, THOMAS, 






MEMBERS. 47 

MORRILL, AMBROSE, Lexington. 
MUNROE, JONAS, " ^ ^ 

N 

NEWHALL, CHEEVER, Dorchester. 
NICHOLS, OTIS, 
4. NUTTALL, THOMAS, Cambridge. 
NEWELL, JOSEPH R., Boston. 
NEWHALL, JOSIAH, Lynnfield. 
NEWMAN, HENRY, Roxbury. 
NICHOLSON, HENRY, Brookline, J 3 3 

o 

OTIS, HARRISON G., Boston. 
OLIVER, FRANCIS J., " 



PERKINS, THOMAS H., Boston. 
PERKINS, SAMUEL G., 
PARSONS, THEOPHILUS, « 
PUTNAM, JESSE, 
PRATT, GEORGE W., « 

PRE SCOTT, WILLIAM, " 
PENNIMAN, ELISHA, Brookline. 
PARSONS, GORHAM, Brighton. 
PETTEE, OTIS, JYewton. 
PRINCE, JOHN, Roxbury. 
PHINNEY, ELIAS, Lexington. 
PRINCE, JOHN, Jr., Salem. 
PICKMAN, BENJ. T., " 
PEABODY, FRANCIS, " 
PENNIMAN, JAMES, Dorchester. 
POOR, BENJAMIN, JSTew York. 
PERRY, Rev. G. B., Bradford. 
PERRY, JOHN, Sherburne. 
POND, SAMUEL, Cambridge. 

R 

RUSSELL, JOHN B., Boston. 
ROBBINS, E. H.,Jr., 
ROLLINS, WILLIAM, « 
RICE, JOHN P., 
RICE, HENRY, 






48 MEMBERS. 

RUSSELL, J. W., Roxbury. 

RUD, JAMES, 

ROBBINS, P. G., 

ROWE, JOSEPH, Milton. 

ROGERS, R. S., Salem. 

RODMAN, BENJAMIN, New Bedford. 

ROTCH, FRANCIS, 

ROTCH, WILLIAM, 

S 

SHURTLEFF, BENJAMIN, Boston. 

SEARS, DAVID, 

STEVENS, ISAAC, 

SILSBY, ENOCH, 

STORER, D. HUMPHREYS, « 

SULLIVAN, HICHARD, Brookline. 

SEAVER, NATHANIEL, Roxbury. 

SENIOR, CHARLES, 

SUMNER, WILLIAM H., Dorchester. 

SWETT, JOHN, 

SHARP, EDWARD, 

SMITH, CYRUS, Sandwich. 

SUTTON, WILLIAM, Jr., Danvers. 

STORY, F. H., Salem. 

STRONG, JOSEPH, Jr.; South Hadley. 

STEARNS, CHARLES, Springfield. 

T 

TAPPAN, CHARLES, Brookline. 
TIDD, JACOB, Roxbury. 
THOMPSON, GEORGE, Medford. 
TRAIN, SAMUEL, « 

THORNDIKE, ISRAEL Jr., Boston. 
TILDEN, JOSEPH, 
TUCKER, RICHARD D., " 

TOOHEY, RODERICK, Waltham. 
THOMAS, BENJAMIN, Hingham. 

V 

VOSE, ELIJAH, Dorchester. 

w 

WILLIAMS, NEHEMIAH D., Roxbury. 
WILLIAMS, FRANCIS I., 






HONORARY MEMBERS. 49 

WILLIAMS, AARON D., Roxbury. 
WILLIAMS, MOSES, 
WILLIAMS L. G., 
Q. WARD, SAMUEL, 
WELD, BENJAMIN. 
WORTHINGTON, WILLIAM, Dorchester. 
WELLES, JOHN, 
WALES, WILLIAM, 
J&, WEBSTER, J. W., Cambridge. 
WHITE, ABIJAH, Watertown. 
WILLIAMS, SAMUEL G., Brookline. 
WHITE, STEPHEN, Salem. 
WARD, MALTHUS A., « 
WILKINSON, SIMON, Boston. 
WIGHT, EBENEZER, 
WYATT, ROBERT, 
WINSHIP, JONATHAN, Brighton. 
WARREN, JONAS, Stow. 
WILDER, S. V. S., Bolton. 
WALDO, DANIEL, Worcester. 
WYETH, NATHANIEL J., Jr., Cambridge. 
WEST, THOMAS, Haverhill. 






HONORARY MEMBERS. 



ADAMS, Hon. JOHN QUINCY, late President of the U. S. 

AITON, WILLIAM TOWNSEND, Curator of the Royal Gar- 
dens, Kew. 

ABBOTT, JOHN, Esq., Brunswick, Me. 

BUEL, J., Esq., President of the Albany Horticultural Society. 

BODIN, Le Chevalier SOULANGE, Secretaire- General de la 
Societe £)' Horticulture de Paris. 

BANCROFT, EDWARD NATHANIEL, M. D., President of 
the Horticultural and Agricultural Society of Jamaica. 

BARCLAY, ROBERT, Esq., Great Britain. 

COXE, WILLIAM, Esq., Burlington, M J. 

COLLINS, ZACCHEUS, Esq. President of the Pennsylvania 
Horticultural Society, Philadelphia. 

7 



50 HONORARY MEMBER* 

COFFIN, Admiral Sir ISAAC, Great Britain. 
DICKSON, JAMES, Esq., Vice President of the London Hori. 

Society. 
DAVY, Sir HUMPHREY, London. 
DE CANDOLLE,Mons. AUGUSTIN PYRAMUS, Professor of 

Botany in the Academy of Geneva. 
ELLIOT, Hox. STEPHEN, Charleston^. C. 
GREIG, JOHN, Esq., Geneva, President of the Domestic Hori. 

Society of the Western Part of the State of New York. 
HERICART DE THURY,Le Vicomte, President de la Societe 

D' Horticulture de Paris. 
HOSACK, DAVID, M. D., President of the N York Hort. Soc. 
HOPKIRK, THOMAS, Esq., President of the Glasgow Hort. 

Society. 
HUNT, LEWIS, Esq., Huntsburg, Ohio. 
JACKSON, ANDREW, President of the United States. 
KNIGHT, THOMAS ANDREW, Esq., President of the London 

Hort. Society. 
LOUDON, JOHN CLAUDIUS, Great Britain. 
LA FAYETTE, General, La Grange, France. 
LASTEYRIE, Le Comte de, Vice President de la Societe D' * Hor- 
ticulture de Paris. 
MADISON, Hon. JAMES, late President of the U. S., Virginia. 
MONROE, Hon. JAMES, late President of the U. S., Virginia. 
MICHAUX, Mons. F. ANDREW, Paris. 
MENTENS, LEWIS JOHN, Esq., Bruxelles. 
MITCHELL, SAMUEL L., M. D. 

MOSSELMANN, , Esq., Antwerp. 

POWEL,JOHN HARE, Powelton, Pa. 

PRINCE, WILLIAM, Esq., Long Island, New York. 

ROSEBERRY, ARCHIBALD JOHN, Earl of, President of 

the Caledonian Hort. Society. 
PALMER, JOHN, Esq., Calcutta. 

SABINE, JOSEPH, Esq., Secretary of the London Hort. Society. 
SHEPHARD, JOHN, Curator of the Botanic Garden, Liverpool. 
SCOTT. Sir WALTER, Scotland, 

TURNER, JOHN, Assistant Secretary of the London Hort. Soc. 
THACHER, JAMES, M. D., Plymouth, Mass. 
THORBURN, GRANT, Esq., New York. 



CORRESPONDING MEMBERS. 51 

VILMORIN, Mows. PIERRE PHILLIPPE ANDRE, Paris. 
VAUGHAN, BENJAMIN, Esq., Hallowell, Maine. 
VAN MONS, JEAN BAPTISTE, M. D., Brussells. 
VAUGHAN, PETTY, Esq., London. 
WELLES, Hon. JOHN, Boston, Mass. 

WILLICK, NATHANIEL, M. D., Curator of the Botanic Gar- 
den, Calcutta. 
YATES, ASHTON, Esq., Liverpool 



CORRESPONDING MEMBERS. 



ADLUM, JOHN, Georgetown, District of Columbia. 
ASPINWALL, Col. THOMAS, U. S. Consul, London. 
APPLETON, THOMAS, Esq., U. S. Consul, Leghorn. 
BARNETT, ISAAC COX, Esq., U. S. Consul, Paris. 
CARR, ROBERT, Esq., New Jersey. 
GARDINER, ROBERT H., Esq., Gardiner, Maine. 
GIBSON, ABRAHAM P., Esq., U. S. Consul, St. Petersburg. 
HALL, CHARLES HENRY, Esq., New York. 
HAY, JOHN, Architect of the Caledonian Hort. Soc. 
LANDRETH, DAVID, Esq., Philadelphia. 
LANDRETH, DAVID, Jr., Esq., Corresponding Secretary of the 

Pennsylvania Hort. Society. 
MAURY, JAMES, Esq., U. S. Consul, Liverpool. 
MILLER, JOHN, M. D., Sec'y of the Hort. andAgr. Soc, Jamaica, 
MILLS, STEPHEN, Esq., Long Island, New York. 
NEWHALL, HORATIO, M. D., Galena, Illinois. 
OFFLEY, DAVID, Esq., U. S. Consul, Smyrna. 
OMBROSI, JAMES, Esq. U. S. Consul, Florence. 
PARKER, JOHN W., Esq., U.S. Consul, Amsterdam. 
PAYSON, JOHN L., Esq.. Messina. 

PRINCE, WILLIAM ROBERT, Esq., Long Island, New York. 
PRINCE, ALFRED STRATTON, Long Island. 
SMITH, DANIEL D., Esq., Burlington, New Jersey. 
SMITH, CALEB R., Esq., New Jersey. 



-T2 



XOTICE. 

O^It is one of the objects and the wish of the Massachu- 
setts Horticultural Society, to promote and improve the 
science of Horticulture, by the introduction of the seeds of new 
varieties of culinary vegetables and ornamental plants — the trees 
and scions of superior fruits, from any parts of the world, — and the 
formation of a Library, to comprise all the standard works on Hor- 
ticulture, as well as the various periodical publications devoted to 
the subject, now published in Europe and the United States. Any 
donations of seeds, scions, roots, drawings of fruits, models of new 
implements of use in Horticulture, or donations to the Library, 
may be sent to the Society's Hall, No. 52 North Market Street, 
Boston, consigned to the care of Mr J. B. Russell, general 
Agent for the Society. — All donations of the above kind from 
other Societies, or from individuals at a distance, will be duly 
appreciated by the members, and reciprocated as far as practicable. 

In order to correct the great confusion that now prevails in the 
names of fruits, and to establish their synonymes, it is desirable 
that specimens may be sent to the Society's Hall, in their season, 
for examination: and also specimens of all valuable sorts that may 
be considered native varieties. 



CONSTITUTION 



AND 



BY-LAWS 



or THE 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



BOSTON: 

TUTTLE, WEEKS & DENNETT, PRINTERS, 
1836, 



St 



^©^ ©S 3 EI^©®!!*.!?®^^ ^P2 



COMMOKWEALTH OF MASSACHUSETTS. 

IN THE YEAR OF OUR LORD ONE THOUSAND EIGHT HUNDRED AND TWENTTNINE. 

AN ACT TO INCORPORATE THEfMASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL 

SOCIETY. 

Section 1. Be it enacted by the Senate and 
House of Representatives in General Court assem- 
bled, and by the authority of the same, That Zebe- 
dee Cook, Jr., Robert L. Emmons, William Wor- 
thington, B. V. French, John B. Russell, J. R. 
Newell, CheeverNewhall, and Thomas G. Fes- 
senden, their Associates and Successors, be and 
they hereby are incorporated under the name and by 
the description of the Massachusetts Horticultural 
Society, for the purpose of encouraging and improv- 
ing the science and practice of Horticulture, and 
promoting the amelioration of the various species of 
trees, fruits, plants, and vegetables, and the introduc- 
tion of new species and varieties ; with power to 
make by-laws not inconsistent with the Laws of the 
Commonwealth, for the regulation of said Society, 
and the management of the same and of its con- 
cerns ; to receive donations, bequests and devises for 
promoting the objects of said Society ; to lay and 



sc 



ACT OF INCORPORATION. 



collect assessments on the Members, not exceeding 
two dollars per annum ; to enforce the payment of 
such assessments by action for the same ; to pur- 
chase and hold real estate to the amount of ten 
thousand dollars, and personal estate to the amount 
of twenty thousand dollars ; to elect a Treasurer, 
Secretary, and other officers — the appointment of 
which shall be provided for in the by-laws of said 
Society ; the meeting for the election of such offi- 
cers to be called at the times and in the manner pro- 
vided in such by-laws ; to empower the President, 
Directors, Comptrollers, Treasurer, Committees, or 
other Officers or Members, or any Attorneys, Agents, 
or Representatives of said Society, to transact the 
business, manage and apply the funds, discharge the 
functions, and promote the objects thereof ; to au- 
thorise anv of the Members or Officers of said Soci- 
ety to fill vacancies in the various offices of the same 
that may happen in the intervals between the meet- 
ings of the Members for choosing Officers ; and to 
commence and defend suits. 

Section 2. Be it further enacted, That in case 
the said Corporation shall at any time contract debts 
beyond their means and ability to pay at the time of 
contracting the same, the Officers or other Agents 
of said Corporation so contracting such debts shall 
be personally liable for the same. 

Section 3, Be it further enacted, That any 
Member of said Corporation may cease to be a Mem- 
ber thereof, by giving notice to that effect to the 



sT 



ACT OP INCORPORATION. 



President, Treasurer, Secretary, or other Officers, 
and paying the amount due from him to the Society. 

Section 4. Be it further enacted, That the first 
meeting of the Members of said Corporation may be 
called by any two or more of the persons named in 
the first section, by giving one week's notice or more, 
by advertisement in any newspaper printed in Bos- 
ton. 

Section 5. Be it further enacted, That this Act 
may be altered or repealed at the discretion of the 
Legislature. 



Passed to be enacted. 



In House of Representatives, June 12, 1829. 
WM. B. CALHOUN, Speaker. 



Passed to be enacted. 



In Senate, June 12, 1829. 
SAMUEL LATHROP, President. 



Approved. 



June 12th, 1829. 



LEVI LINCOLN. 



A true Copy of the Original Act. 

Attest, EDWARD D. BANGS, Sec'y of the CommHth. 



JTff 



mmrmw ^vrnvmrn ^mmim^mm^. 



ACT INCORPORATING THE PROPRIETORS OF MOUNT AUBURN CEME- 
TERY, 

Section 10. Be it further enacted as follows : 
First, that the present proprietors of lots in the said 
cemetery, who shall become members of the corpora- 
tion, created by this act, shall thenceforth cease to 
be members of the said Horticultural Society, so far 
as their membership therein depends on their being 
proprietors of lots in the said Cemetery. Secondly, 
that the sales of the Cemetery lots shall continue to 
be made as fast as it is practicable by the corporation, 
created by this act, at a price not less than the sum 
of sixty dollars for every lot containing three hundred 
square feet, and so in proportion for any greater or 
less quantity, unless the said Horticultural Society, 
and the corporation created by this act, shall mutual- 
ly agree to sell the same at a less price. Thirdly, 
that the proceeds of the first sales of such lots, after 
deducting the annual expenses of the Cemetery es- 
tablishment, shall be applied to the extinguishment 
of the present debts due by the said Horticultural 
Society on account of the said Garden and Cemetery, 
and after the extinguishment of the said debts, the 



Sf 



MOUNT AUBURN CEMETERY. 



balance of the said proceeds, and the proceeds of 
all future sales, shall annually, on the first Monday 
in every year, be divided between the said Horti- 
cultural Society and the corporation created by this 
act, in manner following, namely : fourteen hundred 
dollars shall be first deducted from the gross pro- 
ceeds of the sales of lots, during the preceding year, 
for the purpose of defraying the superintendent's 
salary and other incidental expenses of the Cemetery 
establishment, and the residue of the said gross pro- 
ceeds shall be divided between the said Horticultu- 
ral Society, and the corporation created by this act, 
as follows, namely : one fourth part thereof, shall be 
received by and paid over to the said Horticultural 
Society, on the first Monday of January of every 
year, and the remaining three fourth parts shall be 
retained and held by the corporation created by this 
act, to their own use forever. And if the sales of 
any year shall be less than fourteen hundred dollars, 
then the deficiency shall be a charge on the sales of 
the succeeding year or years. Fourthly, the money 
so received by the said Horticultural Society, shall 
be forever devoted and applied by the said society, 
to the purposes of an experimental garden, and to 
promote the art and science of horticulture, and for 
no other purpose. And the money so retained by 
the corporation created by this act, shall be forever 
devoted and applied to the preservation, improve- 
ment, embellishment and enlargement of the said 
Cemetery, and garden, and the incidental expenses 



66 

8 MOUNT AUBURN CEMETERY. 

thereof, and for no other purpose whatsoever. Fifth- 
ly, a committee of the said Horticultural Society, duly 
appointed for this purpose, shall, on the first Monday 
of January, of every year, have a right to inspect and 
examine the books and accounts of the treasurer, or 
other officer acting as treasurer of the corporation 
created by this act, as far as may be necessary to 
ascertain the sales of lots of the preceding year. 



^/ 



©©ESWESPWlTOESr 



OF THE 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



SECTION I. 

THE OFFICEES OF THE SOCIETY. 

The officers of this Society shall consist of a Pres- 
ident, four Vice Presidents, a Treasurer, a Corres- 
ponding Secretary, a Recording Secretary and a 
Council of not more than twentyfour, who, together 
with such officers as are provided for by the By-Laws, 
shall be elected annually, by the ballots of a majority 
of the members present at the annual meeting of the 
Society, and shall hold their offices for one year, and 
until others are installed in their stead, and in case 
of any vacancy the same to be filled at any stated 
meeting. Provided, how r ever, that the present a- 
mendments to this Constitution shall in nowise affect 
the election of officers on the third Saturday of Sep- 
tember, A. D. 1835, any farther than that their re- 
spective terms of service, shall cease and determine 
on the first Saturday of October instead of the first 
Saturday of December, 1836, if others shall have 
been elected in their stead. 
2 



yi> 



I CONSTITUTION. 

SECTION II. 

i 

THE PRESIDENT. 

The duty of the President shall be to preside at 
all the meetings of the Society ; to keep order ; to 
state the business lying before the Society ; to state 
and put questions, which shall have been moved and 
seconded, and, in case of an equal division on any 
question, to give the casting vote ; to call for accounts 
and reports from all committees ; to call all extra 
meetings of the Society, when requested so to do 
by any five of its members, and generally to execute 
or superintend the execution of such By-Laws and 
regulations, as the Society shall from time to time 
enact or adopt, not otherwise provided for. 

SECTION III. 

THE VICE PRESIDENTS. 

In case of the absence of the President from any 
of the meetings of the Society, it shall be the duty 
of the senior Vice President then present, to take 
the chair, who shall for the time, have and exercise 
all the authority, privileges and power of the Presi- 
dent ; and in case neither the President, or either 
of the Vice Presidents shall be present at any meet- 
ing of the Society, the Society shall then choose viva 
voce, a President pro tempore, who shall, for the time, 
be invested with all the power and authority of the 
President. 






CONSTITUTION. 1 1 

SECTION IV. 

THE TREASURER. 

The Treasurer shall receive for the use of the 
Society all sums of money due or payable thereto, 
and shall keep and disburse the same, as shall be 
prescribed from time to time, by the regulations and 
By-Laws of the Society. 

section v. 

THE CORRESPONDING SECRETARY. 

The Corresponding Secretary shall prepare all 
letters to be written in the name of the Society, 
and conduct its correspondence. He shall receive 
and read all letters and papers addressed to the So- 
ciety, and shall dispose of them in such manner as 
shall be prescribed by the By-Laws, or directed by 
the Society. He shall inform members, when ad- 
mitted, of their election and furnish them with a di- 
ploma. In the absence of the Corresponding Sec- 
retary, the Recording Secretary shall perform his 
duties under the direction of the President. 



SECTION VI. 

THE RECORDING SECRETARY. 

The Recording Secretary shall keep the minutes 
of the proceedings of the Society, and shall regular- 



i 



12 CONSTITUTION. 

ly record the same in a book to be provided and kept 
for that purpose, and prepare and give notice of all 
meetings of the Society. In the absence of the Re- 
cording Secretary, the Corresponding Secretary shall 
perform his duties. And in the absence of both sec- 
retaries the President shall appoint either a Corres- 
ponding, or Recording Secretary, or both, pro tern- 
pore. 

SECTION VII. 

THE ELECTI O'N OF MEMBERS. 

All elections of members of this Society shall be 
by ballot. Candidates for admission may be propo- 
sed and balloted for at any meeting of the Society 
regularly notified. 

SECTION VIII. 

ANNUAL ASSESSMENT. 

Whensoever any member shall, after notice, ne- 
glect for the space of three years to pay his annual as- 
sessment, his connexion with the Society shall cease; 
and any member may at any time withdraw from the 
Society, on notice given to any officer of the Society, 
and paying to him the amount for which he is 
liable, but he shall be responsible for the annual as- 
sessments up to the period of such notice. 

SECTION IX. 

THE ANNIVERSARY. 

The Anniversary of the Society shall be observed 
on the first Saturday of October in each year. 



txS' 



CONSTITUTION. 
SECTION X. 

THE STATED MEETINGS. 



The stated meetings of the Society shall be held 
on the first Saturday of March, of June, of Septem- 
ber, and of December, at such time and place as 
shall be directed by the Society. And such number 
of members as shall from time to time be prescribed 
by the By-Laws, shall form a quorum for the trans- 
action of business. 



SECTION XL 

AMENDMENTS TO THE CONSTITUTION, HOW MADE. 

This Constitution may be amended in manner fol- 
lowing. Any amendment, or amendments, thereto 
may be proposed at any stated meeting of the So- 
ciety. They shall be entered on the minutes, and 
the President shall read, or direct them to be read 
by the Secretary, and stated for discussion at the 
next stated meeting of the Society, and if a ma- 
jority of the members present, shall vote in favor of 
adopting them, they shall be recorded as part of the 
Constitution. 



u 



6 7 



H W °S A W S 



ARTICLE I. 

SOTICI OF ELCTIONS. 



At least ten days notice shall be given by the Re- 
cording Secretary, of every annual election, by pub- 
lishing the same in not more than three newspapers 
printed in this city. The notice shall specify partic- 
ularly the time and place, when and where the said 
election is to be held, and the different officers to be 
voted for. And unless thirteen members at least 
shall attend on the first Saturday in October, and 
give in their votes, the President or presiding officer 
shall adjourn the said election to some convenient 
day, prior to the next stated meeting of the society, 
of which adjourned election the like notice shall be 
given, as of the regular annual election, and the elec- 
tion shall then proceed, whatever may be the number 
of members present. 

ARTICLE II. 

THE CHOICE OF STANDING COMMITTEES. 

There shall be chosen by ballot at the annual meet- 
ing the following standing committees, viz :— an Ex- 



16 BY-LAWS. 

ecutive Committee, of five members ; a Committee 
on Trees and Fruits, of eleven members ; a Com- 
mittee on Products of Kitchen Gardens, of seven 
members ; a Committee on Flowers and Shrubs, of 
seven members ; a Committee on the Library, of 
five members and one Librarian ; a Committee on 
Finance, of three members ; a Committee on Sy- 
nonyms, of four members, and such other Commit- 
tees as may from time to time be deemed expedient* 

ARTICLE III. 

DUTIES OF TREASURER. 

The Treasurer shall keep regular accounts of all 
sums of money received and disbursed by him on 
account of the Society. All payments shall be 
made by order of the Society, or of the Committes 
of Finance. The accounts of the Treasurer shall 
be audited annually by a Committee of the Society, 
who shall report at the Anniversary Meeting the bal- 
ance in the Treasurer's hands, and the general state 
of the funds of the Society. 

ARTICLE IV. 

THE COUNCIL. 

The Council shall consist of not more than twenty- 
four, besides the officers of the Society, who shall 
be members ex officio — whose duty it shall be to 
supervise the general interest of the Society, and 



6f 



BY-LAWS. 17 

suggest such measures for its adoption as may be 
calculated to promote its welfare, and which may be 
acted upon at any meeting of the Society legally 
notified. 

ARTICLE V. 

THE OBJECT AND DISTRIBUTION OF" PREMIUMS. 

Premiums or gratuities may be awarded to such 
persons as shall have essentially advanced the objects 
of the Society, or for the exhibition to the Society 
of any fruits, vegetables or plants of their growth or 
cultivation, and either new in their kind, or of un- 
common excellence as to quality, or for any new and 
successful method of cultivating any kind of escu- 
lent vegetables, fruits, ornamental flowers, shrubs or 
trees, or any other subjects connected with horticul- 
ture — Provided, that seeds, cuttings, scions or plants, 
as the case may be — or the fruits, vegetables or 
plants shall have been given to the Society for dis- 
tribution and have been exhibited at some of the 
meetings of the Society ; and provided also, the Ex- 
ecutive Committee do report that it is expedient to 
award such premium or gratuity. 

ARTICLE VI. 

EACH MEMBER TO HAVE COPY OF CONSTITUTION, ETC. 

Every member, at the time of his admission, shall 
be presented by the Recording Secretary with a 
printed copy of the Charter, Constitution and By- 
Laws of the Society. 



■jo 



*° BY -LAWS. 



ARTICLE VII. 

FEE OF ADMISSION. 



Each member, before he receives his certificate or 
takes his seat, shall pay the sum oi five dollars. 

ARTICLE VIII. 

THE ANNUA!. CONTRIBUTION. 

The Annual Contribution shall be payable at the 
time of his election ; but any member of the Soci- 
ety may at any time compound for his future con- 
tributions by the payment of fifteen dollars. 

ARTICLE IX. 

THE CONSEQUENCES OF NOT PAYING CONTRIBUTIONS. 

No member of the Society shall be entitled to re- 
ceive any publication of the Society, or to vote at 
any election or meeting of the Society, or be eligible 
to any office therein, who has for more than three 
years omitted to pay his annual contribution. And 
if his contribution shall at any time be in arrears for 
more than that time he may be ejected from the So- 
ciety, by the votes of two thirds of the members 
present, at any stated meeting. 

article x. 

THE ADMISSION OF EVERY MEMBER TO BE RECORDED. 

The election and admission of every member, with 
the time thereof, shall be recorded, and the Record- 
ing Secretary shall issue notice to each person elect- 



BY-LAWS. 19 

ed of his election, and shall also notify the Treasurer 
of the fact. 

ARTICLE XI. 

QUORUM. 

Six members, exclusive of the President or presi- 
ding officer, shall be a quorum for transaction of 
business. 

ARTICLE XII. 

DIPLOMAS TO BE FURNISHED. 

There shall be transmitted to each honorary mem- 
ber, and to each corresponding member, as soon as 
may be after his election, a diploma or certificate of 
his election, under the seal of the Society, signed by 
the President, and countersigned by the Secretary. 

ARTICLE XIII. 

PRACTICAL GARDENERS MAY BE ADMITTED AS MEMBERS. 

Any person exercising the trade or profession of a 
gardener, who shall have received any reward from 
the Society, or who shall have communicated a pa- 
per, which shall have been read at a general meeting 
of the Society, and which shall be deemed worthy of 
publication, or who may be recommended by the Ex- 
ecutive Committee, may be admitted a member of 
the Society, and shall be entitled to all the privileges 
and benefits of a member upon the payment of two 
dollars for his admission fee, and one dollar in each 
year for his contribution, instead of the fee and 
annual contribution, as before provided for. 



> 



20 BY-LAWS. 

ARTICLE XIV. 

LECTURERS. 

Lecturers on Botany and Vegetable Physiology, 
on Entomology, so far as it relates to Horticulture, 
and on Horticultural Chemistry, shall be elected at 
the annual meeting cf the Society. 

ARTICLE xv. 

OF VOTING. 

Voting by proxy shall not be admitted at the meet- 
ings of the Society. 

ARTICLE XVI. 

DUTIES OF STANDING COMMITTEES. 

The Committee on Fruit Trees and Fruits shall 
have charge of whatever relates to the multiplica- 
tion of fruit trees and vines, by seed, scions, buds, 
layers, suckers, or other modes ; the introduction of 
new varieties ; the various methods of pruning and 
training them, and whatever relates to their culture, 
and that of all other fruits ; the recommendation of 
objects for premiums to the Executive Committee. 

The Committee on the Culture and Products of 
the Kitchen Garden, shall have charge of whatever 
relates to the location and management of Kitchen 
Gardens ; the cultivation of all plants appertaining 
thereto; the introduction of new varieties of escu- 
lent, medicinal, and all such vegetables as are useful 



z 



•3 



BY-LAWS. 21 

in the arts, or subservient to the other branches of 
national industry ; the structure and management of 
hot-beds, and the recommendation to the Executive 
Committee of objects for premiums. 

The Committee on Ornamental Trees, Shrubs, 
Flowers, and Green-Houses, shall have charge of 
whatever relates to the culture, multiplication, and 
preservation of ornamental trees and shrubs, and 
flowers of all kinds ; the construction and manage- 
ment of green-houses, and the recommendation 
to the Executive Committee of objects for premi- 
ums. 

The Committee on the Library shall have charge 
of all books, drawings, and engravings, and to recom- 
mend from time to time such as it may be deemed 
expedient to procure ; to superintend the publication 
of such communications and papers as may be di- 
rected by the Society ; to recommend, as before pro- 
vided, premiums for drawings of fruits and flowers, 
and plans of country houses, and other edifices and 
structures connected with horticulture ; and for com- 
munications on any subject in relation thereto; may 
annually appoint a Librarian; and shall also adopt 
and enforce the following regulations for the Library 
and Cabinet, viz : — 

ARTICLE I. 

All books, manuscripts, drawings, engravings, paintings, models and 
other articles belonging to the Society shall be confided to the special 
care of the Committee on the Library, which shall make a report at 
the annual meeting on the first Saturday of October, of their condn 
tion, and what measures may be necessary for their preservation and 
augmentation. 

fan*- ■ 




If 



22 BY-LAWS 



ARTICLE II. 

There shall be procured proper cases and cabinets for the books 
and all other articles, in which they shall be arranged, in such a man- 
ner, as the Committee on the Library may direct. 

ARTICLE III. 

All additions to the collection of books and other articles shall be 
placed upon the table, in the Hall of the Society, for exhibition for 
one week, and as much longer as the Library Committee may deem 
expedient, previous to their being arranged in their appropriate situ- 
ations. 

ARTICLE IV. 

The following books of record shall be kept in the Hall of the 
Society. 
Number 1. To contain a Catalogue of the Books. 

" 2. To contain a Catalogue of the Manuscripts. 

" 3. To contain an account of the drawings, engravings, 

paintings, models, and all other articles. 
" 4. The register of books loaued. 

ARTICLE v. 

When any book, or any other article shall be presented to the So- 
ciety, the name of the donor shall be inserted in the appropriate re- 
cord book, and the time it was received. 

ARTICLE VI. 

Every book and article shall have a number affixed to it, in the or- 
der in which they are arranged in the several books of record. 

ARTICLE VII. 

When any new book is received, it shall be withheld from circula- 
tion at least one week ; and very rare and costly works shall not 
be taken from the Hall without the permission of the Library Com- 
mittee. 

ARTICLE VIII. 

Not mjre than two volumes shall be taken out by any member, at 
one time, or retained longer than two weeks ; and every person shall 



?j 



BY-LAWS. 23 

be subject to a fine of ten cents a week for every volume retained 
beyond that time. 

ARTICLE IX. 

Every book shall be returned in good order, regard being had to 
the necessary wear thereof, with proper usage ; and if any book shall 
be lost or injured, the person to whom it stands charged shall replace 
it by a new volume or set, if it belonged to a set, or pay the current price 
of the volume or set, and thereupon the remainder of the set, if the 
volume belong to a set, shall be delivered to the person so paying for 
the same. 

article x. 

All books shall be returned to the Hall for examination on or before 
the first Saturday of September, annually, and remain until after the 
third Saturday of said month ; and every person then having one or 
more books, and neglecting to return the same, as herein required, 
shall pay a fine of one dollar ; and if, at the expiration of one month 
after the third Saturday of September, any book has not been return- 
ed, which was taken out previous to the annual examination of the 
Library, the person to whom it stands charged, shall be required to 
return the same, and if, after such request, it is not placed in the Hall 
within two weeks, he shall be liable to pay therefor, in the manner 
prescribed in the ninth article. 

ARTICLE XI. j> 

No member shall loan a book to any other person, under the penal- 
ty of a fine of one dollar. 

ARTICLE XII. 

When a written request shall be left at the Hall for a particular 
book, then out, it shall be retained for the person requiring it, for two 
days after it shall have been returned. 

The Committee on the Synonymes of Fruits shall 
facilitate an interchange of fruits with the Philadel- 
phia, New York, and Albany Horticultural Socie- 
ties, and others, for the purpose of establishing their 
synonymes. 



7fr 



24 BY-LAWS, 

ARTICLE XVII. 

MEMBERS RESIDING AT A DISTANCE. 

Members of the Society, residing more than 
twenty miles from the city of Boston, shall be ex- 
empt from the annual assessment, provided they 
have paid the fee of admission and one general as- 
sessment. 



AN 



ADDRESS 



DELIVERED BEFORE THE 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY, 






ON THE 



CELEBRATION OF THEIR FIRST ANNIVERSARY, 



SEPTEMBER 19, 1829. 



BY H. A. S. DEARBORN. 



Man hath his daily work of body, or mind 

Appointed, which declares his dignity, 

And the regard of heaven on all his ways. Milton. 



SECOND EDITION. 



BOSTON: 

PRINTED BY J. T. BUCKINGHAM. 

M DCCC XXXIII. 



7* 



?/ 



ADDRESS. 



Gentlemen of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society, — 

The history of Horticulture is co-extensive with 
that of the human race. The first movement to- 
wards civilization is evinced, in the cultivation of the 
soil; and a garden is the incipient type of extended 
agriculture, and of flourishing empires ; the wild and 
erratic pursuits of the savage are exchanged for the 
local and quiet avocations of the husbandman ; the 
arts and sciences are gradually developed, and ren- 
dered subservient to the wants of society : but in the 
progress of intelligence and refinement, those which 
were earliest called into existence, although expanded 
and rendered universal, to meet the demands of an in- 
creased, and condensed population, are the last which 
are perfectly matured. All the others must, previ- 
ously, have approximated towards perfection. It is 
then, that the grand results of their united applica- 
tion are manifested, in the variety, number, utility, 
and beauty of the products of rural industry ; and that 
the conveniences, comforts, and enjoyments of life 
are fully realized, by the triumphant labors of the 
accomplished horticulturalist. 

The imperious demands of man are food, raiment, 
and shelter. These are furnished by the harvests, 



8° 



4 

herds, and flocks of agriculture, and the toils of the 
mechanic. As riches are multiplied, and ambition 
excited, they are rendered conspicuous in the splen- 
dor of apparel, the magnificence of mansions, and the 
sumptuousness of furniture. The embellishments of 
letters, and the discoveries of science gradually claim 
attention, and operating, alternately, as cause and 
effect, accelerate the progress of nations, in the ca- 
reer of prosperity, power, and glory ; — legislation, 
jurisprudence, and statistics, become subjects of pro- 
found study, and the deepest interest ; — the honorable 
profession of arms, in the field and on the ocean, ob- 
tains precedence among the active, and aspiring, over 
the less alluring and unostentatious vocations of civil 
life ; while music, poetry, eloquence, painting, sculp- 
ture and architecture have their votaries, and com- 
petitors, for the prize of distinction and immortality ; 
but it is not until after all these various objects of 
immediate interest, or of contingent and associated 
importance, have been zealously pursued and success- 
fully attained, that horticulture unfolds her endearing 
attributes and exalted beauties. She forms the wreath 
which crowns the monument of an empire's greatness, 
and takes rank among the number, and becomes the 
most distinguished of the fine arts. 

The mighty kingdoms of antiquity were conspicu- 
ous for their martial achievements, wealth, and ex- 
tended domination, — for the intellectual attainments 
of their inhabitants, and most of the embellishments 
which gave them lustre, and renown, in the imposing 
march towards national grandeur, before the genius of 
horticulture was successfully invoked. Egypt, the 



57 



cradle of civilization, so far perfected her tillage, that 
the fertile banks of the Nile were adorned by a suc- 
cession of luxuriant plantations, from the cataract of 
Syenna to the marine shores of the Delta ; — but it 
was after Thebes, with its hundred brazen gates, had 
been erected, and while the regal cities of Memphis, 
Heliopolis and Tentyra, were rising in magnificence, 
and the stupendous temples, pyramids and obelisks 
of her mythology became the wonders of the world. 

The olive-crowned hills, extended vales, and teem- 
ing plains of Palestine, have ever been celebrated for 
the beautiful gardens which varied and enriched the 
landscape, — indicating the effect of that long ances- 
tral residence of the Israelites within, and iheir juxta- 
position to the realm of the Pharaohs ; but it was not 
until the embattled walls and holy temple of Jeru- 
salem announced the resources and advancement, 
and the prophets had rebuked the extravagance and 
luxurious pleasures of that eternal race. The queen 
of the East " had heard of the fame of Solomon," 
and went to do him homage, — his commercial fleets 
of Ezion-Geber and Tharshish, brought him the gold 
of Ophir, the silver, ivory, spices, and precious stones 
of Africa and Asia, — the kings of Tyre and Arabia 
were his tributaries, and princes his merchants, ere 
he " made orchards," " delighted to dwell in gar- 
dens," or planted the " vineyard of Baalhamon." 

The Assyrians had peopled the borders of the 
Tigris and Euphrates, from the Persian Gulf to the 
mountainous regions of Ararat, and their victorious 
princes had founded Nineveh and Babylon, before we 
hear of the expensive gardens of Semiramis. 



92 



6 

The Persian empire had extended from the Indus 
to the Archipelago, when the Paradise of Sardis ex- 
cited the astonishment of the Spartan General, and 
Cyrus mustered the Grecian auxiliaries in the garden 
of Celaense. 

The Greeks had repulsed the formidable invasions 
of Darius and Xerxes, and Athens had reached the 
culminating point of her exaltation, when the accom- 
plished and gallant Cimon established the Academus, 
and presented it to his fellow-citizens, as a public 
garden. Numerous others were soon planted and 
decorated with temples, porticos, altars, statues, and 
triumphal monuments ;— but this was during the 
polished age of Pericles ; — when Socrates and Plato 
taught their sublime philosophy, in the sacred groves ; 
— when the theatres were thronged to listen to the 
enrapturing poetry of Euripides and Aristophanes ; — 
when the genius of Phidias was displayed in the con- 
struction of the incomparable Parthenon, and sculp- 
turing the statues of the gods ; — when eloquence 
and painting had reached perfection, and history was 
taught by Herodotus, Thucydides. and Xenophon. 

Imperial Rome had subjugated the world, and 
emulated Greece in literature, science, and the arts, 
when the superb villas of Sallust, Crassus, Pompey, 
Caesar, Mecsenas, and Agrippina were established, 
and the palaces of the Emperors were environed by 
magnificent gardens. 

The history of modern nations presents similar re- 
sults. Horticulture had lingered in the rear of other 
pursuits, until the commencement of the eighteenth 
century, when it began to claim the attention of some 



ZJ 



of the most illustrious characters of England ; but the 
origin, establishment, and extension of the present 
improved style of gardening are of recent date. " Ba- 
con was the prophet, Milton the herald, and Addison, 
Pope, and Kent the champions of true taste." The 
principles, which were developed in their writings, 
and those of Shenstone, the Masons, and Wheatly, 
and their successful application in the examples pro- 
duced by the taste and genius of Bridgeman, Wright, 
Brown, and Eames, soon rendered the system popu- 
lar, and, gradually extending over Europe, it ulti- 
mately reached this country. Still, gardening, in the 
broadest signification of the term, did not receive that 
distinguished and universal consideration, which it 
merits, until the establishment of the London Horti- 
cultural Society, which constitutes an era in the an- 
nals of Great-Britain, of momentous import. It has 
given an impetus to cultivation, which is felt in the 
remotest regions of the globe. The noble example 
has been followed in the most flourishing kingdoms of 
the Eastern continent, and many similar institutions 
have been founded in the United States. An interest 
has thus been excited, and a spirit of inquiry awak- 
ened, which cannot fail of producing highly important 
results. The auspices are favorable, and the period 
is not distant when these associations will become 
the foci for concentrating, and from whence will be 
disseminated the horticultural intelligence and prod- 
ucts of every clime. 

Notwithstanding gardening preceded, it was ulti- 
mately surpassed, by agriculture, for a long succession 
of ages ; still, when prosecuted with the lights of ex- 



^4 



8 

perience, the instructions of matured theory, and the 
advantages of various and multiplied examples, horti- 
culture becomes the successful rival of her younger, 
yet more favored sister, and finally usurps her entire 
domain ; for, " that field is best cultivated, which as- 
sumes the appearance of a wide-extended garden." 
It was this learned and skillful tillage, which, in an- 
cient times, maintained the dense population, that 
crowded the classic shores of the Mediterranean, the 
fertile islands of Crete, Cyprus, and Rhodes, the em- 
eralds which spangle the iEgean sea, and realized in 
Sicily the Hesperides of fabulous poetry ; — and which, 
in our age, is so conspicuous in China, Holland, por- 
tions of France, Germany, Italy, and Switzerland, and 
has rendered the rural economy of England the model 
of all countries. 

When nations first emerge from a state of barbar- 
ism, the demands for food and clothing offer the most 
powerful inducements for agricultural industry, and 
the coarsest products satisfy the general consump- 
tion ; but as manufactures and commerce begin to 
divide the labors of an increasing and more intelli- 
gent population, and the accumulated wealth of suc- 
cessful enterprise creates a more refined taste, and 
furnishes the means of gratification, the industrious 
cultivator of the soil is encouraged to increase the 
variety, quantity, delicacy and value of his legumes, 
esculent vegetables, fruits and flowers, until his rude 
fields are converted into gardens. It is then that 
horticulture assumes a station, which commands, not 
only individual interest, but governmental considera- 
tion, as one of the most important branches of 



F<S 



9 



national industry, and is deemed worthy of the pat- 
ronage of the state. Such is its present elevated 
character ; and while the sovereigns, princes, and 
nobles of Europe are proud to enroll their names 
among the members of those institutions, which have 
been founded for the rational and patriotic purposes 
of mutual instruction, and the diffusion of informa- 
tion on all the branches of rural economy, we must 
profit by the experience of other nations, and emulate 
the honorable examples they have presented, for per- 
fecting the tillage of our native land. 

The co-operation of individuals, by the means of 
variously organized societies, for the accomplishment 
of objects of public utility, and general, local or pri- 
vate interest, is a discovery of the moderns, and has 
b'een one of the most efficient means of accelerating 
the progress, and enlarging the bounds of knowledge. 
They have explored the vast Herculaneum of antiq- 
uity for those treasures of intellect, which once gave 
lustre to empires, and traced the history of the inven- 
tions, discoveries and improvements of all ages ; they 
have collected the facts of isolated research, and the 
valuable results of private experiment ; they have 
brought to light the labors of unobtrusive genius, ren- 
dered local information available to all, and concen- 
trated the scattered intelligence of nations, in every 
department of science and art. With the facilities 
afforded hj the wonderful art of printing, they are 
substitutes for, or have superseded that long-cherish- 
ed desideratum, a universal language ; for whatever 
is valuable, merits attention, or is worthy of adop- 
tion^ in the writings of the ancients, or the publica- 

2 



81 



10 

tions of existing nations, is speedily acclimated and 
rendered as familiar, as if it were of indigenous 
growth. There is still another glorious advantage 
in these institutions, most honorable to the human 
race ; — in war, as well as in peace, their names be- 
come the paroles of intercourse between the republics 
of letters, of science, and of arts, round the globe. 

Having witnessed the happy effects of associations, 
for the promotion of literature, natural history, 
physics, agriculture, the mechanic, economical and 
fine arts, we may confidently anticipate, that the 
same salutary influence will be experienced, in the 
operations of horticulture, by the harmonious labors 
of those numerous societies, which have been found- 
ed for its encouragement. 

The literature, history, science, art and practice of 
gardening, open a wide field for study and inquiry, 
and present exhaustless sources of pleasure, instruc- 
tion and wealth. Blessed is the man who partici- 
pates in these enjoyments. They are not too hum- 
ble for the most exalted, or beyond the reach of hon- 
est and retiring industry. It is a banquet of reason, 
at which wisdom and health preside, and where the 
amphictyons of genius and taste revel, in the unsa- 
tiating luxuries of nature and intellect. 

The holy scriptures teach us, that the Almighty 
sanctioned the peerless beauties and refined pleasures 
of a garden, by planting that of Eden, and consecrat- 
ing it as a terrestrial paradise, for the progenitors of 
the human race. The Elysian Fields were the 
heaven of heathen mythology, and to each part of 
their prototypes, on earth, was assigned a tutelary 



*7 



11 



divinity. The promised rewards of the Mahomedan 
religion are the perennial felicities of celestial gar- 
dens. 

The bards, scholars, and philosophers of the classic 
ages, have transmitted descriptions of the picturesque 
plantations of the ancients, from those in which Ho- 
mer places the regal palace of Alcinous and the rustic 
dwelling of Laertes, to the magnificent villas of Pliny 
and Lucullus. 

By numerous works of imagination and instruc- 
tion, — which have rendered their authors illustrious, 
and established epochs in the grand cycle of events, 
since the revival of letters, — we are enabled to ascer- 
tain the actual state of cultivation, to perceive the 
relative estimation in which it has been held, and to 
appreciate the beneficial consequences of progressive 
ameliorations, from the first humble efforts of the 
anchorites of St. Basil and St. Benedict, to the 
splendid developments of individual enterprise and 
public patronage, which characterize the period in 
which we live. 

The scientific relations of Horticulture are numer- 
ous, and require an extensive acquaintance with the 
various branches of Natural History and Physics. 
Botany, Mineralogy, Hydraulics, Chemistry, Archi- 
tecture, and Mechanics are called upon to furnish 
their several contributions ; and it is the special 
province of the artist, to render them subservient to 
his practical operations, by a judicious application of 
each to its appropriate purpose. 

In this pursuit, as in all others, practice has been 
too long estranged from scientific theory. Each has 



f* 



12 

had its professors and disciples, but without any 
reciprocation of benefits, or scarcely the recognition 
of affinity. Science was cultivated as an abstract 
mental embellishment, rather than to facilitate the 
labors of the artist, while the arts have been prac- 
tised, unaided by the instructions of science. The 
latter was deemed too etherial and sacred, to pass 
even beyond the seclusions of philosophy, save in a 
language which was unintelligible to the multitude ; 
and the uninitiated operator accomplished his work, 
ignorant that he was successfully performing an 
experiment, which depended on established theoret- 
ical principles, as the scientific was incapable of 
illustrating the correctness of his theory, by actual 
experiment. There was an ostentatious display of 
intelligence without practical utility, while the useful, 
unaided by intelligence, was but imperfectly prac- 
tised. But more comprehensive and liberal views 
are now entertained, and it is the enlightened policy 
of modern instruction, to effect a re-union of science 
and art, of theory and practice. We behold philoso- 
phy directing the labors of the work-shop, and prac- 
tical mechanics giving instruction in the halls of 
science. The happy consequences of this moral 
revolution — its exhilarating influence on all the eco- 
nomical, as well as the ornamental arts, are apparent, 
in the unparalleled prosperity of those nations, which 
have taken the lead in the development of the mind, 
the encouragement of industry, and the prudential 
management of their natural resources. 

Chemistry has taught the manufacturer the mode 
of ascertaining the causes, wiiich so often disappoint- 



8f 



13 



ed his hopes of successful results, — has enabled him 
to rectify mistakes, without the loss of materials, — 
to discover new resources, perfect his manipulations, 
improve the quality of his products, and open other 
avenues to wealth. 

The mechanic is guided by a knowledge of phys- 
ics ; — the illustrations of science have enabled the 
machinist to triumph over the inertia of matter, and 
to give it such an infinitely varied combination of 
movements, that they appear the effects of vitality 
and intelligence. Who can behold the mysterious 
movements of the steam-engine, without being forci- 
bly impressed with the idea, that it acts like a thing 
of life, — that it is some huge monster, — a subdued 
Polyphemus, who, breathing vapor, and smoke, and 
fire, labors, in agony and wrath, obedient to the will 
of man. Located in the gorges of the mountains, it 
drains subterranean rivers, from the profound caverns 
of the miner ; and, affixed to the fleets of commerce 
and of war, they are driven triumphantly through 
adverse tides and storms, like roused leviathans. 

The unnatural alienation of the sciences and arts, 
which so long retarded every other branch of national 
industry, had the same deleterious effect on tillage, 
which was also doomed to encounter other difficul- 
ties, equally if not more discouraging. It was too 
generally considered as a degrading occupation, and 
was scarcely ranked among the pursuits of the learn- 
ed and affluent, until Lord Bacon and the erudite 
Evelyn deemed it worthy of attention, and gave it 
the sanction of their illustrious names. 

The first English treatise on rural economy was 



?o 



14 

Fitzherbert's " Book of Husbandry," which was pub- 
lished in 1634. Tusser's " Five Hundred Points of 
Husbandry," appeared about thirty years after, and 
was followed by Barnaby Googe's " Whole Art of 
Husbandry," and " The Jewel Houses" of Sir Hugh 
Piatt. Early in the eighteenth century, the cele- 
brated treatise of Jethro Tull excited much attention, 
and several new works of considerable consequence 
were announced before 1764, when the valuable 
publications of Arthur Young, Marshel, and of nu- 
merous other authors, spread a knowledge of cultiva- 
tion, and cherished a taste for rural improvements 
throughout Great-Britain, which has rendered that 
kingdom as distinguished for its tillage, as for its 
advancement in manufactures and commercial enter- 
prise. Agriculture has covered her barren heaths 
with luxuriant crops, converted her pools and mo- 
rasses into verdant meadows, and clothed her bleak 
mountains with groves of forest trees, — while horti- 
culture is rapidly extending her beneficent and glad- 
some influence, from the palace to the cottage, and 
adorning the precincts, or overspreading the entire 
regions of her adventurous precursor. 

After the immortal Linnaeus published his " Sys- 
tem of Nature," Botany became a popular science, 
and its numerous votaries produced a variety of inter- 
esting elementary works, which, with those of Mil- 
ler, Wheatly, Abercrombie, Repton, Price, Maddock, 
Panty, Sang, Loudon, and Knight, — the British 
Columella, — rapidly diffused intelligence among all 
classes of society. A passion for experiment and 
ornamental planting was thus induced, which give 



?t 



15 

sufficient promise, that what had been figuratively 
expressed, might be, ultimately, realized, and the 
whole island become, in truth, a " Garden." 

Architecture claims a conspicuous rank among the 
arts which are subservient to rural economy ; but in 
the United States it cannot be expected, that indi- 
viduals should indulge that natural propensity of 
man, for magnificent edifices ; still their establish- 
ments may assume the beauties of a refined taste, 
and be made 10 harmonize more perfectly with the 
purposes of their appropriation, and the scenery in 
which they are embowered, without enhancing the 
cost of construction. The error has not been merely 
that of negligence in the plan, indifference as to loca- 
tion, and a disregard of all the characteristics of the 
various orders of architecture ; but in the heedless 
selection of materials, an ostentatious extravagance 
in the size, and a wasteful exuberance of fancied 
embellishments. 

There being no law of primogeniture in the Amer- 
ican Republics, estates are continually subdivided, 
until each portion is so reduced, as not to exceed the 
means of general occupancy : whatever sums, there- 
fore, are lavished on a country residence, beyond the 
conveniences and comforts usually required by the 
great mass of the freeholders, are lost to the heirs, 
and often prove ruinous to the aspiring projector. 

We admire what has been done in other countries, 
and, possessing means ample as the actual proprietor 
of the stately edifice, rashly imitate the pleasing ex- 
ample, without, reflecting, that what we behold, has 
been the work of successive heirs, during the lapse of 



u 



16 

ages, and will descend with increasing grandeur to 
countless generations. 

If stone be substituted for wood, utility and neat- 
ness for extent and fantastic ornaments, and less be 
expended on the structures and more in improving 
the grounds, each farm would be rendered intrinsic- 
ally more valuable, and the whole country would as- 
sume that flourishing, picturesque, and delightful 
aspect, which so emphatically bespeaks the prosper- 
ity, intelligence, and happiness of a people. 

The natural divisions of Horticulture are the Kitch- 
en Garden, Seminary, Nursery, Fruit Trees and 
Vines, Flowers and Green Houses, the Botanical and 
Medical Garden, and Landscape, or Picturesque Gar- 
dening. 

Each of these departments require to be separately 
considered and thoroughly understood, in all its rami- 
fications, before it can be ably managed, or all so 
happily arranged, as to combine utility and comfort 
with ornament and recreation. To accomplish this, 
on a large scale, and in the best manner, artists and 
scientific professors are employed in Europe, and are 
much required in this country. Hitherto their ser- 
vices have been generally supplied by the owners of 
the soil, who, as amateurs, have devised and executed 
plans of improvement, which do honor to their taste 
and skill, and encourage the hope, that these lauda- 
ble examples of successful cultivation, will have a 
salutary influence throughout the Union. 

The Kitchen Garden is an indispensable appendage 
to every rural establishment, from the stately mansion 
of the wealthy, to the log hut of the adventurous 



A 



17 



pioneer, on the borders of the wilderness. In its 
rudest and most simple form, it is the nucleus, and 
miniature sample of all others, having small compart- 
ments of the products of each, which are gradually 
extended, until the whole estate combines those 
infinitely various characteristics, and assumes that 
imposing aspect, which constitutes what is graphically 
called the picturesque. 

The details of each grand division of Horticulture 
cannot be embraced within the range of such general 
remarks, as propriety seems to prescribe for an occa- 
sion like the present. They are to be sought in the 
works of the learned, and rendered familiar by pre- 
cedent and progressive experiments. The field is 
ample, and requires an untiring perseverance, to gather 
in the rich harvest of instruction, and render it prac- 
tically available. That this may be achieved in the 
most economical, speedy, effectual and satisfactory 
manner, Horticultural Associations have been deemed 
indispensable. They excite the public interest, foster 
a taste for the useful and ornamental branches of 
culture, and stimulate individual exertion ; by the 
distribution of entertaining and instructive publica- 
tions, — by a correspondence between the officers and 
among the members of like institutions, — by the 
establishment of libraries, — by premiums for rare, 
valuable, beautiful, early, or superior products, — 
important discoveries, estimable inventions, excellence 
of tillage, and meritorious communications, — by peri- 
odical meetings, for the interchange of opinions and 
mutual instruction, — by public exhibitions, — and by 

S 



^ 



18 

collecting and disseminating seeds, plants, models of 
implements, and information on all subjects, connect- 
ed with the theory and practice of gardening. 

Numerous esculent vegetables, delicious fruits, 
superb flowers, ornamental shrubs and trees, cereal, 
vulnerary, and medicinal plants, and others subservient 
to the arts, manufactures, and public economy, both 
exotic and indigenous, are either unknown to us, or 
but partially cultivated. Several varieties, which 
have been obtained from the equatorial regions, and 
confined to the shelter and warmth of green-houses, 
stoves and conservatories, have been found to bear 
the severities of a boreal winter, even when first 
exposed, or have been gradually acclimated ; and 
many are annually detected, in every quarter of the 
globe, which deservedly merit naturalization ; and 
still, what numbers are " born to blush unseen, and 
w r aste their fragrance on the desert air !" 

Most of our common fruits, flowers, and oleraceous 
vegetables were collected by the Greeks and Romans 
from Egypt, Asia, and other distant climes, and suc- 
cessively extending over Western Europe, finally 
reached this country. But so gradual was their 
progress, " it w 7 as not till the reign of Henry VIII. 
that any salads, carrots, turnips, cabbages, or other 
edible roots were produced in England. The little 
of these vegetables that was used, was imported from 
Holland." Fuller observes, that " Gardening was 
first brought into England, for profit, about the com- 
mencement of the seventeenth century, before which 
we fetched most of our cherries from Holland, apples 
from France, and hardly had a mess of rath-ripe peas, 



fj 



19 



but from Holland, which were dainties for ladies, they 
came so far, and cost so dear." 

Peaches, nectarines, apricots, plums, pears, cher- 
ries, strawberries, melons, and grapes were luxuries, 
but little enjoyed before the time of Charles II. who 
introduced French gardening at Hampton Court, 
Carlton, and Marlborough, and built the first hot and 
ice houses. 

At this period Evelyn, the great apostle of plant- 
ing, translated " The Complete Gardener," and a 
Treatise on Orange Trees by Quintinyne, a French 
author of great merit ; and having devoted the remain- 
der of his life to the cultivation of his rural seat, at 
Sayes Court, near Deptford, and in the publication of 
his Sylva, Kalendarium Hortense, Terra, Pomona 
and Acetaria, he " first taught gardening to speak 
proper English." 

The Horticulture of France had hitherto been con- 
siderably in advance of that of Great-Britain ; it was 
soon, however, destined to be surpassed by her pow- 
erful rival in the contest for national grandeur ; but 
these kingdoms are again approximating towards an 
equality, in the progress of tillage. 

In the literature and science of Gardening, France 
has produced numerous authors of celebrity, and sev- 
eral whose works have not been superseded by those 
of any other country. The publications of Du Hamel, 
Thouin, BurTon, Gerardin, D'Argenville, Rosier, Du 
Petit Thours, and the two Jussieus are agronomic 
text-books of the highest repute. 

The nursery of the fathers of the Chartreaux, 
established by Louis XIV. near the Luxembourg, long 



G 



1(> 



20 

supplied a great part of Europe with fruit trees. The 
Jardin des Plants, in Paris, " includes departments 
which may be considered as schools for horticulture, 
planting, agriculture, medical botany, and general 
economy ;" and there can be no question, says Lou- 
don, of its being the most scientific and best kept in 
Europe. 

The flower garden of Malmaison, the botanical 
garden of Trianon, and numerous nursery, herb, 
medicinal, experimental, and botanic gardens, in vari- 
ous parts of the kingdom, are pre-eminent for the 
variety, number, and excellence of their products, and 
for the perfection of their cultivation. 

Holland has been distinguished, since the period of 
the Crusades, for her flower gardens, culinary vegeta- 
bles, and plantations of fruit trees. The north of 
Europe and this country, are still dependent upon her 
florists, for the most splendid varieties of the bulbous 
rooted plants, and her celebrated nurseries, which 
long replenished those of England, have been recently 
enriched by the acquisitions of Van Mons and Du- 
quesne. Several of the new kinds of fruits produced 
by those indefatigable experimentalists, already orna- 
ment our gardens, and, with the excellent varieties 
created by Knight, promise to replace those, which 
have either become extinct, or are so deteriorated in 
quality, as to discourage their farther cultivation. 

This method of hybridous fructification is founded 
on Linnaeus's Sexual System of Plants ; but the ven- 
erable President of the London Horticultural Society 
is entitled to the merit of having first practically 
availed of a suggestion, which emanated from the 



77 



21 

beautiful theory of the northern Pliny. On the Afri- 
can coast of the Mediterranean, a custom, based on 
the same principles, has prevailed, from the earliest 
ages, in the cultivation of the Date — that " Tree of 
Life" to the natives of those sultry regions. The 
stamens and pistils of that species of Palm are pro- 
duced on different trees, and those which afford the 
former being relatively quite low, it is necessary to 
cut off the blossoms and place them, by means of 
ladders, over those of the female trees, which are 
very lofty. If this is not done, the pollen does not 
reach the stigmas, and there is no fruit. This prac- 
tice, however, does not derogate from the honor due 
to the scientific Knight, to whom we are unquestion- 
ably indebted for that valuable discovery, by which 
new varieties of every species of fruit and flower 
may be infinitely multiplied. 

Having been so long dependent upon our trans- 
atlantic co-laborators, it now becomes a duty, to at- 
tempt a reciprocation of the numerous benefits we 
have received ; and, by emulating their zeal, intelli- 
gence, and experimental industry, we must develop 
the resources of our own country, which offers such 
an extensive, interesting, and prolific field of research 
to the adventurous naturalist. Many of the most use- 
ful and magnificent acquisitions of the groves, fields, 
gardens, and conservatories of Europe, are natives of 
the Western hemisphere. The indigenous forest- 
trees, ornamental shrubs, flowers, fruits, and edible 
vegetables of North-America are remarkable for their 
variety, size, splendor, and value. Extending from 
the Polar regions to those of the tropics, and from the 



IS 



22 

shores of the Atlantic to the waves of the Pacific, this 
mighty section of the continent, embraces every clime 
and every variety of soil, teeming with innumerable 
specimens of the vegetable kingdom, in all the luxu- 
riance of their primeval and unexplored domains. 

Catesby, Pursh, Michaux, Mulenburg, Bigelow, 
Nuttall, Eliot, Torrey, Colden, Bartram, Barton, 
Hosack, Mitchell, Darlington, Ives, Dewey, Hitch- 
cock, and Short, have rendered themselves illustrious, 
as disciples of Botany, by traversing our immense 
forests, mountains, and prairies, and exploring the 
borders of our mighty rivers and lakes in quest of 
additions to the Flora of the United States. 

Peters, Hosack, Lowell, Perkins, McMahon, Cox, 
Dean, Thacher, Adlum, Powel, and Buel, have, by 
precept and example, assiduously fostered a taste for 
cultivation, and successfully promoted developments, 
in all the various branches of rural economy. As 
pioneers in the science and art of Agriculture or gar- 
dening, their services have been invaluable ; and 
while most of them still live to behold the rapid and 
extensive progress of their cherished pursuits, the im- 
portant results of their experiments, and the gladden- 
ing influence of their beneficent labors, their names 
will be ever held in grateful remembrance, as distin- 
guished benefactors of their country. 

Enlightened by their instructions, and roused by 
their manly enthusiasm, let us zealously imitate their 
commendable efforts, and endeavor to render our in- 
stitution as beneficial, in its practical operations, as 
it is cheering, in theoretical promise. 



9? 



FIRST 
ANNIVERSARY FESTIVAL 



OF THE 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



The first Anniversary of the Massachusetts Horticultural So- 
ciety was held on Saturday the 19th Sept. at the Exchange 
Coffee House, under the most promising auspices, and in a 
manner truly gratifying to its friends. The dining-hall was very 
tastefully ornamented with festoons of flowers suspended from 
the chandeliers ; and the tables were loaded with orange trees in 
fruit and flower; (from Mr. Lowell's green-house;) a large 
variety of Mexican Georginas of uncommon size and beauty ; 
(from Mr. Pratt and others;) a splendid collection of roses and 
other choice flowers; (from Mr. Aspinwall of Brookline ;) a 
fine specimen of the India rubber tree, (from Mr. Belknap of 
this city,) interspersed with large boquets of beautiful flowers, 
and numerous baskets of grapes^ peaches, pears, melons, apples, 
&/C. &c. The arrangement of the decorations was made by 
Mrs. Z. Cook, Jr. and Misses Downer, Haven, Tuttle, and 
Cook, of Dorchester, assisted by Mr. Haggerston of Charles- 
town, and Messrs Senior and Adamson of Roxbury. 

The address before the Society and others,, was delivered in 
the picture gallery of the Athenaeum, at three o'clock, by the 
President, Gen. Dearborn. He gave an interesting and com- 
prehensive view of the origin and progress of Horticulture ; its 
various branches ; its effects in multiplying and enriching the 
fruits of the earth ; and alluded to the promoters and benefactors 
of the art; to the formation and beneficial labors of Horticultural 
Societies ; and to their prospects of increasing usefulness. 

Among the fruits presented, were two baskets of uncommonly 
fine grapes and pears from Wm. Dean of Salem ; a basket of 
superior peaches and grapes from S. G. Perkins of Brookline; 
fine fruits, (including a single bunch of grapes weighing three 
pounds,) from Mr. Lowell ; a basket of fine sweet water-grapes 



bo 



24 

and peaches from Mr. Fosdick of Charlestown ; several baskets 
of white Muscadine grapes, intermixed with the Bartlett pear 
and Malaga grape from Z. Cook, Jr. of Dorchester; superior 
black grapes from E. Breed of Charlestown ; fine grapes, 
peaches, and nectarines from Mrs. T. H. Perkins of Brookline; 
a basket of beautiful nectarines from E. Sharp of Dorchester; a 
basket of peaches and nectarines from John Breed of Chelsea ; 
a basket of choice apples and pears from J. Prince of Roxbury ; 
two large baskets, comprising six varieties of superior melons 
from T. Brewer of Roxbury ; Bartlett pears, with peaches and 
nectarines from Enoch Bartlett of Roxbury ; a basket of 
beautiful Semiana plums from John Derby of Salem ; a basket 
of Black Hamburg and Black Cape grapes, large peaches, and 
100 kinds of ornamental plants from Winship's Nursery at 
Brighton ; a box of choice apples and pears from Gorham 
Parsons of Brighton ; a box of fine fruits from Rev. G. B. Perry 
of Bradford ; several varieties of fine pears, currant wine, six 
years old, and raspberry wine, from S. Downer of Dorchester ; 
a basket of fine large French pears from John Heard, Jr. of 
Watertown ; three baskets of Fulton pears, and a fine native 
autumnal apple from John Abbott of Brunswick, Me. ; fine 
bunches of Black Hamburg grapes from Richard Sullivan of 
Brookline ; various fruits from A. D. Williams of Roxbury ; a 
basket of fine Black Hamburg and Black Cape grapes from D. 
Haggerston's Charlestown Vineyard ; a large basket of melons 
from H. A. Breed of Lynn ; Isabella and other grapes from N. 
Seaver of Roxbury ; several large specimens of the fruit of the 
egg plant from N. Davenport of Milton ; a box of fine Persian 
melons from C. Oakley of New- York ; a basket of large peaches 
from J. Hastings of Cambridge; a basket of rare peaches from 
R. Manning of Salem ; a basket of the new Fulton pear from 
T. Greenleaf of Quincy ; a basket of various fruits from Gen- 
eral Dearborn of Roxbury, and a specimen of Isabella wine, 
three years old, from Wm. Prince of Long-Island ; a basket of 
Cushing pears from Benj. Thomas, of Hingham — a delicious fruit, 
first brought into notice by the exertions of the Society. 

The plants were furnished by Mr. Lowell, Mr. Pratt, by the 
Botanic Garden at Cambridge, by Mr. Aspinwall of Brookline, 
Mr ; Leathe of Cambridge, Mr. Lemist of Roxbury, Mr. Hag- 
gerston of Charlestown, Mr. Prince of Jamaica Plains, Mr. 
Breed of Lynn, Messrs. Winships of Brighton, and many other 
gentlemen in this vicinity. Mr. Pratt's splendid collection of 
Mexican Georginas was unrivaled. The show of fruits and 
flowers, generally, was probably never surpassed in New-England. 
It would be unpleasant to make any invidious comparisons, where 
all exhibited such satisfactory specimens ; but, in the opinion of 
many, the grapes of Mr. Cook and Mr. Fosdick, raised in the 



/of 



open air, and the green-house grapes of Messrs. Dean, Perkins, 
and Sullivan, deserved particular commendation. 

A large box of very fine peaches,, nectarines and pears, sent by 
Mr. Wilson of New-York, were received too late for the dinner, 
in consequence of the detention of the steam-boat. 

The Hall of the Exchange was literally crowded with visiters, 
from twelve to two. It was much regretted by the Committee of 
Arrangements that a larger Hall had not been engaged for the 
occasion. 

At four o'clock, the Society, with their friends and invited 
guests, to the number of nearly 160, sat down to a sumptuous 
dinner, prepared by Messrs. Johnson & Castlehouse, when the 
following sentiments were drunk. 

REGULAR TOASTS. * 

1. Horticulture — That rational and noble art, which regales and delights 
nearly all the senses ; which nourishes a generous gratitude to the Author 
of all blessings ; and enables man to create a new Eden in recompense of 
that which his first ancestor forfeited. 

2. Human Skill and Enlightened Cultivation — They have changed the 
Crab to the Newton Pippin — the austere Mazzard to the Tartarean and 
Bigarreau — the Hog peach to the Noblesse and Vanguard. 

3. That art which makes all climates one — which mocks at local distiner 
tions, and makes the tropics tributary to the comforts and luxuries of Hy- 
perborean regions — which gives even to Russia the Pine Apple and. the 
Mangostein. 

4. Our Native Fruits — May they be sought out with care and judicious 
skill — one Seclde will be a reward for ten years' research. Nature is our 
best preceptress, and where she points we may safely follow. 

5. May our cultivators be distinguished rather by their deeds than their 
words. Select cautiously, but cultivate liberally. A good fruit will reward 
labor. 

C. Let us encourage a taste for Flowers. God gave them to us for our 
delight, and it is an omen of a cultivated age to encourage them. They 
are the best apparel of the best part of human nature. 

7. The Curator of the Cambridge Garden, Thomas Nuttall — modest and 
unpretending — few men have done- more for American Botany than he. 

8. Agriculture and Horticulture — Allied Divinities, who cause the Desert 
to teem with abundance, and the " Wilderness to blossom like the Rose." 

9. Gardening — In all its degrees and diversities, from the plat of culinary 
vegetables, which embosoms the cottage of economy, to the paradise of 
sweets which embowers the mansion of opulence. 

10. The Fair Sex and Floriculture — 

While many a Fair, in youth and beauty's sheen, 
Presides the Flora of the Sylvan scene, 
Full many a flower shall boast its cultivator, 
Herself the fairest, finest flower in nature. 

11. Historical Facts— God made the first Garden — Cain built the first 
City. 

12. The Feast of Reason — God made a world of good things — and it is 
man's duty, as well as his privilege, to make the most of them. 

4 



//>jL 



26 



13. The Empire of Man — May it be enlarged by fresh acquisitions from 
the vegetable kingdom. Every cultivated plant was once wild — may every 
wild plant, capable of being rendered useful, be cultivated, till not a fruit 
or a flower shall dissipate its fragrance, nor " waste its sweetness on the 
desert air." 

VOLUNTEERS. 

By the President, Hon. H. A. S. Dearborn. Intelligence and Industry — 
the only conservators of the Republic. 

By the Hon. Thomas L. Winthrop. The Massachusetts Horticultural 
Society — the intelligence and zeal manifested in its infancy are sure pre- 
sages of its future usefulness and prosperity. 

By the Hon. Harrison Gray Otis, Mayor of the City. The standard prin- 
ciples which our fathers planted in the old garden of Massachusetts — may 
the taste and fashion, introduced from the old world, come free from the 
canker-worm and rot. 

From several gentlemen invited and expected, letters were received, ex- 
pressing their respect and interest in regard to the Society, but declining to 
accept the invitation to attend on this occasion. Among these were Mr. 
Lincoln, Governor of Massachusetts, J. Q. Adams, Ex-President of the 
United States, Joseph Story, Justice of the Supreme Court of the United 
States, John Lowell, Esq. Sir Isaac Coffin, Commodore Morris, Josiah 
Quincy, President of Harvard University, Benjamin Gorham, M. D. and 
Gen. Wadsworth, of New-York. Judge Story sent the following senti- 
ment : — 

The Massachusetts Horticultural Society, whose excellence is proved by 
the best of maxims ; " By their fruits ye shall know them." 

Mr. Lowell transmitted the following : — 

The Horticultural Society of Massachusetts — I give it welcome, as the 
proper means, the best means, the only means of concentrating, the individ- 
ual skill of our excellent and intelligent cultivators — May its success equal 
my hopes, it cannot exceed them. 

Sent by Jacob Lorrillard, Esq. President of the New-York Horticul- 
tural Society : — 

Massachusetts — A trunk whose distinguished branches produce good 
fruits in every state of the Union. 

Transmitted by Wm. Prince, Esq. Vice-President of the New- York 
Horticultural Society, and a generous patron of the Massachusetts Horti- 
cultural Society : — 

The State of Massachusetts — First in achieving the independence of our 
country, and foremost in developing the independence of her soil. 

Transmitted by Wm. Robert Prince, Esq. of the New-York Horticul- 
tural Society : — 

The Spirit of Horticulture — Which strews our paths with the sweets of 
Flora, and loads our tables with the offerings of Pomona. 

By Dr. Bigelow, Corresponding Secretary of the Society. In allusion to a 
sentiment expressed by the President, in his Address : — 

That department of the Horticulturist, in which all citizens are interest- 
ed, the Seminary. 

By Mr. Emmons, Recording Secretary. Horticulture — The first employ- 
ment of man ; may every day's experience convince him that it is the best. 

By the Hon. Daniel Webster, a member of the Society, accompanied by 
some pertinent introductory remarks upon the high professional character 
and useful life of Mr. Lowell. The Hon. John Lowell — The uniform 
friend of all sorts of rural economy. 



Ie3 



27 

By Rev. F. W. P. Greenwood. The cultivation of the earth, the mind 
and the heart — May they advance among us rapidly and simultaneously } 
till our whole country blooms like Eden. 

By John C. Gray, Esq. 2d Vice-President. The art of Horticulture, 
which furnishes us with delicious but wholesome luxuries, and with cheap 
but splendid ornaments ; May it never want encouragement in a Repub- 
lican and economical country. 

By Enoch Bartlett, Esq. 3d Vice-President. Agriculture, Horticulture, 
and all other cultures which ameliorate the condition of man. 

By a generous Patron of the Society. The United States — May their por- 
tion of the earth never be " subdued," but by the musket turned into the 
ploughshare, and the sword into the pruning-hook. 

By H. J. Finn. The Heraldry of English Horticulture. Great-Britain 
may be proud of her privilege to confer titles of nobility, but Nature be- 
stowed a higher honor on its peerage, when she created a Knight. 

By Thomas Green Fesscndcn, Esq. Editor of the New-England Farmer. 
The greatest good of the greatest number. The whole world a garden, 
hands enough to cultivate it, and mouths enough to consume its produc- 
tions. 

By a Guest. The rising generation ; May these twigs be so trained as to 
need but little trimming, become valuable standards, produce fruits worthy 
a premium, and receive prizes at the great final exhibition. 

By a Guest. Thomas A. Knight, Esq., President of the London Horti- 
cultural Society ; the Genius and Philanthropist in the science of Horticul- 
ture. 

By Hon. Oliver Fiske, of Worcester. Horticulture, the best substitute to 
our progenitors for their loss of Paradise, and the best solace to their pos- 
terity for the miseries they entailed. 

By George Kent, Esq. of N. H. The fruits and flowers this day exhibit- 
ed. A splendid exemplification of the industry and enterprise of the intel- 
ligent founders of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society. " If such 
things are done in the green tree, what will be done in the dry?" 

By a Guest. Horticulture — The first occupation instituted for man : to 
him was given " every herb, and every tree upon the face of the earth." 

By John Prince, Esq. of Salem. The wedding we this day celebrate, 
the union of hearty culture and horticulture. May the pair be ever held as 
choice as the apple of our eye. 

By the Editor of the Boston Courier. Hon. Daniel Webster — 

Men are the growth our frozen realms supply, 
And souls are ripened in our northern sky. 

By D. L. Child, Esq. Editor of the Massachusetts Journal. The Ladies — 
They are like " the lilies of the field, which toil not, neither spin ; and yet 
Solomon in all his glory was not arrayed as one of these. ' No wonder 
then, that we have such a profuse display of coxcombs and marigolds. 

By the same. The farmers of Massachusetts ; success to their efforts to 
extirpate the worst enemy of their mowing lands, the Can-a-day thistle. 

By J. Thornton Adams, Esq. Editor of the Centinel. Agriculture and 
Horticulture. Fields of action and ambition as extensive as the soil of our 
country. 

By Nathan Hale, Esq. Editor of the Boston Daily Advertiser. Horticul- 
ture — the Art by which nature is taught to improve her own production. 

By Mr. Wilson, of the New- York Horticultural Society. The State of Mas- 
sachusetts — the love of liberty is an indigenous production of her soil. 



/ 6 $ 



28 

Her sons ledihe van in cleaning it from the deleterious brush of tyrannical 
oppression. May equal success attend their^labors in the more pleasant 
and delightful^departments of a milder species of Horticulture. 

By T. Brewer, Esq. of Roxbury. Hon. John Lowell — the Macaenas of 
New-England Horticulture. Himself a Patron, and his premises a Pattern 
of correct and scientific cultivation. 

By Benj. V. French, Esq. of the Committee of Arrangements. The Mas- 
sachusetts Horticultural Society, — promising in its infancy, — may its fruits, 
like those of olden time, require two to carry a bunch of grapes upon a 
staff. 

After the President had retired, Zebedee Cook, jr. Esq. 1st Vice-Presi- 
dent, gave — 

H. A. S. Dearborn, President of the Society — Under his auspices it is 
more honorable to gather garlands in the garden of the cultivator, than to 
win laurels in the field of the conqueror. 

By Samuel Doioncr, Esq. of Dorchester . Our native fruits — may they 
continue to advance, developing their excellent qualities, until, like their 
native soil, they become the admiration of other climes and the pride of 
our own. 

Bya Guest. The Queen of flowers, the Lily — which (as is had on the 
best authority) eclipsed the glory of Solomon in his imperial purple — " for 
he was not arrayed like one of these." 

By a Guest. Horticulture — the science which teaches man to increase 
by diminishing ; a profitable barter of quantity for quality. 

By Mr. J. B. Russell, Publisher of the New-England Farmer. The Long 
Island Prince of Horticulture — Entitled, by his science, zeal, and activity 
to the coronet of Flora, a badge of distinction more honorable than the 
crown of the conqueror : in him we are favored with an excellent excep- 
tion to the ancient adage, " Put no trust in Princes." 

Sent by Mr. Grant Thorburn, of New-York. The city of Boston — its 
splendid churches, its public-spirited citizens, and its magnificent villas. 

By Mr. E. W.Metcalf. The cultivation of the earth, and the Art of 
Printing; the sources of animal life, and of mental improvement. 

By. Mr. Jeremiah Fitch. Our country's independence : the best fruit its 
soil ever produced. 

By Mr. Rebello, Charge oV Affairs from Brazil. Mutual transplantations 
between North and South-America — the happiness of mankind is based on 
the liberal exchange of respective natural products. 

By Dr. Thacher, of Plymouth. American Farmers — who increase the 
capabilities of the soil, gather the honey, and shear the fleece, and reap the 
harvest for themselves and not for another. 

By the same. Mrs. Mary Griffith, the scientific Apiarian of New- 
Brunswick. 

By Capt. Nicholson, of U. S. Navy. Agriculture, Horticulture, and Com- 
merce—the graces of civilization. 



/of 



The following Song, written for the occasion by Mr. Finn, of 
the Tremont Theatre, was sung by him, 

" Let one great day, 



s — j , 

To celebrated sports and floral play 
Be set aside." — Prior. 

This is our Rome, and I 

A Flamen Pomonalis ; 

I' 11 prove in Men's pursuits, 

Some Horticultural is ; 

But while the glass goes round, 

Let not a sucker stray, Sirs ; 

Transported by the vine, 

'T would be our Botany bay, Sirs. 

The Fruits of Horticulture 
You '11 find in every shape, Sirs, 
Our sailors stem the Currant, 
In battle, force the Grape, Sirs. 
King George, in olden Thyme, 
Could not with Spear-mint loyal, 
Compel our soldiers Sage, 
To pay the Penny-Royal. 

A lawyer in his books, 

Discovers foliation, 

And often makes his bread 

By aflower-y oration ; 

The Sportsman likes the Turf 

To train his cattle jadish, 

If he buys a reddish horse, 

He 's sure to like Horse-radish. 

Fairest of Eden's flowers 
Was Woman, ere farewell, Sirs, 
She bade to Eden's fruit, 
The fatal Nonpareil, Sirs. 
Here's Woman ! from the time 
Creation's pencil drew lips, 
And the breathings of the Rose, 
That lives upon her two-lips. 

And when at Gretna greens 
Young ladies wish a frolic, 
If Pa says " Can't-elope," 
Why they feel Melon-choYic ; 
Good wives the Nursery love, 
Their tender plants to feed, Sirs, 
And widows wish, sub-rosa, 
To throw aside their loeeds, Sirs. 






to I* 



30 

The Gambler, on a spade 

His all on earth will stake, Sirs ; 

The Drunkard is a sieve, 

The Libertine 's a rake, Sirs : 

May he who — like a blight — 

The Maiden's peace has broke, Sirs, 

A hanging -Garden see, 

And feel the Art-to-choke, Sirs. 

The pretty Gentleman, 
So lady-like and lazy, 
Who goes to Mari-gold, 
And lisps out " lauk a daisey," 
Of Navarino stock — 
A nice corsetted scion, 
Among the Garden stuff, 
He 's dubbed a Dande-lion. 

The Spendthrift ends with slugs, 

And " Vcrbum-sat" 's a hint, Sirs — 

The Miser is a Snail, 

That starves upon the Mint, Sirs : 

You may Old Bachelors 

In Elder-berries nab, Sirs, 

Old Maids they say are Medlars 

Grafted on the Crab, Sirs. 

We '11 toast the kitchen garden, 
The dishes all and each, Sirs, 
It would our taste im-pair, 
Their goodness to im-peach, Sirs : 
And may we never want 
The means such limbs to lop, Sirs, 
And always have good grounds, 
To gather a full Crop, Sirs. 

My lines I must re-trench, 
They better things impede, Sirs, 
And as my song 's sow, sow, 
Perhaps you may see seed, Sirs ; 
I 'm certain, with your leaves, 
If doggrels thus should trick us 
Out of our good wine, — 
Each would be Hortus siccus. 

Then may Life's evening sun, 
In setting be serene, Sirs ; 
Time well employed — in Age 
Will make us evergreen, Sirs ; 
And when the pruning-knife — 
From feather, or from cot-bed — 
Transplants us to the soil. 
May we escape a Hot-bed. 



'6J 
31 



NAMES OF MEMBERS 

ADMITTED SINCE THE PUBLICATION OF THE CONSTITUTION AND BY- 
LAWS OF THE SOCIETY, AUGUST, 1829. 

DANIEL WEBSTER, Boston. 
JOHN B. DAVIS, " 

JEREMIAH FITCH, " 
EBENEZER ROLLINS. " 
&: E. P. HARTSHORN, " 
CALVIN WHITING, " 
JAMES READ, " 

NATHANIEL BALCH, " 
BENJAMIN GIBBS, " 
AARON D. WILD, Jr. " 
JOHN DERBY, Salem. 
SAMUEL WALKER, Roxbury. 
JOHN PARKINSON, " 
JOHN HEATH, " 

EBENEZER CRAFTS, " 
RICHARD WARD, " 

' EDMUND M'CARTHY, Brighton. 
NATH'L RICHARDSON, M. D. South Reading. 
FERDINAND ANDREWS, Lancaster. 
JOSEPH WILLARD, " 

JOHN SPRINGER, Sterling. 
• JOSEPH W. NEWELL, Maiden. 
ISAAC MEAD, Charlestown. 
WILLIAM HURD, " 
•> ** * • AMOS ATKINSON, Brookline. 

WILLIAM P. ENDICOTT, Danvers. 
EDWARD M. RICHARDS, Dedham. 
LEONARD STONE, Watertown. 
WILLIAM COTTING, West Cambridge. 
NATHAN WEBSTER, Haverhill. 
J. B. FRANCIS, Warwick, R. I. 
STEPHEN H. SMITH, Providence, R. I. 



CORRESPONDING MEMBERS. 

ABRAHAM HALSEY, Esq. of New-York, Corresponding Secretary of the 

New- York Horticultural Society. 
GEORGE C, THORBURN, Esq. New- York. 



The name of BENJAMIN ABBOTT, LL. D. Principal of Phillips's 
Exeter Academy, (admitted an Honorary Member of the Society, at a 
special meeting held on the 27th of June last) was accidentally omitted in 
the publication of the Constitution and By-Laws. 



16 t 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SOCIETY. 

The following papers have been read before the Society, at 
different meetings, and have been published in the New-England 
Farmer, as mentioned below : — 

1. " On engrafting the European Sweet Water Grape on American 

Stocks." By John Prince, Esq. and Gen. W. R. Armistead. 
New-England Farmer, vol. vii. page 329. 

2. " On the Cultivation of Squashes and Melons, and the Extirpation of 

Insects from Vines." By J. M. Gourgas, Esq. Weston. Ibid. vol. 
vii. page 345. 

3. " Schedule of Fruit Trees, of fifty-two choice varieties, presented to 

the Massachusetts Horticultural Society, by the Proprietors of the 
Linnsean Garden, near New-York, April, 1829. By William Prince, 
with Descriptive Remarks." Ibid. vol. vii. page 3S5, and vol. viii. 
page 18. 

4. " Description of the Capiaumont Pear, with a Drawing." By S. 

Downer. Ibid. vol. vii. page 409. 

5. " On the Culture of the Strawberry." By the Hon. H. A. S. Dear- 

born, (President.) Ibid. vol. viii. page 9, 22. 

6. " On the Treatment of Bees ; and Observations on the Curculio." By 

Mary Griffith, New- Jersey. Ibid. vol. viii. page 17. 

7. " Description of a Native Seedling Pear, in Dorchester, with a Draw- 

ing." By S. Downer. Ibid. vol. viii. page 51. 

8. " On the Culture of the Sweet Potatoe, and description of different 

varieties." By Hon. John Lowell. Ibid, vol viii. page 65. 

9. " Description of the Cushing Pear, with a Drawing." By S. Downer, 

and B. Thomas, Esq'rs. Ibid. vol. viii. p. 113. 

10. " On Budding or Inoculating Fruit Trees." By Levi Bartlett, 

Warner, N. H. Ibid. vol. viii. page 114. 

11. "Notes and Observations on the Vine." By Wm. Kenrick. Ibid. 

vol. viii. page 129. 

In addition to the above, the New-England Farmer contains 
a weekly Report and description of the new Fruits left at the 
Society's Hall, No. 52, North Market-street, for examination. 



io c f 



AN 



ADDRESS, 

PRONOUNCED BEFORE THE 

MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

IN COMMEMORATION OF ITS 

SECOND ANNUAL FESTIVAL, 

THE 10th OF SEPTEMBER, 1830. 



BY ZEBEDEE COOK, Jr. 



v BOSTON: 

PRINTED BY ISAAC R. BUTTS. 
1830. 



ht> 



/// 



ADDRESS. 



\i3U 



/<3 






/c/)e^e - 



Mr President, 

and Gentlemen of the 

Massachusetts Horticultural Society, — 

The propitious circumstances under which we 
have assembled to celebrate our second annual festi- 
val, must be gratifying to all who cherish an interest 
in the prosperity of our institution, and more particu- 
larly to those who have labored to acquire for it its 
present prosperous and elevated condition. The ex- 
periment has been fairly tested, and thus far its results 
are too apparent to permit even the most skeptical 
to doubt of either its utility or its final success. Its 
interests are too closely identified with the general 
good, as well as with individual comfort and happi- 
ness, to allow us to waver in our hopes, or to falter 
in our exertions to effect the original design of its 
creation. 

We have not come up hither to recount the ex- 
ploits of military prowess, or to mingle in the strife, 
or participate in the conquests of political gladiators. 
We come not to swell the pseans of the conqueror or 



M4 



4 

to mourn over our prostrate liberties. We come not 
to indulge in the feelings which are incited bv the 
contemplation of such objects, for we war not with 
the sword, nor seek to gather laurels in the field of 
hostile or fierce contentions. 

But we have come together at the ingathering of 
the harvest, to exhibit an acceptable offering of a 
portion of its bounties. We have come in the pa- 
cific and genial spirit of the pursuits we love to partici- 
pate in, the enjoyments the occasion imparts, and we 
have come to reciprocate the congratulations of the 
season, in the success with which our labors and our 
experiments have been crowned. 

The primitive employment of man was that of a 
tiller of the ground, and the garden of Eden, planted 
and ornamented by the hand of its Creator, was as- 
signed to the care of our great progenitor ; to dress 
and to keep it.' From the earliest period of the 
world to the present day, the cultivation of the ground 
has been viewed with special favor by all civilized 
nations. Even heroes, philosophers, and statesmen 
have sought in rural employments a temporary re- 
laxation from the cares and perplexities incident to 
their public labors. It is not necessary to explore the 
annals of ancient history for the names of individuals 
who have been thus distinguished. The records of 
our own times, and especially of our own country, 
and our own personal observations, afford instances of 
illustrious men who have been thus preeminent, and 
there are those now living amongst us, who, by their 
precept and example, by their scientific and practical 



fli 



knowledge and skill, and devotion to its interests, 
have imparted an impulse to the pursuit, that will be 
felt and acknowledged long after they have ceased 
to cheer us by their presence, or to influence us by 
by their personal illustrations. 

The pursuits of horticulture are peaceful. The 
cultivation of fruits and flowers is an unfailing source 
of pleasant and instructive occupation and amuse- 
ment. Labor is lightened, and care is recompensed, 
and industry is cheered in the contemplation of the 
expanding beauties of spring, in the delightful fra- 
grance and glowing and grateful anticipations of 
summer, and in the consummation of our hopes in 
autumn. 

The pursuits of horticulture are salutary to the 
physical and moral nature of man. They impart 
vigor to the body, and expansion and elevation to the 
mind. The plants that are everywhere scattered in 
his pathway, and around, above and beneath him, 
delighting the senses with their sweetness, their sim- 
plicity, their grandeur, and perfect adaptation to his 
joys and to his necessities, are silent but impressive 
emblems of the benignity of our heavenly Father, 
admonishing the recipient of his indebtedness, and 
claiming from him the return of a sincere and lively 
gratitude. 

Industry, intelligence, and skill are indispensable 
agents in the business of horticulture. A thorough 
acquaintance with the views of eminent scientific 
and experimental writers, as well as with the more 
legible and definite compositions of nature, are 



(t<e 



essential to the formation of an accomplished, and 
distinguished cultivator. The information we derive 
from study, as from the practical observations of the 
workings of inanimate nature, will administer to our 
success, and prevent in a measure the recurrence of 
errors which flow from inattention, or from the want 
of some established system of operation. A judicious 
selection of soil and aspect is necessary to the health 
of the plant, and will repay our care in the vigor of its 
growth, and in the improvement of the quality and 
quantity of its fruit. 

The opinions of foreign writers, however applicable 
they may be in practice to the mode of cultivation 
pursued in those regions of which they treat, are not 
always suited to the climate and soil of that which 
adopts them. That which is ascertained to be of 
practical utility in me ( ountry, under one climate, 
may be unfavorable to the production or maturity of 
the same variety of fruit or vegetables, or ornamental 
trees in another. 

In some climates, indigenous and exotic plants and 
fruits, that require the aid of artificial culture and 
great care in their preservation, are matured in 
others with comparatively little labor. Unassisted 
nature performs nearly all that is needful in their pro- 
duction, relieving man from the toil and anxiety of 
cultivation, and affording him, at the appropriate sea- 
son, a portion of her abundance. 

The present flourishing condition of horticulture 
in our country may, I think, be ascribed to the refined 
taste and liberality of its citizens, and in a measure to 



// 



1 



the improved condition of those whose ingenuity and 
industry is exerted in affording the means of gratify- 
ing that taste, and exciting that liberality. A laudable 
spirit of competition has been awakened among the 
practical and amateur cultivators in this vicinity, which 
I hope will be productive of great and useful results 
to this community. We have witnessed with no ordi- 
nary gratification the increasing variety of flowers, the 
introduction of new and valuable kinds of fruits, and 
the amelioration of those which have been long fami- 
liar to us. And among those fruits which we may y 
without the imputation of a violent presumption, con- 
sider as original native productions, the Baldwin Ap- 
ple, the Seckle, Gushing, Wilkinson, Gore's Heathcote, 
Lewis, Andrews, and Dix Pears, the Lewis or Boston 
Nectarine, and the Downer Cherry, may be classed 
among the most desirable of their kinds. 

It is true that the introduction of these several varie- 
ties of fruits was the result of accident ; this consid- 
eration does not diminish their value, nor should de- 
tract from the merit of those under whose auspices 
they were derived, or introduced to public notice. 

An opinion seems to be entertained by some of our 
most experienced cultivators, that few if any of the 
choice varieties of pears, considered by others as na- 
tive fruits, are indigenous to our soil. That this opi- 
nion is not w r ell founded, I think has been abundantly 
demonstrated by the production of some in the in- 
stances to which I have before referred. Those 
fruits were discovered in isolated situations, in pas- 
tures or in the woods, or generally remote from habi- 



(if 



8 

tations, and where no traces of ' man's device ' could 
be discernible in their vicinity, or the ameliorating ef- 
fects upon the tree itself, by engrafting or inoculation. 
In some cases we have positive evidence, derived from 
the personal observation of the proprietor, that the 
tree originated in the place it now occupies, and has 
never been subjected to the operation of artificial 
change. The process of raising ameliorated fruits of 
this description is very slow, if we wait the develop- 
ment of the product in the maturity of the original 
tree. The first generation of fruit may afford the de- 
sired degree of amelioration, although the balance of 
probabilities may be against the fulfilment of that ex- 
pectation. A more summary mode of producing the 
desired result is to transfer a shoot or a bud from a 
young plant to a* thrifty mature tree, and to plant 
the seed of the fruit that it may produce, and thus 
proceed in the multiplication of chances by alternate 
planting and engrafting from the fruit and plant pro- 
duced, until the required quality is obtained. This, 
according to the theory of an ingenious modern 
writer, may be effected in the fifth or sixth genera- 
tion. The experiment, though it may require much 
time and labor, and demand no inconsiderable share 
of patience, is worthy the attention of those, whose 
views are not confined to the narrow precincts of a 
selfish and exclusive policy, but are disposed to imi- 

*It has been suggested to me by a distinguished Horticulturist, 
that this experiment would probably succeed better, if the shoot or bud 
were placed upon an old tree, or one of slow growth, as it would thus 
earlier develope the fruit. 



//f 



9 

tate their predecessors in the liberal provision they 
made for their successors. But I make not this ap- 
peal to any who are actuated by similar feelings to 
those which were indulged by the enlightened legis- 
lator, who, in the discussion of a subject bearing some 
analogy to this, inquired, what has posterity done for 
us ! that we should be required to do this for our pos- 
terity ! 

The reflection that we may not realize the advan- 
tages of those experiments, should not deter us from 
making them. We should be influenced by more 
patriotic and liberal sentiments. Every generation 
of men is a link in the great chain that has been 
forming from the creation of the world, connecting 
the present with the past, and is to be lengthened out 
through succeeding ages. Be it our province then, 
as it is our duty, to preserve the brightness of this 
chain, that our appropriate division of it may loose 
nothing upon a comparison with all its parts, but that 
the period of which it is typical, may be regarded as 
one that was characterized by a suitable respect for 
ourselves, and as a stimulus to the coming generation 
to evince a like regard to the claims of those who are 
to follow. 

The agricultural interests of New England have 
been greatly promoted by the skilful, judicious, and 
generous exertions of the society long since instituted 
in Massachusetts for that purpose. To the ardor 
and zeal that has been unceasingly manifested by the 
distinguished men who have directed its efforts, this 
2 



Uc 



10 

section of our country is particularly indebted for the 
advances that have been made in this department of 
national industry, and which may not be inaptly 
termed a branch of the ' American System.' They 
have given an impulse to the energies and the hopes 
of our yeomanry. They have instilled into their 
minds a portion of their sentiments, and have excited 
in them a spirit of emulation, and the advantages that 
have accrued, and still continue to follow their la- 
bors, are legible in every field, and are daily conspicu- 
ous in our market-places. 

The industry, and perseverance, and forecast of 
the people of New England, is the basis upon which 
their prosperity and security must be sustained. 

Possessed of fewer natural advantages of soil and 
climate than are enjoyed in other sections of our 
country, we are happily exempted from many of the 
evils to which they are necessarily subjected, by cir- 
cumstances they cannot control. If we are denied 
the privilege of a milder atmosphere, and a more 
temperate climate, if we must submit to the rigors of 
our northern winter, and find no escape from the 
chilling colds of a protracted spring, we can do so 
without murmuring or repining. • 

If Providence has been pleased to withhold from 
us, what in its wisdom it has seen fit to confer on 
others, it has given us much, and withheld from us 
much for which we should be grateful. 

The habits and peculiarities of trees and plants is 
a subject which should interest our attention, as a 
knowledge of it will tend to prevent much of the 



/ oL, / 



11 

confusion, and avert much of the disappointment, to 
which those are exposed who neglect it. 

The unskilful use of the saw and the pruning knife, 
is frequently detrimental to trees, not only in the ex- 
tent of their application, but in the unseasonableness 
of the operation. Winter pruning is sometimes prac- 
tised for the very cogent reason that it is a time 
of comparative leisure. Similar excuses have not 
been unfrequently resorted to, on other occasions, 
and the reminiscences of by-gone days may remind 
some of us of certain mischievous acts performed, for 
the equally commendable reason, that we could find 
no more rational employment for our time. It is 
thought by those who have given much attention to 
the subject, that the most appropriate time for such 
operations is when the sap flows freely, or from the 
latter end of April to the middle of May. This is un- 
doubtedly true in relation to the apple and pear tree, 
but in the opinion of some experienced, and distin- 
guished cultivators, the peach, nectarine, apricot, 
plum, and cherry trees should not be pruned except 
in August or September. The latter should be sub- 
jected to this operation as sparingly as possible. Lop- 
ping off the leading shoots, or any other of the prin- 
cipal branches, should be avoided as much as practi- 
cable, and while they preserve their health and vigor, 
those parts should be suffered to remain entire, and 
only the smaller superfluous branches removed. 

The wounds caused by the removal of the greater 
or lesser branches should be immediately covered 
by a composition of adhesive and healing ingredients, 



f2^ 



12 

which will prevent the air and moisture from pene- 
trating, and as the juices are then in an active state, 
little or no injury may be apprehended. If this were 
practised more generally than it has been, we should 
not witness so much of premature decay that is seen 
so extensively in our orchards and gardens. 

I am unwilling to dismiss this subject without urging 
upon you the necessity of avoiding as much as possible, 
the removal of large and vigorous branches from your 
trees at any season. To secure success in the cultiva- 
tion of fruit trees, and to give them a tasteful and orna- 
mental, as well as useful form, with a view to produc- 
tiveness, and a simultaneous ripening of their fruits, 
pruning should be commenced the year after they are 
transplanted, and repeated every successive spring, 
by cutting out from the centre, and from the exterior 
all the small, and superfluous, and intersecting shoots, 
wherever they appear, leaving the interior of the tree 
in the form of a tunnel. By this method the fruit, on 
all parts of the tree, will be equally accessible to the 
influence of the sun, and will consequently be more 
equally matured, and of similar qualities on all its 
sections. Trees, like children, should be taught cor- 
rect habits while they are susceptible of good impres- 
sions, and as we are directed to train up the latter in 
the way they should go, that in maturer life they shall 
not depart from the precepts that are instilled into 
their minds in youth, so is it desirable in relation to 
the former, that we should cultivate the young plant 
with reference to the future tree, and prune and train 
it as we would have it to grow. 



/x3 



13 

But this is not all that is essential to give efficacy 
to our labors. There is an evil to which many kinds 
of trees and plants are subjected, that demands our 
particular attention, and even when that has been 
patiently and zealously exercised, it has proved only 
partially successful. The numerous kinds of insects 
which not only produce incalculable mischief to the 
health, and beauty, and productiveness of the tree, 
but deprives us of no inconsiderable portion of their 
fruits, has hitherto eluded the vigilance and the in- 
genuity of man, in his efforts to provide either a pre- 
ventive or a remedy for the injury thus occasioned. 
The insidious mode of attack in which they are 
guided by an unerring instinct, would seem to require 
the exercise of almost super-human skill, to avert or 
repress their ravages. 

Cleanliness is indispensable to the health, and beau- 
ty, and usefulness of fruit trees. The moss- covered 
wall is venerated as an object of antiquity ; but the 
moss-covered tree excites no such reverential emo- 
tions. Nor is our respect for the sentimental cultiva- 
tor of caterpillars, elevated in the ratio of success he 
attains in the pursuit of his favorite art. It were well 
enough while it administers to his pleasures, and 
gratifies his taste, that he should enjoy the exclusive 
benefit of his labors, and far better if he would re- 
strain those objects of his regard within the limits of 
his own domain. If the propagation of those inge- 
nious architects is an interesting employment ; if he is 
gratified by the exhibition of their industry, and is 
impressed with the belief that it would be an act of 



1^ 



14 

cruelty to demolish their dwellings, and devote the 
occupants to death ; that they would thus 

' in corporal suffering 

Feel a pang as great as when a giant dies,' 

he must be indulged in the exercise of those kindred 
feelings, and in the unenvied possession of his vitiated 
taste. But the criminal disregard of the duties he 
owes to his neighbors, in the indulgence of such pro- 
pensities, whether they proceed from choice or in- 
dolence, deserve the most severe and unrestrained 
rebuke. 

Exudations, or any other unusual appearance of un- 
healthiness or unthriftiness in trees often indicate the 
proximity of the enemy, although such effects are pro- 
duced sometimes by unskilful pruning. An early and 
careful examination will lead to the detection of the 
assailant, and, if seasonably made, may preserve the 
tree. No effectual preventive against the injurious 
operations of the borer upon many of our fruit, and 
some of our forest trees, has yet been devised. 

The cankerworm and the curculio are the most 
extensively fatal, as they are the most crafty of the 
insect race, and no certain means have yet been dis- 
covered to induce the belief that an effectual preven- 
tive will be found to stay their annual ravages. The 
time, and labor, and experiments that have been de- 
voted to the attainment of this desirable object, or 
employed in the investigation of the subject, are 
deserving of more success than have resulted from 
those efforts. Much useful and satisfactory informa- 
tion as to their character and habits, has, however, 



/ ^L S 



15 

been elicited, but that most desirable end, the pre- 
vention of their devastating effects, has been but par- 
tially attained. ' It is a consummation devoutly to 
be wished,' that all who are interested would unite 
their efforts in the endeavor to arrest the further pro- 
gress of this scourge of our fruit trees. The energies 
of the whole agricultural world could not be concen- 
trated in, and applied to a more important purpose 
connected with the cultivation of fruits. Should any 
individual be so fortunate as to make the discovery 
that shall prove an infallible antidote to the incursions 
of this withering and blighting infliction, he will 
have the proud and enviable satisfaction of contribu- 
ting much to the prosperity of his country, and will 
richly deserve to be numbered among its benefactors. 
It must be obvious to those who have devoted their 
attention to the cultivation of fruits, that the same 
varieties will thrive better in one quality of soil, than 
in another. This is undoubtedly true even of some 
of the most hardy, and more especially of those of 
the more tender and delicate kinds. The russetting 
apple affords an example of this ameliorating effect, 
and will furnish a satisfactory elucidation of this po- 
sition. The most perfect are those which are pro- 
duced upon elevated or dry soils interspersed with 
rocks; while those which grow in low and moist 
lands, possess less of the distinguishing traits of that 
variety. I do not state this so much as the result of 
my own practical observations^ as from those of more 
experienced cultivators. Such being the fact in re- 
lation to one sort of fruit, may it not be rationally in- 



/ JL Q> 



16 

ferred that it should be likewise true of many others ? 
The subject commends itself to our attention with 
peculiar interest, and I cannot doubt but that it will 
receive the consideration it merits. 

Associations directed to the promotion of horticul- 
tural pursuits are of comparatively recent date. It 
was reserved to that country, from whence the in- 
trepid band of Pilgrims came, to found an empire in 
this Western hemisphere, to become the pioneers in 
this acceptable work, as she had ever been in all 
others that had a tendency to shed a lustre upon her 
name, and to impart to other nations the influence 
of her beneficent and glorious example. The time 
has passed away, and with it the excitement, I trust, 
never to be revived, when to speak in commendation 
of the institutions of Great Britain, would subject the 
eulogist to the suspicion that he was distrustful of 
those of his native country. I leave to abler hands, 
and more gifted minds, the correction of those un- 
manly and illiberal personalities, that have degraded 
the literature of England in relation to our manners 
and habits, and the uncharitable and mistaken views 
of our government, and the administration of its laws, 
which have been furnished by itinerant book-makers, 
in return for the generous hospitalities of our country- 
men, and thus made the only adequate return of which 
they were capable. 

The Horticultural Society of London was estab- 
lished in 1805, under the highly flattering auspices 
of distinguished scientific and practical men, and was 
the first institution of the kind that had been founded 



t±n 



in Europe. It has developed a wide field of opera- 
tions, and extended its researches to almost every 
accessible part of the globe. Innumerable specimens 
of the riches of the natural world have been collected 
under its direction, and transferred to England. Asia 
and Africa, and America and Continental Europe, 
have contributed to swell the catalogue of rare and 
valuable plants, to enrich and beautify the rural re- 
treats of our father land. 

In 1809 the Caledonian Horticultural Society was 
formed in Scotland, and still numbers among its pa- 
trons the first of the nobility and gentry of that loyal 
nation. 

The Horticultural Society of Paris was instituted 
in 182G, and is rapidly increasing in numbers and in 
influence. Between the society of Massachusetts 
and that of Paris the most friendly relations exist, and 
are fostered. We have received the most conclusive 
evidence of their regard, and of their desire to pro- 
mote a reciprocal interchange of opinions and sen- 
timents upon the subject of our mutual pursuits. 

We have invited the cooperation of the several 
Horticultural Societies in our own country, to par- 
ticipate with us in extending the influence, and im- 
parting a taste for rural employments. We have ex- 
pressed a desire to be identified with them in the 
general design of our labors. We founded this insti- 
tution for purposes of public utility, and we wish to see 
its benefits become coextensive with the limits of our 
land. Whatever of good may result from our indus- 
try, or be achieved by our exertions, must be seen and 



O 



18 

felt, and will, I trust, be ackowledged by the com- 
munity. 

A taste for rural pursuits and improved culture has 
been widely diffused through the influence and ex- 
ample of this society. An emulation has been excited 
which has been productive of highly gratifying results. 
The weekly exhibitions at our Hall the past and pass- 
ing season, have furnished undeniable evidence of the 
truth of this assertion. The increased varieties of 
beautiful flowers, and rich fruits, and fine culinary 
plants, have surpassed our anticipations, and more 
than all these, are the gratifying effects that have 
followed those exhibitions in the expressions of delight 
we have heard from those who have attended them. 
We cannot be insensible to the commendation of our 
fellow-citizens; we ask for their support and en- 
couragement ; and 1 feel assured that a generous and 
tasteful community can never be unmindful of the 
importance of sustaining an institution that contributes 
so essentially to the supply of their common necessi- 
ties, and administers so abundantly to the happiness 
of the healthful, and the solace of the invalid. 

The varieties of soil and of climates with which 
our country is diversified, are favorable to the growth 
of almost every plant, which nature yields to the wants 
or the tastes of man. The magnolia, the tulip, the 
judas, the laurel, and other flowering trees that may 
vie in beauty and fragrance with almost any of the 
exotic plants, are indigenous to our forests, and are 
improved by cultivation when transplanted to appro- 
priate situations. And we are indebted to the provi- 



/ J.f 



19 

dent care of nature for the origin of many of our 
most valuable esculents which have become amelior- 
ated by culture, and which use has rendered in a 
measure indispensable to our convenience and comfort. 
In the interminable forests where the voice of civi- 
lized man has not been heard, nor the foot of civilized 
man penetrated, where the silence of nature has con- 
tinued undisturbed since the earliest dawn of creation, 
save by the howlings of the untamed enemies of our 
race, or the murmuring of waters rushing to their 
appointed destination in hidden meanderings, or glid- 
ing in silvery brightness through verdant meadows, 
and over rocky precipices, tumbling in wild and fear- 
ful confusion into the deep chasm, thence flinging 
their glittering spray upwards, mingling in sunbeams, 
and hanging midway in the heavens the transient 
beauties of the bow of promise! — there, where na- 
ture reposes in her lofty, but rude and simple gran- 
deur, in coming years, though perhaps remote, men 
from all sections of this vast country, and from nations 
beyond the sea, will be gathered together, and from 
the shores of the Atlantic Ocean to the far-off bor- 
ders of the Pacific Sea, under the protecting aegis of 
our insignia of liberty, villages, and towns and cities 
will arise, and associations will be established where 
the cheering light of science and the arts shall blend 
their influence, and seminaries of learning will be 
founded, that shall give to mind its power and to 
man his merited elevation, and a taste for all that ad- 
ministers to the improvement of social life, and the 
diffusion of the means of social happiness, and God 



(3o 



20 

shall be worshipped in temples consecrated to His 
service in the simplicity, and truth, and power of 
His word. 

In this future vision, that is not destined to bless our 
sight, but is reserved to future generations to look 
upon, may we not hope that the influence of those 
principles we now commemorate may be implanted 
and widely diffused. 

It is a common observation of travellers, that in the 
interior portions of New England, remote from popu- 
lous towns, very little if any attention is given to the 
cultivation of good fruits, and it is equally true that 
many of our substantial practical agriculturists in 
those regions, deny themselves even the convenience 
or luxury of a kitchen garden. Mankind must be 
permitted to stint themselves in the enjoyments of 
the bounties of nature if such be their pleasure. If 
indifference or parsimony induce such self-denial, 
and they who practise it were alone inconvenienced, 
it is a matter with which a stranger need not inter- 
meddle ; but, inasmuch, as such a disuse of the boun- 
ties of heaven are detrimental to the public at large, 
we may rebuke the unpatriotic spirit by which they 
are influenced. 

It is worthy of remark, that in all parts of the conti- 
nent of Europe where fruits are abundant, and cheap- 
ly procured, a greater degree of temperance in the 
use of intoxicating liquors is prevalent among all 
classes of the inhabitants than elsewhere. This con- 
sideration alone, commends the subject most forcibly 
to the general favor, and in an especial manner to 



*3\ 



21 

those philanthropic men who are devising plans for 
the suppression of that debasing and destructive prac- 
tice of intemperance. Horticultural societies are in 
a measure auxiliary to this benevolent design, in ad- 
ministering an antidote to that baneful indulgence 
which makes havoc of the mind, by furnishing a sub- 
stitute in the wholesome beverage expressed from the 
apple, the pear, the grape and the currant, as in the 
solace to be derived from the natural and ordinarv 
use of the fruit. 

Rural architecture may not inappropriately claim a 
passing notice on the present occasion. It has not 
hitherto, here, received the attention it deserves. 
One reason why it has not, is probably the unwilling- 
ness, or the apprehension of incurring an expensive 
outlay, without the immediate prospect of an ade- 
quate return. This, I think, it may be made apparent, 
is more imaginary than real. It is not to be denied 
that large sums have been injudiciously expended in 
the construction of some of our rural retreats, and 
more especially in the erection of the house, the pre- 
paration of gravel-walks, the construction of observa- 
tories, artificial caverns, fish-ponds, etc. Those who 
possess the means have an unquestionable right to 
gratify their tastes, and indulge their fancies, in such 
expenditures, but it does not follow that others, with 
more limited resources, may not procure as much 
satisfaction by a less conspicuous display of their 
tastes and their fancies. Durability in the materials 
selected, and convenience and simplicity in the de- 
sign and construction of the house, are all that is 



A3 9L- 



22 

essential for a country residence. A white exterior, 
which presents a pleasing contrast to the green vest- 
ments, the prevailing coloring of nature in her rural 
empire, is preferable to any other. The artificial 
embellishments of the exterior of the house are of 
secondary consideration. The honey-suckle, the big- 
nonia, the eglantine and the woodbine, intermingling 
and entwining their flexible branches, and attaching 
themselves by their tendrils, or other means with 
which nature has provided them, to any object that 
will afford them support, or artificially secured and 
tastefully arranged, will present a far more pleasing 
aspect than the ingenuity of man can devise, or the 
application of art accomplish. But it is upon the 
grounds that the taste of the proprietor should be ex- 
hibited, and this can be effected at comparatively 
little expense. Most of the native, and many of the 
foreign varieties of ornamental trees and shrubs, may 
be raised from seeds, and a nursery thus formed will 
in a few years afford a sufficient supply to occupy the 
borders or other places designed for their reception. 
Collections of many desirable kinds may be procured 
from the contiguous forests. The work of preparing 
the borders or divisions of the enclosure to be appro- 
priated to the location of the plants, may be done at 
intervals when leisure will permit, or when it will not 
interfere with more important duties. The gravel- 
ling of garden avenues may be dispensed w T ith. The 
ordinary soil leveled, and laid smooth with the roller, 
will present an agreeable surface with less labor and 
cost than the former. Grass edgings are preferable 



/J3 



23 

to those of box, their symmetry can be preserved with 
less care, and are less obnoxious to the charge of the 
treasonable practice of affording shelter and suste- 
nance to myriads of insects which prey upon the de- 
licious products of the vine and other rare fruit. 

We have been too long accustomed to rely upon 
foreign nurseries for fruit trees and other plants. I am 
aware that to a certain extent this is unavoidable. But 
we should depend more upon our own resources, and 
learn to appreciate them. We have suffered too much 
of disappointment, and experienced too much of vexa- 
tion from the carelessness of others to submit with 
patience to a repetition of them. We have waited 
season after season for several successive years for the 
development of fruits that were sent to us under the 
imposing title of some rich and rare variety, and have 
found in the reality that the good consisted alone in the 
name. I would encourage the public nurseries in 
our own vicinity, not to gratify any exclusive or sec- 
tional views, but because we may thereby the more 
easily avoid the inconveniences which have long been 
the subject of complaint against others more remote. 
The fear of prompt and immediate detection and ex- 
posure, will have a tendency to render their proprie- 
tors more cautious, while the liberal support they 
would receive, would stimulate them to secure and 
retain the confidence reposed in them. The imposi- 
tion that was practised upon the patriarch Jacob, who 
was compelled to accept Leah as theyre ward of seven 
years of labor and toil, for Refeeea, is somewhat 
analagous to the case of many of us. We, too, have 



'34 



24 

numbered full seven years in anticipation of the de- 
velopment of fruits under assurances as specious as 
those by which the patriarch was stimulated to the 
performance of his stipulated servitude, and, like him, 
on its termination, have found a Leah in the place of 
a R emsm , ancl have again, like him, to accomplish 
another term of years ere we could realize the hopes 
we had formed in the acquisition of the object of 
our desires. 

The public nurseries and gardens of Middlesex 
and Norfolk are entitled to preeminence among those 
of New England, and Newton and Brighton, and 
Charlestown and Milton and Roxbury, are laudably 
competing with similar establishments in other sec- 
tions of our country for the general patronage. 

A familiar acquaintance with the synonymes, and 
their identity with the fruit, is essential to the conve- 
nience of all classes of cultivators, and indispensable 
to the proprietors of extensive nurseries. It will pre- 
vent much of the confusion which now prevails, and 
tend to correct the mistakes which frequently occur 
to those who have not attended to this subject. 

If it has been the prevailing fashion to underrate 
almost everything of domestic origin, and attach a 
value to exotics in proportion to the distance from, 
and the expense at which they were procured, it 
was no less true of the products of the soil, than of 
those of the workshop and the loom. Even the in- 
tellectual labors of our countrymen have, until within 
a short period, been received with the cold formality 
with which an indigent acquaintance is often re- 



/4 3 



25 

cognised. While everything that bore the impress 
of a foreign original was sought after, admired and 
eulogised without much regard to its intrinsic merits. 
But these antinational prejudices and predilections 
are fast receding before the beaming and unquencha- 
ble light of intelligence and patriotism. : - v<v 

I have spoken of the influence that our association 
has exerted in relation to the primary objects of its 
institution. There are other subjects connected with 
its success and usefulness, to which I have adverted, 
and which should interest our attention. A practical 
acquaintance with the different departments of natural 
history will be found to be highly advantageous in the 
business of horticulture. I hope we may avail our- 
selves of the facilities that will be afforded us, to ac- 
quire a knowledge of this subject, when it will com- 
port with the convenience of the gentlemen who have 
been designated as professors and lecturers on botany 
and vegetable physiology, entomology and horticul- 
tural chemistry. I anticipate from those resources 
not only much intellectual gratification, but that, 
from their abundant stores of scientiiic attainments, 
we may be instructed and encouraged to persevere in 
obtaining a familiar intimacy with all that is essential 
to our pursuits. 

The protection and preservation of useful birds is 
a subject I would propose fpr your particular consid- 
eration. To those whose souls are attuned to the 
harmony of their music, who delight to listen to the 
warbling of nature's choristers, little need be urged to 
ensure them security in the peaceful possession of 
4 



(Zu 



26 

their accustomed haunts. But if this consideration 
is not sufficient, there is another view in which the 
subject may be presented, that cannot fail to render 
them the objects of our care and watchfulness. We 
must either encourage them, or resign our gardens 
and orchards to the overwhelming ravages of innume- 
rable insatiate insects. We must preserve them, and 
consent to tolerate their minor depredations, or suffer 
them to be destroyed, and with them all hopes of pre- 
serving any portion of our fruits. 

It is asserted upon competent authority, that nearly 
all the food of small birds from the commencement of 
spring to the middle of June, consists of insects ; and 
that a pair of sparrows during the time they have their 
young ones to provide for, destroy every week about 
three thousand three hundred caterpillars. By a wise 
and judicious enactment of the legislature of Mas- 
sachusetts, the protection of the law is extended to 
the preservation of certain kinds of birds that are 
enumerated, and a penalty provided for every infrac- 
tion of its provisions. Let this association unite in 
giving efficiency to the laws, by enforcing its opera- 
tions upon every violater, and thus shall we subserve 
the public interests, protect our property, and pre- 
serve those innocent and useful co-laborers, who am- 
ply repay us in the aid they afford, and in the grati- 
fication we derive from their presence, and in listening 
to their inspiring and animating melody. 

The pursuits which it is our object to promote y are 
not only subservient to the happiness of social and 
domestic life, in multiplying the resources of inno- 



' 3 



7 



27 

cent indulgence, and of the interchange of the kind 
offices of mutual good will, and not only tend to excite 
and elevate that taste for the beauties of creation, 
which almost of necessity leads to communion with 
its All-Glorious Author, but may be consecrated also 
to the holy purpose of rendering more interesting and 
attractive our final resting-place. 

The improvement and embellishment of grounds 
devoted to public uses, is deserving of especial consi- 
deration, and should interest the ingenious, the libe- 
ral and tasteful in devising ' ways and means ' for the 
accomplishment of so desirable an object ; and I 
deem this a suitable occasion to direct the attention 
of our citizens to a subject I have long wished to 
see presented to their consideration, with an elo- 
quence that could not fail to awaken, and with argu- 
ments that will not fail to insure the influence of all 
in its execution. 

I refer to the establishment of a public cemetery, 
similar in its designs to that of Pere La Chaise, in the 
environs of Paris, to be located in the suburbs of this 
metropolis. A suitable regard for the memory of the 
dead is not inconsistent with the precepts of religion 
or of our duty to the living. The place of graves 
affords to the serious and the contemplative, instruc- 
tion and admonition. It teaches us ' what shadows 
we are, and what shadows we pursue.' It is there 
that the heart is chastened, and the soul is subdued, 
and the affections purified and exalted. It is there 
that ambition surveys the boundaries of its powers, 
of its hopes, and its aspirations. And it is there that 



rt% 



28 

we are constrained to admit, that human distinctions, 
and arrogance, and influence must terminate. I 
would render such scenes more alluring, more fami- 
liar and imposing, by the aid of rural embellishments. 
The skill and taste of the architect should be exerted 
in the construction of the requisite departments and 
avenues ; and appropriate trees and plants should de- 
corate its borders; — the weeping willow, waving its 
graceful drapery over the monumental marble, and 
the sombre foliage of the Cyprus should shade it, 
and the undying daisy should mingle its bright and 
glowing tints with the native laurels of our forests. 
It is there I would desire to see the taste of the florist 
manifested in the collection and arrangement of beau- 
tiful and fragrant flowers, that in their budding and 
bloom and decay they should be the silent but expres- 
sive teachers of morality, and remind us that, although, 
like the flowers of autumn, the race of man is fading 
from off the earth, yet like them his root will not per- 
ish in the ground, but will rise again in a renewed 
existence, to shed the sweet influence of a useful life, 
in gardens of unfading beauty ! 



13*1 



SECOND 

ANNIVERSARY FESTIVAL 



OF THE 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY.. 



The Second Anniversary of the Massachusetts Horticultural So- 
ciety was celebrated on Friday, the I Oth of September, at the Ex- 
change Coffee House, in a very splendid manner, notwithstanding 
the unpropitious state of the weather for several days previous, which 
it was feared would prevent so handsome a display of fruits as was 
made last year. The dining hall was very tastefully ornamented 
with festoons and vases of flowers, and the table loaded with nu- 
merous baskets of beautiful peaches, grapes, pears, melons, apples, 
&c, arranged in a very chaste and appropriate manner. Much 
credit is due to the public spirit of E. Edwards, Esq., of Spring- 
field, Mass., a member of the Society, who, in addition to the pleasure 
his own company gave at the dinner table, enriched it with ten 
baskets of beautiful peaches, plums, and pears, the produce of his 
own and his neighbors' gardens. The trellis of grapes, raised in 
the open air by Mr Fosdick, of Charlestown, excited much atten- 
tion. The Hall of the Exchange was literally crowded with visiters 
from 12 to 2 o'clock. 

The Society was favored with an eloquent and interesting Ad- 
dress, by Z. Cook, Jr., Esq., of Dorchester, at the Lecture Room 
at the Athenseum, at 11 o'clock, A. M. 

Among the fruits presented, were baskets of very fine Esperione 
and Black Hamburg Grapes, from Wm. Dean, of Salem ; from J< 



/4o 



30 

W. Treadwell, Salem, Pears, Johonnot ; from T. H. Perkins, 
Grapes, St Peters, Muscat of Alexandria, white Frontignac, black 
do. ; black Hamburg, flame colored Tokay, Chasselas or Sweet 
Water ; Peaches and Nectarines, branches of Irish Ivy/y, from R 
plants raised by Col. P., from cuttings taken by himself from Car- 
jrisbrook and Warwick castles, England, a beautiful vine, and per- 
fectly hardy; from John Lowell, Grapes, black Hamburg, (one 
bunch weighing 3^2 ounces,) and white Tokay ; Peaches ; a plant 
in flower, of Musea Coccinea, has never been flowered before in 
this country; from Rufus F. Phipps, Charlestown, Nectarines, and 
Andrews Pears; from Dr Webster, Cambridge, flowers, Dahlias, 
>&c. ; from Dr Adams, Boston, magnum bonum Plums; from 
Thomas Whitmarsii, Brookline, Peaches; from John Heard, Jr. 
Watertown, Bartlett Pears ; from Dr. S. A. Siiurtleff, Boston, St 
Michael's and Broca's Bergamot Pears, White Muscadine Grapes, 
open ground; from N. Clapp, Dorchester, Peaches, natural of the 
oth and 6th generation, has never deteriorated from the parent fruit; 
from J. B. Richardson, Boston, Peaches; from E. JVI. Richards, 
Dedham, Summer Russet, Red Juneating, and Benoni (a native) 
Apples, and uncommonly fine natural Peaches; from David Fos- 
dick, Charlestown, White Muscadine Grapes, tastefully arranged 
upon a trellis ; from David Haggerston, Charlestown, black 
Hamburg Grapes and Flowers; from Eli sua Edwards, Spring- 
field, Peaches, natural, very large and beautiful, also large and 
beautiful Pears and Plums ; from John A. W. Lamb, Boston, 
Peaches; from Nathaniel Seaver, Roxbury, Bartlett Pears and 
Peaches ; from J. and F. Winship, Brighton, flowers ; from Messrs 
Kenrick, Newton, flowers ; from Ebenezer Breed, Charlestown, 
Grapes, five clusters black Hamburg, (two weighing 2-J lbs. each, 
1 weighing 2 lbs.) white Chasselas and Muscat, also flowers ; from 
S. Downer, Bartlett Pears, Porter and Ribstone Pippin Apples. 
Morris' White Peaches, four pots Balsamine, and two pots Snow- 
berry; from Ezra Dyer, Boston, Plums and Peaches; from John 
Prince, Roxbury, Ribstone Pippin Apples ; Verte longue, An- 
drews, Bartlett, and green Catharine Pears ; yellow letter Melon, 
Royal D'Tours, Plums, a large branch of Datura Arborea, in 
flower, Dahlias, &c. ; from Z. Cook, Jr., Dorchester, Bartlett 



'4/ 



31 

Pears, and flowers ; from Hector Coffin, Newburyport, Bon Crea- 
tion Pears; from Enoch Baktlett, Dorchester, Peaches, and 
Bartlett Pears ; from S. R. Johnson, Charlestown, White Gage 
and Bolmar's Washington Plums; from R. Toohey, Waltham, by 
E. W. Payne, Black Hamburg Grapes, Pears, Peaches, and Mel- 
ons ; from Wm. Stone, city farm, South Boston, a Muskmelon, 
weighing I.9-J- lbs. ; from E. G. Austin, Boston, magnum bonum 
white Plums; from Edward Sharp, Dorchester, very fine red 
Roman Nectarines; from Richard Sullivan, Brookline, black 
Hamburg Grapes; from Andrew Brimmer, Boston, White Gage, 
or Prince's fine white and Hill's native Plums, and a branch of 
Swan Pears, and a basket of Pears; from H. A. S. Dearborn, 
Roxbury, great mogul Plums ; from G. W. Pratt, Waltham, large 
Bouquets of flowers ; from Wm. Carter, Botanic Garden, Cam- 
bridge, natural Peaches, very large and beautiful, and flowers } 
from Elias Phinney, native Grapes, and Nectarines; from Ciie- 
ver Newiiall, Dorchester, fine natural Feaches; from Nehemiah 
D. Williams, Roxbury, Porter and other Apples ; from O. Pettee,, 
Newton, Caroline Cling-Stone Peaches; from S. G. Perkins, a 
dressed basket of fruit, consisting of black Hamburg, black Cape, 
and Muscat of Alexandria Grapes; and the Alberge Admirable,, 
Great Montague Admirable, Morris' White or Pine, and Landreth's 
Cling-Stone Peaches; from E. Vose, of Dorchester, beautiful 
Groose Mignonne Peaches, Bartlett Pears, Persian and Pine Ap- 
ple Melons, and large Watermelons; from Henry A. Breed, of 
Lynn, Watermelons; from Peter C. Brooks, of Medford, by 
George Thompson', gardener, large clusters of black Hamburg 
Grapes, and fine Spice Apples ; from John Lemist of Roxbury, 
several varieties of beautiful flowers ; Charles Senior, flowers ; 
William Worthington flowers, in wreaths. 

At four o'clock the Society, with their friends and invited 
guests sat down to a dinner prepared by Mr Gallagher, when the 
following sentiments were drunk. 

regular toasts. 
1. New England — The hills that gave shelter to Liberty are 
now crowned with the blessings of Ceres. 



/fJL 



32 

2. The Constiiution of the United States — The vigor of the 
stock will soon correct the saplings that may be engrafted on it. 

3. Liberty — Having completed her Temple — we would entwine 
he stately columns with the peaceful vine. 

4. Our Senator in Congress — Himself invulnerable ; he fur- 
nishes arms for the security of States. 

5. Our Controversies with the Parent Country — Let them be 
manly struggles for a more honorable union on reciprocal principles- 

6 Massachusetts Cultivators — May our efforts and success be 
in an inverse ratio to our climate and soil. 

7. Golden Apples and Golden Fleeces — May they cease to be 
emblems of discord and disunion. 

8. Nullification — \ mode of re-dressing — highly destructive of 
the black and white sorts. 

9. Horticulture and Floriculture — By which all climates and 
all soils may be compelled to concentrate their uses and beauties at 
the pleasure of man. 

10. The practical and scientific Cultivator — A man who makes 
experiments in farming and in gardening for the benefit of his 

neighbor. 

11. Diffusion of hind and of kindness — Our grapes can never be 
sour, for they will be within the reach of everybody. 

12. Woman — The industry, science, and taste of man, is improv- 
ing the soil for a more extended dominion of Flora. 

13. The fruits of the Patriots of Prance — We would return them 
renovated and more grateful to the world by American adoption. 

14. The monarchies of Europe — Vicious stocks must go to the 
Wall for improved cultivation. 

15. Cultivation in its two great branches, mental and manual — 
The latter without the former is an eddy in a stream — always 
moving, never advancing. 

16. Novelties in cultivation — Never adopted without caution? 
nor rejected without trial — for although everything Which is new 
may not be useful, yet everything useful was once new. 



/H3 



33 



VOLUNTEERS. 

By the President, General Dearborn: Lafayette— ' Without 
fear and without reproach;' the illustrious Champion of Liberty in 
three Revolutions. 

By His Excellency Gov. Lincoln. The vine, under the shadow 
of which Freemen dwell securely — May its new growth be pro- 
tected in that country, where it requires rather training than 
heading. 

By his Honor the Mayor. New England — May every farm be- 
come a garden, every garden adorned with vines — and may it be 
the boast of our posterity, that their Fathers did not eat sour grapes. 

By the Chief Justice. Education — The culture of the mind, 
which always requites the faithful laborer with the sweetest flowers 
and the richest fruit. 

By Hon. B. W. Crowninshicld. The Apple and Plum — May 
we never eat of the apple of discord, and have plums enough to 
make smooth the way of life. 

By the Rev. Mr Pioyont. A Garden — The primitive and 
perpetual scene of all that makes man great — labor and serious 
thought ; in which, having seen the smile of God in the heat, he 
may hear his voice ■ in the cool of the day.' 

By Judge Chipman, of New Brunswick. The city of Boston — 
May it preserve its high character and its public spirit. 

Communicaicd by the Hon. John Lowell. The Massachusetts 
Horticultural Society — May liberality, without a tincture of jealousy, 
and cautious and scientific scrutiny, be its distinguished charac- 
teristic. 

By Zebcdce Cook, Jr. Esq., 1st Vice President. The Press — 
Charles X. and his ' travelling Cabinet ' — the best modern com- 
mentary upon its power and influence when exerted in the cause 
of civil liberty and the rights of man. 

By the Hon. Edward D. Bangs, Secretary of the Common- 
wealth. Agriculture and Horticulture — Pursuits in which compe- 
tition excites no jealousy, and where ambition is often crowned 
with success. 

5 



/*H 



34 

By John C. Gray, Esq. The memory of Stephen Elliot of South 
Carolina — The death of an accomplished botanist is the loss of 
the whole world. 

By E. Phinney, Esq., Vice President. Rural employment — I 
gives purity and freshness to the opening bud of youth — beauty and 
fragrance to the flower of manhood— and a wholesome soundness 
to the fruits of old age. 

By Dr Thacher of Plymouth. The noble achievements of 
Horticulture — Peaches and Pears big as pumpkins, and grapes in* 
clusters like that borne on a staff by two men from the valley of 
Grapes in the wilderness of Paran. 

By Gen. Sumner. The Nullificators — South Carolina Borers — 
as nobody cares about them out of their own State, they ought to- 
be dug out there. 

By Br S. A. Shurtlef. Gen. Lafayette— The Hero of three 

Revolutions. 

Communicated by Judge Story, who was prevented by illness 
from attending the meeting : The pleasures of the day — The fruits 
of good taste, and the taste of good fruits. 

The soil of Algiers under French culture — Let them plant the 
tree of Knowledge, and that of Liberty will spring up of itself. 

By J. C. Gray , Esq. The Republics of South America — Thrifty 
plants, which have withstood fire and steel by dint of vigorous 
shooting — may they never be injured by any injudicious attempt 
at Crown Grafting. 

By S. Downer, Esq. The Second Anniversary of our Society — 
It brings with it the strengthened assurance of its great success, in 
promoting the elegant, useful, and interesting science, which it 
has for its object. 

The Recipes of our English ' Kitchener ' may suit a foreign 
taste — We prefer the prescriptions of a Yankee Cook. 
The Garden Festival — 

6 Blossoms and fruits and flowers together rise, 
And the whole year in wild profusion lies.' 

After the Governor had retired — 

Gov. Lincoln— Fearless, independent, and patriotic — May he 



/+s 



35 

who never forgets his country, be always supported by his country- 
men. 

Communicated by Jacob Lorrillard, Esq., President of the New 
York Horticultural Society : The Massachusetts Horticultural So- 
ciety — Her blossoms insure a fruitful harvest. 

Communicated by Judge Buel, President of the Albany Horti- 
cultural Society : Old Massachusetts — a nursery of Industry, En- 
terprise, Talent, and Patriotism — Her Plants have been widely dis- 
seminated, and are found to flourish and fruit well, in every climate 
and in every soil. 

Sent by William R. Prince, Esq. of Flushing, N. Y. : The Star 
of Promise — the Ancients watched its glory in the East — We 
.hail its brightest ascension in the West. 

By Dr Storer, of Boston. Our Society — In these her days of 
successful operation, may she gratefully remember the vehicle 
which has borne her on to popularity and usefulness — a Dearborn. 

Sent by Alfred S. Prince, Esq., of Flushing, N". Y. : Boston — 
Nature's favored spot, where the flowers of rhetoric commingle 
with those which spring from the domain of Flora. 

On motion of Mr Z. Cook, Jr., the Hon. Ward Chipman, of 
New Brunswick, was elected an honorary member of the Society. 

When Judge Chipman retired — 

Judge Chipman — Our new member, and the agent of the British 
Government for establishing our Eastern boundary — We should 
be pleased to have such a one fixed as would bring him within 
our limits. 

By Mr Edwards, of Springfield. The Massachusetts Horticul- 
tural Society — Success and prosperity to all her experiments. 
After the President had retired, Mr Cook gave — 

Henry A. S. Dearborn, President of the Massachusetts Horti- 
cultural Society — Under his assiduous, skilful, and energetic ad- 
ministration, this institution cannot fail to realize the hopes and 
anticipations of its founders. 



iHb 



36 



THE COURSE OF CULTURE. 

BY ®\Tj| FESSENDEN. 

Sung at the Second Anniversary of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society, 
to the tune — ' Jluld Lang Syne.' 

Survey the world, through every zone, 

From Lima to Japan, 
In lineaments of light 't is shown 

That culture makes the man. 
By manual culture one attains 

What Industry may claim, 
Another's mental toil and pains 

Attenuate his frame. 

Some plough and plant the teeming soil, 

Some cultivate the arts ; 
And some devote a life of toil 

To tilling heads and hearts. 
Some train the adolescent mind, 

While buds of promise blow, 
And see each nascent twig inclined 

The way the tree should grow. 

The first man, and the first of men, 

Were tillers of the soil ; 
And that was Mercy's mandate then, 

Which destined man to moil. 
Indulgence preludes fell attacks 

Of merciless disease, 
And Sloth extends on fiery racks 

Her listless devotees. 

Hail, Horticulture ! Heaven-ordained, 

Of every art the source, 
Which man has polished, life sustained, 

Since time commenced his course. 



j H~l 



31 



Where waves thy wonder-working wand 
What splendid scenes disclose ! 

The blasted heath, the arid strand, 
Out-bloom the gorgeous rose ! 

Even in the seraph-sex is thy 

Munificence described ; 
And Milton says in lady's eye 

Is Heaven identified. 
A seedling, sprung from Adam's side, 

A most celestial shoot ! 
Became of Paradise the pride, 

And bore a world of fruit. 

The Lilly, Rose, Carnation, blent 

By Flora's magic power, 
And Tulip, feebly represent 

So elegant a flower. 
Then, surely, Bachelors, ye ought, 

In season to transfer 
Some sprig of this sweet f touch-me-not,' 

To grace your own parterre ; 

And every Gardener should be proud, 

With tenderness and skill, 
If haply he may be allowed 

This precious plant to till. 
All that man has, had, hopes, can have, 

Past, promised, or possessed, 
Are fruits which culture gives or gave 

At Industry's behest. 



m 



OFFICERS 

OF THE 

MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



% 



PRESIDENT. 

HENRY A. S. DEARBORN, Roxbury. 

VICE-PRESIDENTS. 

ZEBEDEE COOK, Jr., Dorchester. 
JOHN C. GRAY, Boston. 
ENOCH BARTLETT, Roxbury. 
ELIAS PHINNEY, Lexington. 

TREASURER. 

CHEEVER NEWHALL, Boston. 

CORRESPONDING SECRETARY. 

JACOB BIGELO W, M. D., Boston. 

RECORDING SECRETARY. 

ROBERT L. EMMONS, Boston. 

COUNSELLORS. 

AUGUSTUS ASPINWALL, BrooMine. 
THOMAS BREWER, Roxbury. 
HENRY A. BREED, Lynn. ' 
BENJ. W. CROWNINSHTELD, Salem. 
J. G. COGSWELL, Northampton. 
NATHANIEL DAVENPORT, Milton. 
E. HERSEY DERBY, Salem. 
SAMUEL DOWNER, Dorchester. 



39 



OLIVER FISKE, Worcester. 

B. V. FRENCH, Boston. 

J. M. GOURGAS, Weston. 

T. W. HARRIS, M. D., Milton. 

SYMUEL JAQUES, Jr., Charlestown. 

JOS. G. JOY, Boston. 

WILLIAM KENRICK, Mwton. 

JOHN LEMIST, Roxbwy. 

S. A. SHURTLEFF, Boston. 

BENJAMIN RODMAN, JYeiv Bedford. 

JOHN B. RUSSELL, Boston. 

CHARLES SENIOR, Roxbury. 

WILLIAM H. SUMNER, Dorchester. 

CHARLES TAPPAN, Boston. 

JACOB TIDD, Roxbury. 

M. A. WARD, M. D., Salem. 

JONA. WINSHIP, Brighton. 

WILLIAM WORTHINGTON, Dorchester. 

ELIJAH VOSE, Dorchester. 

AARON D. WILLIAMS, Roxbury. 

E. M. RICHARDS, Dedham, 

PROFESSOR OF BOTANY AND VEGETABLE PHYSIOLOGY. 

MALTHUS A. WARD, M. D. 

PROFESSOR OF ENTOMOLOGY. 

T. W. HARRIS, M. D. 

PROFESSOR OF HORTICULTURAL CHEMISTRY. 

J. W. WEBSTER, M. D. 



/So 



STANDING COMMITTEES 



OF THE 

COUNCIL, 



0>" FRUIT TREES, TRUITS, 6cC. 

To have charge of whatever relates to the multiplication of fruit 

trees and viues, by seed, scions, buds, layers, suckers, or other 

modes; the introduction of new varieties; the various methods of 

pruning and training them, and whatever relates to their culture, 

and that of all other fruits ; the recommendation of objects for 
premiums, arid the awarding of them. 

EL1AS PHINN'EY. Chairman. 
SAMUEL DOWNER. 
OLIVER FfSKE. 
ROBERT MANNING, 
CHARLES SENIOR, 
ELIJAH VOSE. 
WILLIAM KLNRICK. 
E. M. RICHARDS. 

II. 

0>~ THE CULTURE A>"T> PRODUCTS OF THE KITCHEN GARDE>*. 

To have the charge of whatever relates to the location and 
management of Kitchen Gardens ; the cultivation of all plants 
appertaining thereto : the introduction of new varieties of esculent, 
medicinal, and all such vegetables as are useful in the arts or are 
subservient to other branches of national industry : the struc- 
ture and management of hot-beds ; the recommendation of objects 
for premiums, and the awarding of them. 

DANIEL CHANDLER, Chairman. 
JACOB TIDD. 
AARON D. WILLIAMS, 
-JOHN" B. RUSSELL. 
NATHANIEL SEAVER, 
LEONARD STONE. 



(S( 



41 



III. 

ON ORNAMENTAL TREES, SHRUBS, FLOWERS, AND GREEN-HOUSES. 

To have charge of whatever relates to the culture, multi- 
plication, and preservation of ornamental trees and shrubs, and 
flowers of all kinds ; the construction and management of green- 
houses, the recommendation of objects for premiums, and the 
awarding of them. 

-ROBERT L. EMMONS, Chairman. 
JONATHAN WINSHIP, 
JOSEPH G. JOY, 
DAVID HAGGERSTON, 
GEORGE W. PRATT. 

IV. 

ON THE LIBRARY. 

To have charge of all books, drawings, and engravings, and to 
recommend from time to time such as it may be deemed expedient 
to procure ; to superintend the publication of such communications 
and papers as may be directed by the council ; to recommend pre- 
miums for drawings of fruits and flowers, and plans of country 
houses, and other edifices and structures connected with horticul- 
ture ; and for communications on any subject in relation thereto. 

H. A. S. DEARBORN, Chairman. 

JOHN C. GRAY, 

JACOB BIGELOW, 

T. W. HARRIS, 

E. H. DERBY, 

ZEBEDEE COOK, Jr. 



COMMITTEE ON THE SYNONYMES OF FRUITS. 

At a meeting of the Society, June 20, the following gentlemen 
were chosen a Committee to facilitate a change of fruits with the 
Philadelphia, New York, and Albany Horticultural Societies, and 
others, for the purpose of establishing their synonymes. 

JOHN LOWELL, Chairman, 
ROBERT MANNING, 
SAMUEL DOWNER. 



/ f o> 



MEMBERS 



OF THE 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY, 



ASPINWALL, AUGUSTUS, Brookline. ANDREWS, FERDINAND, Lancaster. 



AMES, JOHNW., Dedham. 
ANDREWS, JOHN H. ; Salem. 3 -. 
ANDREWS, EBENEZER T.-, Boston.- 
ANTHONY, JAMES, Providence. 



BARTLETT, ENOCH, Roxbury. 
BREWER, THOMAS, " 

BRIMMER, GEORGE W., Boston. 
BRADLEE, JOSEPH P., " 

BREED, EBENEZER, " 

BUSSEY, BENJAMIN, " 

BREED, HENRY A., Lynn. 
BIGELOW", JACOB, Boston. 
BALDWIN, ENOCH, Dorchester. 
BREED, JOHN, Charlestown. 
BREED, ANDREWS, Lynn. 
BAILEY, KENDAL, Charlestown, L 
! 3 BALLARD, JOSEPH, Boston, 



COOK, ZEBEDEE, Jr., Dorchester. 
CODMAN, JOHN, " 

CUNNINGHAM, J. A., « 
CLAPP, NATHANIEL, " 
COOLIDGE, JOSEPH, Boston. 
CORDIS THOMAS, " 

COPELAND, B. F., Roxbury. 
COGSWELL, J. G., Northampton, 
CHAMPNEY, JOHN, Roxbury. 
COWING, CORNELIUS, " 
CHANDLER, 1>ANIEL, Lexington. 

^ALLENDER, JOSEPH, Boston. 

1 CHASE, HEZEKIAH, Lynn. 



ATKINSON, AMOS, Brookline. 
• c-APPLETON, SAMUEL, Boston. 
- ADAMS, DANIEL, Newbury. 

B 

BROWN, JAMES, Cambridge. 
BARTLETT, EDMUND, Newburyport. 
BUCKMLNSTER, LAWSON, Frainingham 7 
BUCKMINSTER, EDWARD F., " 
BRECK, JOSEPH, Pepperell. 
BADLAM, STEPHEN, Boston. 
BRADFORD, SAMUEL H., Boston. 
BAILEY, EBENEZER, Boston. 
BANGS, EDWARD D , Worcester. 
BOWDOIN, JAMES, Boston. 
BALCH, JOSEPH, Roxbury. 
BOND, GEORGE, Boston. 



c 



COLMAN, HENRY, Salem. 
CARNES, NATHANIEL G., New Yorli. 
CURTIS, EDWARD, Pepperell. 
CHANDLER, SAMUEL, Lexington. 
CAPEN, AARON, Dorchester. 
CROWNINSHIELD, BENJ. W., Salem. 
COTTING, WE, West Cambridge. 
CABOT, SAMUEL, Brookline. 
COFFIN, HECTOR, Rock Farm, Newbury, 
CURTIS, NATHANIEL, Roxbury. 
CLAP, ISAAC, Dorchester. 
CRAFTS, EBENEZER, Roxbury. 



I S3 



43 



DEARBORN, H. A. S., Roxbury. 
V DAVIS, ISAAC P., Boston. 

DOWNER, SAMUEL, Dorchester. 
DICKSON, JAMES A., " 
DOWSE, THOMAS, Cambridgeport 
DUDLEY, DAVID, Roxbury. 
DOGGETT, JOHN, Boston. 
DREW, DANIEL, « 
DERBY, JOHN, Salem. 

EMMONS, ROBERT L., Boston. 
EVERETT, EDWARD, Charlestown. 
EUSTIS, JAMES, South Reading. 



D 



DAVENPORT, NATHANIEL, Milton. 
DAVIS, CHARLES, Roxbury. 
DORR, NATHANIEL, « 
DODGE, PICKERING, Salem. 
DEAN, WILLIAM, " 

DERBY, E. H., " 

DODGE, PICKERING, Jr. Salem. 
DAVIS, JOHN B., Boston. 

E 

EDWARDS, ELISHA, Springfield. 
Vt VEAGER, WILLIAM, Boston. 

ENDICOTT, WILLIAM P.. Danvers. 



» 



FRENCH, BENJAMIN V., Boston. FLETCHER, RICHARD, Boston. SjKW* 
FESSENDEN, THOMAS G., Charlestown. FIELD, JOSEPH, Weston. 

FROTH1NGHAM, SAMUEL, Boston, FITCH, JEREMIAH, Boston 

FORRESTER, JOHN, Salem. FRANCIS, J. B., Warwick, (R. I ) 

FISKE, OLIVER, Worcester. FREEMAN, RUSSELL, New Bedford. 

FOSDICK DAVID, Charlcstown. FAY, SAMUEL P. P., Cambridge. 

G 

GRAY, JOHN C, Boston. GARDNER, W T . R, Salem. 

->GREENLEAF, THOMAS, Ouincy. GARDNER, JOSHUA, Dorchester. 

GOURGAS, J. M., W T eston. GOODALE, EPHRAIM, Bucksport. 

<GREEN, CHARLES W., Roxbury. GOODWIN, THOMAS, J., Charleatown. 

^GORE, WATSON, " { & GUILD, BENJAMIN, Boston. 

GANNETT, T. B., Cambridge. GIBBS, BENJA3IIN, Boston. 






HARRIS, SAMUEL D., Boston. 
HUNTINGTON, JOSEPH, Roxbury. 
HASKINS, RALPH, « 

HUNTINGTON, RALPH, Boston. 
HEARD, JOHN, Jr., " 

HILL, JEREMIAH, « 

HOLLINGS WORTH, MARK, Milton. 7 
HARRIS, WILLIAM T., « 

HOLBROOK, AMOS, " 

HARRIS, THADDEUS M., Dorchester. 
HOWE, RUFUS, " 

IIAYDEN, JOHN, Brookline. 






H 



HOWES, FREDERICK, Salem. 
HAGGERSTON, DAVID, Charlestown. 
HUNT, EBENEZER, Northampton. 
HOWL AND, JOHN, Jr., New Bedford. 
HAYWARD, GEORGE, Boston. 
HIGGINSON, HENRY, Boston. 
&HALL, DUDLEY, Medford. 
HARTSHORNE, ELIPHALET P., Boston, 
HOUGHTON, ABEL. Jr., Lynn. 
HOVEY, P. B., Jr., Cambridgeport. 
f HURD, WILLIAM, Charlestown. 



/ IVES, JOHN M., Salem. 



J JAOUES, SAMUEL, Jr., Charlcstown. 
JOY, JOSEPH G., Boston.' 



JOY, JOSEPH B., Boston. % 
JONES, THOMAS K., Roxl>ury. 



fS4 



JOHNSON, SAMUEL, R., Charlestown. 
JACKSON, PATRICK T., Boston. 



44 



JACKSON, JAMES, Boston. 
JOHONNOT, GEORGE S., Salem. 

K 



KENRICK, WILLIAM, Newton. ','' i (p KING, JOHN, Medford. 
KELLIE, WILLIAM, Boston. 



LINCOLN, LEVI, Worcester. 
LINCOLN, WILLIAM, " 
LOWELL, JOHN, Roxbury. 
LEE, THOMAS, Jr. « 
LEWIS, HENRY, " 
LEMIST, JOHN A « 

LYMAN, THEODORE, Jr., Boston. 
LOWELL, JOHN A., » 



LAWRENCE, ABBOTT, Boston. 
LYMAN, GEORGE W., " 
LAWRENCE, CHARLES, Salem. 
LITTLE, HENRY, Bucksport, Maine. 
LELAND, DANIEL, Sherburne. 
LELAND, J. P., " 

LITTLE SAMUEL, Bucksport. 



M 



MANNING, ROBERT, Salem. 
MANNERS, GEORGE, Boston. 
MINNS, THOMAS, " 



M'CARTHY, EDWARD, Brighton. 
„ #£MACKAY, JOHN, Boston. 

, MEAD, ISAAC W., Charlestown. 
MORRILL, AMBROSE, Lexington. MEAD, SAMUEL O., West Cambridge. 

MUNROE, JONAS, *« U MOFFATT, J. L., Boston. 

$9 MUSSEY, BENJAMIN, Boston. 



NEWHALL, CHEEVER, Dorchester. 
NICHOLS, OTIS, « 

NUTTALL, THOMAS, Cambridge. 
NEWELL, JOSEPH R., Boston. 



OTIS, HARRISON G., Boston. 
OLIVER, FRANCIS J., " 



N 



NEWHALL, JOSIAH, Lynnfiekl. 
NEWMAN, HENRY, Roxbury. 
NICHOLSON, HENRY, Brookline. 
NEWELL, JOSEPH W., Charlestown. 

o 

OLIVER, WILLIAM, Dorchester. 
j OXNARD, HENRY, Brookline. 



PERKINS, THOMAS, H., Boston. POOR, BENJAMIN, New York. 

PERKINS, SAMUEL G., " PERRY, Rev. G. B., East Bradford. 

PARSONS, THEOPHILUS, " PERRY, JOHN, Sherburne. 

PUTNAM, JESSE, " POND, SAMUEL, Cambridge. 

PRATT, GEORGE W., « PAYNE, EDWARD W., Boston. 

PRESCOTT, WILLIAM, « V PAINE, ROBERT TREAT, " 

PENNIMAN, ELISIIA, Brookline POND, SAMUEL M., Bucksport. 

PARSONS, GORHAM, Brighton:; PRESCOTT, C. H., Cornwallis, Nova Scotia. 

PETTEE, OTIS, Newton. f PARKER, DANIEL P., Boston. 

PRINCE, JOHN, Roxbury. '^ ^PRATT, WILLIAM, Jr., Boston. 

PHINNEY, ELIAS, Lexington. " PRIEST, JOHN F., " 

PRINCE, JOHN, Jr., Salem. / PHILBRICK, SAMUEL, Brookline. 

PEABODY, FRANCIS, " PARKER, THOMAS, Dorchester. 

PICKMAN, BENJ. T., Boston. PARKER, ISAAC, Boston. 

PENNIMAN, JAMES, Dorchester. PARKINSON, JOHN, Roxbury. 



'5~S 



45 



RUSSELL, JOHN B., Boston. 
ROBBINS, E. H., " 

ROLLINS, WILLIAM, " 
RICE, JOHN P., " 

RICE, HENRY, " 

RUSSELL, J. W., Roxbury. 
READ, JAMES, " 

ROBBINS, P. G., Roxbury. 
ROLLINS, EBENEZER, Boston 



: 



R 



ROWE, JOSEPH, Milton. 
ROGERS, R. S., Salem. 
RODMAN, BENJAMIN, New Bedford. 
ROTCH, FRANCIS, " 

ROTCH, WILLIAM, " 

RICHARDSON, NATHAN, South Reading. 
RAND, EDWARD S., Newbury port. 
RICHARDS, EDWARD M., Dedham. 



s 



SHURTLEFF, BENJAMIN, Boston. STRONG, JOSEPH, Jr., South Hadley. 

SEARS, DAVID, " STEARNS, CHARLES, Springfield. 

STEVENS, ISAAC, " SHURTLEFF, SAMUEL A., Boston. 

SILSBY, ENOCH, " SPRINGER, JOHN, Sterling. 



SALTONSTALL, LEVERETT, Salem. 
SHAW, LEMUEL, Boston. 
SMITH, J. M., " 

STORRS, NATHANIEL, Boston. 



STORER, D. HUMPHREYS, » 
. SULLIVAN, RICHARD, Brookline. 
SEAVER, NATHANIEL, Roxbury. 
SENIOR, CHARLES, " 

SUMNER, WILLIAM H., Dorchester 
SWETT, JOHN, 

SHARP, EDWARD, " SMITH, STEPHEN H., Providence. 

SMITH, CYRUS, Sandwich. SWAN, DANIEL, Medford. 

SUTTON, WILLIAM, Jr., Danvers. STONE, LEONARD, Watertown. 

STORY, P. H., Salem. Ilta^c /QSTONE, WILLIAM, South Boston. 



' SISSON, FREEBORN, Warren, (R. I.) 
i 6 SWIFT, HENRY, Nantucket. 



T 



TAPPAN, CHARLES, Brookline. 
TIDD, JACOB, Roxbury. 
THOMPSON, GEORGE, Medford. 
TRAIN, SAMUEL, " 



TUCKER, RICHARD D., Boston. 
TILDEN, JOSEPH, « 

TOOHEY, RODERICK, Waltham. 
THOMAS, BENJAMIN, Hingham. 



THORNDIKE, ISRAEL, Jr., Boston. TRULL, JOHN W., Boston. 

THWING, SUPPLY C, Roxbury. v TAYLOR, CHARLES, Dorchester. 



VOSE, ELIJAH, Dorchester. 

WILLIAMS, NEHEMIAH D., Roxbury. 
WILLIAMS, FRANCIS I., Boston. 
WILDER, M. P., Boston. 
WILLIAMS, AARON D., Roxbury. 
WILLIAMS, MOSES, « 

WILLIAMS, G., «« 

WELD, BENJAMIN, " 



V 



w 



WIGHT, EBENEZER, Boston. 

WYATT, ROBERT, 

WINS HIP, JONATHAN, Brighton. 

WILKINSON, SIMON, Boston. 

WILDER, S. V. S., Bolton. 

WALDO, DANIEL, Worcester. 

WYETH, NATHANIEL J. Jr., Cambridge. 



WORTHINGTON, WILLIAM, Dorchester. WEST, THOMAS, Haverhill. " 
WELLES, JOHN, " WILLARD, JOSEPH, Lancaster. 

WALES, WILLIAM, «< WHITMARSH, SAMUEL, Northampton. 

WEBSTER, J. W., Cambridge. K WHITMARSH, THOMAS, Brookline. 

WHITE, ABIJAH, Watertown. V WARREN, JONATHAN, Jr., Weston. 

WILLIAMS, SAMUEL G., Boston. WEBSTER, NATHAN, Haverhill. 



i5<* 



46 



WHITE, STEPHEN, Salem. 
WARD, MALTHUS A. " 
WEBSTER, DANIEL, Boston. 



WARD, RICHARD, Roxbury. 
WCLD, AARON D. Jr., Boston. 
WALKER, SAMUEL, Roxbury. 



HONORARY MEMBERS. 



ADAMS, Hon. JOHN QUINCY, late President of the United States. 
AITON, WILLIAM TOWNSEND, Curator of the Royal Gardens, Kew. 
ABBOTT, JOHN, Esq., Brunswick, Me. 
ABBOTT, BENJAMIN, LL. D., Principal of Phillips' Academy, Exeter, New 

Hampshire. 
BUEL, J., Esq. President of the Albany Horticultural Society. 
BODIN, Le Chevalier SOULANGE, Secretaire-General de la Societe D'Hor- 

ticulture de Paris. 
BANCROFT, EDWARD NATHANIEL, M. D., President of the Horticul- 
tural and Agricultural Society of Jamaica. 
BARCLAY, ROBERT, Esq., Great Britain. 
BEEKMAN. JAMES, New York. 
BARBOUR, P. P., Virginia. 
COXE, WILLIAM, Esq., Burlington, N. J. 
COLLINS, ZACCHEUS, Esq. President of the Pennsylvania Horticultural 

Society, Philadelphia. 
COFFIN, Admiral Sir ISAAC, Great Britain. 
CHAUNCY, ISAAC, United States' Navy, Brookline, New York. 
CLAPIER, LEWIS, Philadelphia. 

DICKSON, JAMES, Esq., Vice President of the London Hort. Society. 
DE CANDOLLE, Mons. ANGUSTIN PYRAMUS, Professor of Botany in the 

Academy of Geneva. 
ELLIOT, Hon. STEPHEN.. Charleston, S. C. 
EVERETT, HORACE, Vermont. 
EVANSON, CHARLES ALLAN, Secretary King's County Agricultural Soc. 

St. John, New Brunswick. 
FALDERMAN, F., Curator of the Imperial Botanic Garden at St. Petersburg. 
FISCHER, Dr., Professor of Botany, of the Imperial Botanic Garden at St. 

Petersburg. 
GREIG, JOHN, Esq., Geneva, President of the Domestic Hort. Society of 

the Western Part of the State of New York. 
GORE, REBECCA, Mrs, Waltham. 

GRIFFITHS, MARY, Mrs, Charlies Hope, New Jersey. 
GIRARD, STEPHEN, Philadelphia. 
GIBBS, GEORGE, Sunswick, New York. 
HERICART DE THURY, Le Vicomte, President de la Societe D'Horticul- 

ture de Paris. 
HOSACK, DAVID, M. D., President of the New York Horticultural Soc. 



*7 



47 



HOPKIRK, THOMAS, Esq., President of the Glasgow Hort. Society. 

HUNT, LEWIS, Esq., Huntsburg, Ohio. 

HILDRETH, S. P., Marietta, Ohio. 

INGERSOLL, JAMES R., President of the Horticultural Society of Pennsyl- 
vania, Philadelphia. 

JACKSON, ANDREW, President of the United States. 

KNIGHT, THOMAS ANDREW, Esq., President of the London Hort. Society. 

LOUDON, JOHN CLAUDIUS, Great Britain. 

LA FAYETTE, General, La Grange, France. 

LASTEYRIE, Le Comte de, Vice President de la Societe D' Horticulture 
de Paris. 

LORRILLARD, JACOB, President of the New York Hort. Soc. New York. 

LONGSTRETH, JOSHUA, Philadelphia. 

MADISON, Hon. JAMES, late President of the U. S. Virginia. 

MONROE, Hon. JAMES, late President of the U. S. Virginia. 

MICHAUX, Mons. F. ANDREW, Paris. 

MENTENS, LEWIS JOHN, Esq., Bruxelles. 

MITCHILL, SAMUEL L., M. D., New York. 

MOSSELMANN, , Esq., Antwerp. 

POITEACJ, Professor of the Institute Horticole de Fromont. 

TOW EL, JOHN HARE, Powelton, Pa. 

PRINCE, WILLIAM, Esq. Long Island, New York. 

PRATT, HENRY, Philadelphia. 

PALMER, JOHN, Esq., Calcutta. 

ROSEBERRY, ARCHIBALD JOHN, Earl of, President of the Caledonian 
Hort. Society. 

SABINE, JOSEPH, Esq., Secretary of the London Hort. Society. 

SHEPHARD, JOHN, Curator of the Botanic Garden, Liverpool. 

SCOTT, Sir WALTER, Scotland. 

SKINNER, JOHN S., Baltimore. 

TURNER, JOHN. Assistant Secretary of the London Hort. Society. 

THACHER, JAMES, M. D., Plymouth, Mass. 

THORBURN, GRANT, Esq., New York. 

TALIAFERRO, JOHN, Virginia. 

THOURS, M. Du Petit, Paris, Professor Poiteau of the Institute Horticole de 
Fromont. 

VILMORIN, Mons. PIERRE PHILLIPPE ANDRE, Paris. 

VAUGHAN, BENJAMIN, Esq., Hallowell, Maine. 

VAN MONS, JEAN BAPTISTE, M. D., Brussels. 

VAUGHAN, PETTY,Esq., London. 

WELLES, Hon. JOHN, Boston, Mass. 

WILLICK, NATHANIEL, M. D., Curator of the Botanic Garden, Calcutta. 

WADSWORTH, JAMES, Geneseo, New York. 

YATES, ASHTON, Esq., Liverpool 



/ 5% 



48 



CORRESPONDING MEMBERS. 



ADLUM, JOHN, Georgetown, District of Columbia. 
ASPINWALL, Col. THOMAS, U. S. Consul, London. 
APPLETON, THOMAS, Esq., U. S. Consul, Leghorn. 

ALPEY, 

BARNETT, ISAAC COX, Esq., U. S. Consul, Paris. 

BURTON, ALEXANDER, U. S. Consul, Cadiz. 

BULL, E. W., Hartford, Connecticut. 

CARR, ROBERT, Esq., Philadelphia. 

COLVILLE, JAMES, Chelsea, England. 

CARNES, FRANCIS G., Paris. 

DEER1NG, JAMES, Portland, Maine. 

FLOY, MICHAEL, New York. 

FOX, JOHN, Washington, District Columbia. 

GARDINER, ROBERT H., Esq., Gardiner, Maine. 

GIBSON, ABRAHAM P., U. S. Consul, St. Petersburg. 

GARDNER, BENJAMIN, Consul U. States, Palermo. 

HALL, CHARLES HENRY, Esq., New York. 

HAY, JOHN, Architect of the Caledonian Hort. Soc. 

HALSEY, ABRAHAM, Corresponding Secretary of the New York Hort. Soc. 

New York. 

HUNTER, , Baltimore. 

HOGG, THOMAS, New York. 

HENRY, BERNARD, Consul U. S. Gibraltar. 

LANDRETH, DAVID, Jr., Esq., Corresponding Secretary of the Pennsylvania 

Hort. Society. 
MAURY, JAMES, Esq., U. S. Consul, Liverpool. 

MILLER, JOHN, M. D., Secretary of the Hort. and Agr. Soc. Jamaica. 
MILLS, STEPHEN, Esq., Long Island, New York. 
MELVILLE, ALLAN, New York. 
NEWHALL, HORATIO, M. D., Galena, Illinois. 
OFFLEY, DAVID, Esq., U. S. Consul, Smyrna. 
OMBROSI, JAMES, U. S. Consul, Florence. 
PARKER, JOHN, Esq., U. S. Consul, Amsterdam. 
PAYSON, JOHN L., Esq., Messina. 

PRINCE, WILLIAM ROBERT, Esq., Long Island, New York. 
PRINCE, ALFRED STRATTON, Long Island. 
PERRY, M. C, U. S. Navy, Charlestown. 
PALMER, JOHN J., New York. 
ROGERS, WILLIAM S., U. S. Navy, Boston. 
ROGERS, J. S. ; Hartford, Connecticut. 
SMITH, DANIEL D., Esq., Burlington, New Jersey. 
SMITH, CALEB R., Esq., New Jersey. 
SPRAGUE, HORATIO, Gibraltar. 
THORBURN, GEORGE C, New York. 
WILSON, WILLIAM, New York. 
WINGATE, J. F., Bath, Maine. 






jp? 



AMENDMENTS TO THE CONSTITUTION, &c. 



At the annual meeting of the Massachusetts Horticultural So- 
ciety, held at their Hall on Saturday, September 18, 1830, it was 

Voted, That the alterations in the Constitution and By-Laws of 
this Society, with a list of the Members and Standing Committees, 
be appended to the Anniversary Address, to be published agreea- 
bly to a vote of the Society. 

At a stated meeting of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society, 
held on Saturday, March 6, 1830, at the Hall of the Society, it was 

Resolved, That Honorary and Corresponding Members may be 
hereafter elected by the Council, instead of the manner prescribed 
in the XXI Vth article of the By-Laws. 

The following Resolutions to amend the Constitution, were 
offered, to be acted upon at the next stated meeting of the Society. 

Resolved, That the Vllth section of the Constitution be so far 
amended, as that all members be elected by the Council, instead 
of the mode prescribed in said section. 

Resolved, That the IXth section of the Constitution be so far 
amended, that the Anniversary of the Society shall hereafter be 
observed on the third Wednesday of September. 

Voted, To amend the By-Laws of the Society by reducing the 
fee of Life Membership to Fifteen Dollars, including the annual 
subscription of the first year. 

An adjourned meeting of the Massachusetts Horticultural So- 
ciety was held on the 13th of March, when the following regula- 
tions for the Library and Cabinet were adopted. 

ARTICLE I. 

All books, manuscripts, drawings, engravings, paintings, models, 
and other articles belonging to the Society, shall be confided 
to the special care of the Committee on the Library, which shall 

7 



IPC 



50 

make a report at the annual meeting, on the third Saturday of 
September, of their condition, and what measures may be necessary 
for their preservation and augmentation. 

ARTICLE II. 

There shall be procured proper cases and cabinets for the books 
and all other articles, in which they shall be arranged, in such a 
manner, as the Committee on the Library may direct. 

article in. 

All additions to the collection of books and other articles shall 
be placed upon the table, in the Hall of the Society, for exhibition 
for one week, and as much longer as the Library Committee may 
deem expedient, previous to their being arranged in their appro- 
priate situations. 

ARTICLE IV. 

The following books of record shall be kept in the Hall of the 
Society. 

Number 1. To contain a Catalogue of the Books. 

u 2. To contain a Catalogue of the Manuscripts. 

u 3. To contain an account of the drawings, engravings, 

paintings, models, and all other articles. 
" 4. The register of books loaned. 

ARTICLE v. 

When any book, or any other article, shall be presented to the 
Society, the name of the donor shall be inserted in the appropriate 
record book, and the time it was received. 

ARTICLE VI. 

Every book and article shall have a number affixed to it, in the 
order in which they are arranged in the several books of record. 

ARTICLE VII. 

When any new book is received, it shall be withheld from circu- 
lation at least one week ; and very rare and costly works shall not 
be taken from the Hall without the permission of the Library 
Committee. 



r(,l 



51 



ARTICLE VIII. 



Not more thai? two volumes shall be taken out by any member, 
at one time, or retained longer than two weeks; and every person 
shall be subject to a fine of ten cents a week for every volume 
retained beyond that time. 

ARTICLE IX. 

Every book shall be returned in good order, regard being had 
to the necessary wear thereof, with proper usage ; and if any book 
shall be lost or injured, the person to whom it stands charged 
shall replace it by a new volume or' set, if it belonged to a set, 
or pay the current price of the volume or set, and then upon the 
remainder of the set, if the volume belong to a set, shall be deliv- 
ered to the person so paying for the same. 

ARTICLE X. 

All books shall be returned to the Hall for examination on or 
before the first Saturday of September annually, and remain until 
after the third Saturday of said month ; and every person then 
having one or more books, and neglecting to return the same, as 
herein required, shall pay a line of one dollar ; and if, at the expira- 
tion of one month after the third Saturday of September, any book 
has not been returned, which was taken out previous to the annual 
examination of the Library, the person to whom it stands charged, 
shall be required to return the same,, and if after such request, it 
is not placed in the Hall within two weeks, he shall be liable to 
pay therefor, in the manner prescribed in the ninth article. 

ARTICLE XI. 

No member shall loan a book to any other person, under the 
penalty of a fine of one dollar. 

ARTICLE XII. 

When a written request shall be left at the Hall for a particular 
book, then out, it shall be retained for the person requiring it, for 
two days after it shall have been returned. 



uz, 



52 

At a special meeting of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society 
held on Saturday, May 8, 1830, the following resolution was 
adopted : 

Resolved, That the four Committees on Fruits, the products of 
the kitchen garden, Flowers, and the synonymes of fruits, be 
specially charged to examine the various products within their 
several departments, which may be weekly exhibited in the Hall 
of the Society, and to furnish reports thereon for publication in 
the New England Farmer. 

At a stated meeting of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society, 
which was held on Saturday, June 12, by adjournment, it was 

Voted, That the several Committees on Fruits, the products of 
the kitchen garden, Flowers, and the synonymes of Fruits, which 
were directed at the meeting held on the 8th of May last, to make 
weekly reports on the products exhibited in the Hall of the Society, 
be requested to present them for publication, with distinctive cap- 
tions, and that they be signed by the chairman, or such member of 
the Committee, as may be charged with the duty of preparing them 
for the press. 

Resolved, that the Vllth section of the Constitution be so far 
amended that all members be elected by the Council instead of 
the manner prescribed in said section. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE COUNCIL. 

At a meeting of the board of Counsellors of the Massachusetts 
Horticultural Society, held on Saturday, December 5th, 1829, the 
following resolutions were adopted : 

1st. Resolved, That an Executive Committee of the Council be 
chosen to consist of five members, with authority to exercise all the 
powers of the Council ; and said Committee to convene at such 
times and places as may be deemed expedient, and to make re- 
port of the proceedings to the Council at the stated meetings of the 
board, and at such other times as may be required. 



/63 



53 

2d. Resolved, That the stated meetings of the Council shall be 
held at ten o'clock, A. M., on the first Saturday of March, June, 
September and December, at the Hall of the Society. 

3d. Resolved, That there be an addition of one member to the 
Library Committee. Zebedee Cook, Jr., having been nominated, 
he was accordingly elected. 

4th. Resolved, That all letters and communications to or from 
any of the officers or members of the Society, which relate to ob- 
jects for which it was instituted, and it may be deemed expedient 
to publish as a part of the transactions of the Society, shall be 
transmitted to the Library Committee, and said Committee shall 
prepare them for, and superintend their publication. 

5th. Resolved, That the four Standing Committees of the 
Council prepare lists of such objects as they may think worthy of 
premiums, and cause the same to be published in the New England 
Farmer during the month of January next. 

6th. Resolved, That allseeds, plants, or other articles, presented 
to the Society, or purchased therefor, shall be disposed of as the 
Executive Committee may direct. 

The following Gentlemen were then elected in pursuance of the 
first resolution. 

SAMUEL DOWNER, Dorchester. 
ELIAS PHINNEY, Lexington. 
CHEEVER NEWHALL, Dorchester. 
CHARLES TAPPAN, BrooUine. 
JOHN B. RUSSELL, Boston. 



RULES FOR THE GOVERNMENT OF THE STANDING COMMITTEES. 

1. It is the duty of the Standing Committee on Fruits, Flowers, 
Vegetables, and the synonymes of Fruits, to attend the weekly ex- 
hibitions at the Hall of the Society, and to carefully examine all 
specimens which may be offered for premium or exhibition. 

2. Reports on Fruits, Flowers, and Vegetables, offered for exhi- 
bition only, may be drawn up, signed, and delivered to the Library 
Committee, for publication, by any member of each Committee, 



/C?H 



54 



who may be present, in the Hall, in the event the Chairman is 
absent, and provided the consent of such other members, as may 
be in attendance, is given. 

3. No Report, awarding premiums, to be made on objects offer- 
ed therefor, until after the season of the maturity of each kind of 
fruit, flower, and vegetable, for which premiums have been offered, 
has passed. 

4. No premium to be awarded, but by the consent and approba- 
tion of a majority of each committee. 

5. All reports awarding premiums, to be signed by the Chair- 
man, and transmitted to the Library Commitee for publication. 

The foregoing Rules were read and adopted, at a meeting of the 
Massachusetts Horticultural Society, on the 2d of October, 1830. 

H. A. S. DEARBORN, Pres. Mass. Ifort. Soc. 
E. L. EMMONS, Recording Sec. 



IL 5 



AN 



ADDRESS 



PRONOUNCED BEFORE THE 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY, 



IN COMMEMORATION OF ITS 



THIRD ANNUAL FESTIVAL, 



SEPTEMBER 21, 183]. 



BY MALTHUS A. WARD, M. D. 



BOSTON: 

PRINTED BY J. T. &. E. BUCKINGHAM. 

1831. 



\L<> 



/ 



7 



Boston, October 1, 1831. 

Dear Sir, 

I had the honor, this day, at the annual meeting of the Massachusetts Horticultural 
Society, to move, that the thanks of the same be communicated to you for the interesting 
and acceptable Discourse delivered by you at the celebration of the Festival, on the 21st 
ult., and that you be requested to furnish a copy for publication, which was unanimously 
agreed to. 

Tbe Committee, who had the pleasure to invite you to the performance of the duty you so 
ably performed, are charged with the execution of the vote of the Society ; and, in pursu- 
ance of the same, I have now to request that you will, at as early a day as your con- 
venience permits, favor me with a copy of the Discourse, that it may be published. 

A compliance with this request, I take leave to assure you, will afford the members of 
the Society much pleasure, and renew, to those who heard it, the gratification they enjoyed 
on the occasion, and afford, to those who did not, a corresponding degree of satisfaction. 
With the sincerest personal regard, 
I am, dear Sir, 

Your very obedient servant, 

ZEBEDEE COOK, Jr., Chairman. 
Dr. M. A. Ward. 



Salem, October 5, 1831. 

Dear Sir, 

The Discourse, which you have been pleased to compliment so highly as to request a 
copy for the press, was prepared without the slightest reference to such a purpose ; and, as 
is intimated in the introduction to it, is little else than a compilation from the writings of 
others, wh.ose sentiments, and whose language I scrupled not to adopt, whenever they 
were found better adapted to my .purpose, than the crude lucubrations of my own mind. 
Conscious of a liability to be convicted of plagiarism in almost every page, I can only con- 
sent that it should be published accompanied by this acknowledgement ; that the Society 
may be shielded from the imputation of being accessory to the palming off upon the public, 
as native fruit, that which has been derived from a foreign soil. 

If, in the opinion of the Committee, the publication of such a composition will in any 
way promote the objects of the Society, or contribute to the gratification of its members, 
I am not sure, that the fear of acquiring no credit by it ought to be a sufficient reason for 
my withholding a copy of it from your service ; therefore, it is herewith submitted to be 
disposed of at your discretion. 

With much respect, 

Your obedient servant, 

JV1ALTHUS A. WARD. 

Z. Cook, Jr. Esq., Chairman 
of the Committee Mass, Horticultural Society. 



[(?% 



IL 



ADDRESS. 



Mr. President, 

And Gentlemen of the 

Massachusetts Horticultural Society : 

It were strange, indeed, should one with my 
feeble abilities, on such an occasion as the present, 
attempt to address such an audience as that now be- 
fore me, without experiencing some inward misgiv- 
ings, and betraying some outward perturbation, — 
without feeling the immediate necessity of saying 
something to secure an interest in their favorable re- 
gard, and predispose them to look with somewhat 
more of lenient candor on his efforts to please, than 
belongs to a rigid though a just criticism. I know 
too well the value of your time to imagine this may 
be done by a protracted exordium, however highly 
elaborated, or gracefully uttered ; but I cannot for- 
bear alluding, as among the disadvantages of my posi- 
tion, to the circumstance of its being but two years, 
since, in this place, we were instructed and delighted 
with whatever, relating to the early history of our art, 
could be drawn from the stores of a mind imbued 
with all the knowledge which a profound investiga- 



lio 



tion could bestow, and set forth by a taste formed on 
a familiarity with the purest models in the walks of 
polite literature ; and at our last anniversary, which 
seems but as yesterday, the present state, and future 
prospects of Horticulture, particularly in our own 
country, were portrayed, in glowing colors, by one, 
whose ardent zeal, whose energetic and successful 
researches, have made him a master of the subject 
he loves so well. Were I, therefore, to pursue the 
track of those who have preceded me, it would be 
the highest presumption to suppose that any observa- 
tions I could make would deserve attention. It 
would be to offer the Society a few scanty gleanings, 
after the full harvest has been gathered in. 

Other paths are indeed open, where clusters of the 
loveliest flowers and richest fruits are displayed in 
prodigal profusion on every side ; but, to make a 
happy selection and profitable appropriation of them, 
requires the skill derived from a series of attentive 
observations which I have never made, and an in- 
ventive originality which I never possessed. I am 
aware of the severe sarcasms which are often, and, no 
doubt, in many instances, justly thrown upon " closet 
naturalists." I know the peculiar air of suspicion 
with which practical men and " out-of-door students 
of nature," regard all communications emanating from 
such a source ; and I am not ignorant of the exulting 
exclamation so often and so triumphantly reiterated 
by Linnaeus, " I care not how learned my adversaries 
are, if they be only so from books!" yet, from the 
manner of my life, it is to books and the observations 



/// 



of others, that I must be principally indebted for the 
entertainment, if any there be, in what I have pre- 
pared to offer you at this time. 

It is admitted that among the various pursuits, 
which occupy the attention of man at the present 
day, few hold a more distinguished place than Hor- 
ticulture. Even in the primeval ages of the world, 
before luxury had established its control over every 
relation of human life, and the wants, and the ne- 
cessities of man were confined to the immediate pro- 
ductions of his native soil, we even then find that 
f{ the garden" was one of the primary objects of his 
industry, and an important source on which he de- 
pended for subsistence. Now, if the culture of the 
kitchen garden, as a means of subsistence, be one of 
the first arts attempted by man, on emerging from 
barbarism, so is the flower, or at least the land- 
scape garden, as an art of design, one of the last 
inventions for the display of wealth and taste in 
periods of luxury and refinement. 

Lord Bacon observes that "when ages grow to 
civility and elegancy, men come to build stately, 
sooner than to garden finely ; as if gardening were 
the greater perfection." 

I propose to make this sentence the theme of my 
discourse ; and crave your indulgent attention while 
I attempt to investigate the causes of this tardy pro- 
gress of Horticultural improvement, and point out 
the way to obviate them. 

Notwithstanding the aversion most savages man- 
ifest to working in the soil, and which in them is 



1 7^ 



8 



but the result of education, the sentiment of the love 
of a garden is indubitably natural to man. We see 
it developed in children at a very early age. Both 
boys and girls, almost so soon as they are masters of 
sufficient language to express such a want, desire a 
few square feet — some nook of the garden or court- 
yard, to be assigned them for their exclusive tillage ; 
and they soon learn to emulate each other in the 
taste and neatness with which it is planted and kept. 
Often in the closest lanes of the city, we see children 
of a very tatterdemalion appearance sedulously nurs- 
ing their miserable little rose-bush, or sickly tuft of 
daisies. This cannot be altogether referred to the 
propensity for imitation, or to the love of property, 
but must be ascribed to another, equally innate, and 
far more amiable principle. It is that the human 
heart is prone to sympathy. It must have some- 
thing, — some sensitive if possible, or at least some 
animate being, to cherish and look forward to with 
hope. "Even every Cockney," say the Scottish re- 
viewers, " must have his garden, consisting of a pot 
of geranium and a box of mignionette." 

Captain Lyon, after noticing a fact which might 
strike some as very extraordinary, viz. that on leav- 
ing his winter quarters in one of the most desolate, 
inhospitable regions on earth, where he had been 
imprisoned for nine dark and dreary months, his own 
sensations certainly bordered closely on regret ; — and 
giving as a reason, that, miserable as it was, it had 
still afforded him a kind of home, and some spots 
there had from habit become possessed of many 



/ 



J3 



points of interest, — mentions "the garden" of each 
ship, as having been, of all such places, the favor- 
ite lounge. These " gardens" were two small hot- 
bed frames, which had been brought out from England 
for the purpose, and set up on a sunny hill-side. 
"The attempt," says he, "at rearing a variety of 
vegetables, succeeded to admiration; by dint of coax- 
ing, mustard and cress — peas two inches high — and 
radishes the thickness of threads, crowned our en- 
deavors in the Heckla, to the weight of three pounds 
when all mixed together. But the gardens, never- 
theless, answered one excellent purpose, by making 
many of our people walk to observe their progress, 
who otherwise would have taken no exercise." On 
their return to England the next year, they passed 
near Winter Island about the first of September, and 
Captain Parry could not resist the temptation, though 
attended with some risk, of sending a boat ashore to 
see what had become of their gardens ; and on their 
return, they brought with them radishes, mustard and 
onions, which had survived the winter, and were 
still alive, seventeen months from the time they were 
planted. 

If this sentiment was so strong in the breasts of 
these sailors, where it scarcely could be the effect 
of education and habit, how powerful must it prove 
under more propitious circumstances ! The enjoy- 
ment of a garden is, in truth, so congenial to our 
ideas of happiness, as to be desired by all men, of 
all ranks and professions. Those who toil hard in 

the pursuit of gain, amid the dust and turmoil of 

2 



V 



n*-t 



10 



cities, commonly solace themselves by hoping, with 
the poet Cowley, " one day to retire to a small house 
and a large garden." The care of a garden is a 
source of agreeable domestic recreation, especially to 
the female sex, whose sensibilities are keenly alive 
to the placid beauty of the objects it presents to the 
eye ; and the air of retirement, tranquility and re- 
pose which settles on such a scene, is favorable to 
contemplations full of tenderness and hope. " Our 
first most endearing and sacred associations," Mrs. 
Hoffland observes, " are connected with gardens ; 
our most simple and most refined perceptions of beau- 
ty are combined with them, and the very condition 
of our being compels us to the cares, and rewards us 
with the pleasures attached to them." 

To the valetudinarian the garden is a source of 
health, and to the aged a source of interest ; for it 
has been remarked of a taste for gardening, that, un- 
like other tastes, it remains with us to the very close 
of life. Where this has been duly nurtured and suf- 
fered to produce its best effects, the grace of a re- 
fined and practical wisdom will prove an ample re- 
compense for the loss of the livelier energies of 
youth; and one glimpse of nature will repay the mind 
for the failure of its early visions, and the destruc- 
tion of the airy architecture of romance. What a re- 
deeming, and, at the same time, beautiful touch of 
natural feeling may be discerned in Mistress Quick- 
ly's description of the death of the inimitable philos- 
opher, Falstaff — whom, when all the glories of un- 
equalled wit, and the raptures of a riotous sensual- 



'ZJ 



11 

ity were exhausted — we are told that the white- 
headed veteran of the world, even in the last mo- 
ment of his life, " played with flowers," and " bab- 
bled of green fields !" 

Such, then, being the innate force and universality 
of this passion, we may well wonder at the apparently 
inadequate effects which it has produced. The de- 
ficiencies of the ancients are certainly very striking, 
if we compare their attempts in this department, with 
their glorious achievements in poetry, eloquence, his- 
tory and morals, — in sculpture and architecture, — not 
only in those arts in which chiefly the taste and imag- 
ination are concerned, but also in those which demand 
a more vigorous exercise of the understanding, such 
as mathematics, logic and metaphysics. The writings 
of Cato and Varro, of iElian and Columella, are now 
almost useless on account of the want of precision in 
their descriptions of the objects and the processes 
about which they treat ; and it would seem that, dur- 
ing the sad lapse of time, of more than fourteen 
hundred years which succeeded them, the class of 
men whose minds were not altogether occupied with 
rapine and bloodshed, scarcely ventured to see with 
their own eyes ; or rather disdained to condescend 
to aught lower than the workings of their own fan- 
tastic imaginations. Nature, — the boundless exhibi- 
tion of the ineffable power, wisdom, and beneficence 
of the Creator, — was almost totally neglected, except 
for purposes of poetic illustration ; or if referred to 
with other views, it was rather to support some idol 



/7<* 



12 

of the mind, than to discover the true character of 
her operations. 

It is worthy of remark, however, that the early re- 
ligious devotees, who austerely secluded themselves 
from nine-tenths of the enjoyments of life, never- 
theless permitted the pleasures of a garden ; and we 
are constrained to admit that the Catholic clergy have 
in all ages rendered the most valuable services to 
Horticulture. They not only wrought with their 
own hands, but were the cause of industry in others. 
The Monks of St. Basil and St. Benedict restored 
many extensive tracts to fertility in Italy, Spain and 
the south of France, which had lain in desolation and 
neglect ever since the first incursions of the Gauls 
and Saracens. No longer ago than in 1826, the Cu- 
rate of Montagano, in the kingdom of Naples, gave as 
a penance to the farmers who confessed to him, that 
they should plant so many vines, olives, or other 
trees in certain naked parts of the country ; the con- 
sequence was, that, in a very short time, what before 
was a desert, had the appearance and productiveness 
of an orchard. A recent writer asserts that there 
probably would not have been a fruit-tree in Scot- 
land till the sixteenth century, had it not been for 
the labors of the peaceful monks. " Whoever," says 
he, " has seen an old Abbey, where for generations, 
destruction only has been at work, must have, al- 
most invariably, found it situated in one of the 
choicest spots, both as to soil and aspect; — and if 
the hand of injudicious improvement has not swept 
it away, there is still " the Abbey garden." Even 



n 7 



13 



though it be wholly neglected — though its walls be 
in ruins, covered with stone-crop, and wall-flower, 
and its area produce but the rankest weeds, — there 
are still the remains of the aged fruit-trees, the ven- 
erable pears, the delicate little apples, and the lus- 
cious black-cherries. The chesnuts and the walnuts 
may have yielded to the axe, and the vines and the 
fi^-trees died away ; — but sometimes the mulberry is 
left, and the strawberry and the raspberry still strug- 
gle among the ruins." 

The author of Waverly is allowed to be a faithful 
painter of the manners of the times, and of the scenes 
he represents in his novels; and he tells us, that an 
old Monk, to beguile a tedious hour which the im- 
patient Quentin Durward was obliged to wait at the 
palace of the Bishop of Liege, before he could be 
admitted to an audience, led him through the garden, 
where he was entertained with an enumeration of 
the plants, herbs, and shrubs pointed out to him by 
his venerable conductor, — of which, "some were re- 
markable for the delicacy and brilliancy of their flow- 
ers, — some were choice, because of prime use in med- 
icine, — others more choice, for yielding a rare flavor 
to pottage, — and others choicest of all — because they 
possessed no merit whatever, but their extreme 
scarcity." 

In comparatively modern times, according to Hum- 
boldt, the Jesuits, in an incredibly short period, 
spread the knowledge and the enjoyment of all our 
common culinary vegetables from one end of the 
American continent to the other, and from the shore 



m 



14 

of either ocean to the foot of the Cordilleras. It 
seems but fair, therefore, to infer from these facts, 
that, although Horticulture may have languished in 
common with all those branches of knowledge which 
rest on the basis of experiment and observation, yet 
we cannot accuse the ecclesiastics of the middle ages 
with paralysing and suppressing it, as they undoubt- 
edly did those sciences the extension of which would 
either directly or indirectly tend to the subversion of 
their power. 

The term " Science of Horticulture," as I under- 
stand it, implies little else than a systematic arrange- 
ment and application, to horticultural purposes, of 
the knowledge derived from various other sciences ; 
in other words, he is to be esteemed the most scien- 
tific gardener, other things being equal, who is the 
most profoundly versed in all those sciences which 
throw light upon the various processes of his art. 
Now these include not merely the different depart- 
ments of general Physics, but, in an especial manner, 
the whole circle of Natural History ; those causes, 
therefore which retarded the progress of Natural His- 
tory, are, to a great extent, the same to which must 
be ascribed the slow advancement of Horticulture. 
These are in general all those grand sources of pre- 
judice and error, to which the mind of man was sub- 
ject, before released from its thraldom, by the intro- 
duction of the inductive philosophy of Bacon, and 
many of which are but too prevalent even at the 
present day ; such as those arising from the infirm- 
ities and waywardness of human nature itself ; — the 



(If 



15 



tendencies of the judgement to be biased and cor- 
rupted by particular courses of study or habits of 
life ; the imperfection of language ; a blind rever- 
ence for antiquity ; the influence of the visionary 
theories and romantic philosophies which prevail in 
the world ; and last, though not least, a slavish pros- 
tration to the authority of great names. 

But Natural History was not one of the favorite 
pursuits of the revivers of literature ; and it was 
not till long after the effects of Bacon's method of 
investigation had been felt in other sciences, that 
any very sensible improvement took place in those 
whose object is to make us acquainted with the 
works of nature. And yet the scholars of that pe- 
riod displayed a degree of industry in collecting facts, 
or rather stories, (for a small part only of them were 
true) which appears almost incredible. Conrad Ges- 
ner, the most considerable of them, is styled by Hal- 
lcr " a monster of erudition." Some other cause 
must therefore be sought to account for the phenom- 
enon ; and the grand secret which explains the whole 
is the want of system. It is system in the application 
of powers which were before often antagonizing or 
inert, and in the arrangement of facts and fragments 
of knowledge, which, like the scattered sybilline 
leaves, were without meaning or use, that has been 
the grand engine of advancement in the sciences, 
arts and literature of modern times. But as we 
understand the term, neither the ancients nor mod- 
erns, till towards the close of the seventeenth cen- 
tury, had any system in their study of nature. 



/*& 



16 



It is for this reason, that of all the plants described 
by Theophrastus and Dioscorides, not a single one 
can now be satisfactorily identified. Pliny's work is 
valuable, as collecting all that had been done by the 
authors before him ; but his descriptions are so 
vague, taken from such uncertain marks, and from 
comparison with other plants of which we know 
nothing, that, as a system of plants, it is perfectly 
useless. And in this same way, Botany, which has 
perhaps always been in advance of the other depart- 
ments of Natural History, went on for fifteen hundred 
years, till Lobel shadowed out something like a sys- 
tem of classes, which was afterwards improved upon 
by the two Bankins. But the first really systematic 
writer is Ray, whose synopsis was published in 1677, 
and is, strictly speaking, a systematic work, having 
an arrangement into classes, genera, and species, — 
though in this respect still very imperfect. His 
classes are founded on such indefinite distinctions as 
trees and shrubs ; his genera are formed upon such 
characters as the shape of the leaf, color, taste, smell, 
and even size. His nomenclature is of such a for- 
midable and repulsive character that none but the 
most studious and laborious would ever undertake to 
master it. It seems incredible to a young botanist, 
accustomed to the concise precision of the present 
day, which renders his study inviting even to the 
careless, the indolent, and the fashionable, that a 
pupil of Ray, when he mentioned a plant, was 
obliged to repeat, often, a line and half of Latin de- 
scription, — which, as Miss Kent observes, would 



/#/ 



17 

sound much more like an incantation than a name. 
We can imagine the overwhelming astonishment, 
with which the vulgar and the genteel ignorant must 
have listened, when he was pouring out these " ses- 
quipedalia verba" to designate a common weed, 
Well may we excuse them for replying, when urged 
to partake of the pleasures of such a study, " The 
kernel of your nut, for aught we know, may be very 
sweet, but the shell is too hard for us to crack." 

Again, so long as the mind remained occupied in 
no other manner than the acquisition of new plants, 
without knowing in what way to appreciate their 
respective peculiarities, discoveries continued to be 
made slowly, and to be of little value when made. 
As soon, however, as botanists arrived at the art of 
arranging upon philosophical principles, the materials 
they possessed, their attention was strongly directed 
towards supporting their respective systems by the 
addition of new objects and new facts ; — and the 
strenuous investigations, instituted on this account, 
naturally brought them acquainted with an abundance 
of subjects, the existence of which the imperfection 
of their previous knowledge could not have led them 
to suspect. 

The following statistics will place this in a strong 
light. The entire Flora of Homer amounts to less 
than thirty species. In the Holy Bible, according to 
Sprengel, seventy-one plants are noticed by name ; 
and two hundred and seventy-four are spoken of by 
Hippocrates, who was born four hundred and fifty 
years before Christ. Theophrastus, of about the same 

3 



IS** 



18 



period, whose work is the first, expressly devoted to 
plants, of which we have any knowledge, enume- 
rates somewhat less than five hundred. Three hun- 
dred years later, or about the time of Cleopatra, 
Dioscorides notices nearly seven hundred ; and Pli- 
ny, in the first Christian century, gives an account, 
collected, as he says, from more than two thousand 
Greek and Roman writers, of about one thousand 
species, — the results of the investigations of forty 
centuries! For fourteen hundred years after Pliny, 
an increase of only five hundred new species is al- 
lowed ; but in the next two centuries, when the 
knowledge of plants was assuming a scientific form, 
upwards of four thousand five hundred new plants 
were added to the catalogue ; — a number four times 
greater than had been ascertained in all the preced- 
ing ages of the world. So extraordinary was the ad- 
vance of botany under the auspices of Linnaeus, 
that, in a few years, fifteen hundred other plants 
were added to the list ; and the whole number, 
actually described at the time of his death in 1778, 
was between eleven and twelve thousand. But 
since that period, the increase has been so pro- 
digious, that the number of species of all descrip- 
tions now known, according to an estimate given 
in a late journal, is not less than one hundred 
thousand ! 

Such has been the effect of system on Botany — 
or, at least, such an effect never could have been 
produced without it. The mere Linnaean nomencla- 
ture is a gigantic effort, and itself a wonderful in- 



i?2> 



19 



strument of order and perspicuity. In Chemistry, 
where there is not a tenth part of the individual ob- 
jects to be specified that there is in Botany, the ad- 
vantages of nomenclature have been most remark- 
able in promoting facility of investigation and clear- 
ness of description ; and we find, that not only all 
the divisions of Natural History, but several other 
sciences, to which the system of arrangement and de- 
signation established by Linnaeus have been applied, 
advanced with a rapidity and extent, irresistibly con- 
clusive as to its power and efficacy. It therefore 
only remains for me to demonstrate the dependence 
of Horticulture, scientifically pursued, upon Natural 
History, and I trust I shall have acquitted myself 
of the first part of my engagement ; as to the second 
part, if the causes which obstruct the progress of 
gardening are once well understood, the way to 
obviate them will be too plain to require expatiating 
upon. 

Natural History, in its broadest acceptation, em- 
braces a knowledge and description of all the objects 
in the material universe. In this sense it will in- 
clude the heavenly bodies and their phenomena. 
These, however, though in some respects matters of 
observation, are yet so completely subservient to the 
laws of mechanics, and the mode of studying them 
is so different from what he is usually accustomed to, 
that the Naturalist long ago abandoned them to the 
Astronomer. And since the abolition of the laws of 
judicial astrology, the gardener is content with 
knowing the cause of the seasons, and of day and 



/H 



20 



night ; resting satisfied in their being immutable, 
and that the devices of man can never vary their 
order or their influence. 

Meteorology, for somewhat similar reasons, has 
also been commonly excluded from the pale of Nat- 
ural History. But this science, in its whole extent, 
has a most important bearing upon vegetable culture. 
Water and air are the very blood and breath of life 
to plants. The different states of the atmosphere as 
indicated by the barometer, thermometer, hygrome- 
ter and electrometer ; — the action of light and heat, 
whether solar or artificial, whether accumulated or 
diminished, whether applied after long or short in- 
tervals ; — the influence of the different winds, and 
the effects of exposure to or protection from them ; — 
the phenomena of clouds, fog, dew, frost, rain, snow., 
and hail, are among the subjects which most nearly 
affect the operations of the gardener, and whose 
nature and powers it behooves him thoroughly to 
understand. 

But some of the first considerations demanding 
his attention relate to the materials of which the sur- 
face of the earth, on which he operates, is composed. 
The necessity of an acquaintance with Mineralogy is 
here manifest ; — preparatory for which a knowledge 
of Chemistry is requisite, as well as for the analysis 
and composition of soils, and also of vegetable pro- 
ducts. Next, it will soon be found that the proper- 
ties of soils vary not only with the elevation and as- 
pect of the surface, but are also greatly modified by 
the nature of the rocky or other strata on which they 



173 



21 



rest, or with which they are in any way associated. 
Hence, he, who would most successfully cultivate 
them, must know something of Geology, a vast and ex- 
ceedingly interesting field of inquiry, as yet but imper- 
fectly explored, and the importance of which to agri- 
culture and arboriculture is but beginning to be prop- 
erly appreciated. To know the kind of plant which 
can be most profitably cultivated on a given soil, is 
one thing ; but to prepare a soil for the best culture 
of a given kind of plant, demands other and much 
more complicated considerations. Indeed two of the 
chief points in the gardener's art consist in the ac- 
commodation of the soil to the nature of the plant, 
and in teaching the plant to accommodate itself to 
the soil and climate. 

So numerous and intimate are the reciprocal rela- 
tions between the Animal and the Vegetable kingdom, 
that no one of them can be thoroughly understood 
without a pretty full acquaintance with the other. 
Hence, a knowledge of Zoology, Ornithology, and 
Entomology must prove of high utility to the garden- 
er ; enabling him to distinguish those quadrupeds, 
birds, and insects, which are friendly, from those 
which are inimical to his interests ; for it is only by 
accurately discriminating their kinds, and by study- 
ing their natures and habits, that he can avail himself 
of the services of one, or protect himself from the 
depredations of the other. 

There is no one class, in whose success the inter- 
ests of mankind are so much involved, as in that of 
the cultivators of the soil. By this I mean, that, as 



($<*> 



22 



food is the first necessary of life, and fine fruit one 
of its greatest luxuries, every question which con- 
cerns their production deserves serious attention. 

Now it is well known that, every year, some un- 
expected failure of crops, originating in the ravages 
of the insect world, takes place ; — that the labors 
of the farmer, and the hopes of the orchardist and 
florist are continually destroyed by these minute and 
subtle enemies ; and that, often, local scarcity, and 
sometimes individual ruin, is the result. With these 
evils upon record, and continually coming under our 
notice in one form or another, any one would fancy 
that this portion of Natural History, at least, had 
been well studied ; — that the forms and appearances, 
the habits and economy of all these scourges of veg- 
etation had been well investigated and distinctly de- 
scribed. But, incredible as it may appear, no work 
professing to give the horticulturist a right knowledge 
of the animals, birds, insects, reptiles or worms, use- 
ful or injurious to his labors, exists in our language ! 

It mostly happens, when a naturalist is applied to 
for information on such points, by those who are the 
immediate sufferers, and he begins to put the ques- 
tions which alone can enable him to form an opinion, 
he can seldom make out whether the thing complain- 
ed of is a beetle, a fly, or a moth. He is told that 
" it may have only two wings, though possibly it has 
more ;" " it may have very short wings, but perhaps 
none at all ;" and generally the sum total that can be 
positively ascertained is that " the creature looks 
very much like a grub." 



/^7 



23 



If we turn to books on gardening, even by re- 
spectable writers, how vague, and sometimes how 
absurd, are the general directions for preserving fruit 
trees " from the slug," and " from the caterpillar," 
as if all slugs and all caterpillars were alike, infest- 
ed the same trees, appeared at the same time, and 
were to be destroyed by the same means. In this, as 
in medicine, the disease must be sedulously watched 
from its commencement through all its stages ; — ac- 
curate observations must be noted down, even on 
the most trivial points ; — and finally, if the injury 
does really originate in an insect, specimens of that 
insect in all its stages must be preserved. With 
such materials the Naturalist's advice may be asked 
with some prospect of advantage. How this subject 
has been so unaccountably overlooked I know not ; 
but I do know that it deserves the immediate atten- 
tion of this Society, and might well be entitled to 
its highest premium. 

The science, however, which sheds the strongest 
and most widely diffused radiance upon the labors of 
the Horticulturist, is Botany, in all its branches, but 
more especially that of Phytology, which teaches the 
structure of plants, and the functions of their several 
organs ; for the gardener, like the physician, has to 
deal with the vital principle ; — and, like him, should 
understand the anatomy and physiology of the sub- 
jects that come under his care. This is essential, in 
order to enable him, in any other than the hazardous 
manner of an empiric, to promote their health, to re- 



l&l 



24 



cognize their diseases, and to apply the appropriate 
remedies. 

This, as a distinct branch of Botanical science is 
not of a very remote date, and, notwithstanding the 
immense force of talent which has been made to bear 
upon it, is still in an imperfect state. The princi- 
pal English writers in this department are Grew 
and Hales, who treated of the solids and fluids of 
plants ; Dr. Priestley, who brought in the aid of 
Pneumatic Chemistry ; and Dr. Darwin, whose 
" Phytologia," notwithstanding the unpleasant color- 
ing which his peculiar philosophical notions concern- 
ing vitality have thrown over it, ought to be care- 
fully studied by every one, who would manage his 
garden well himself, or know when it is well man- 
aged for him by others ; — and lastly, Mr. Knight, of 
the extent and utility of whose labors it would be 
impertinent in me to think I could inform this audi- 
ence. The principal European laborers in this field, 
are Malpighi, Bonnet, Duhamel, Desfontaines and 
De Candolle ; and particularly the late French writers 
Mirbel, Turpin, Poiteau and Dutrochet, who, in this 
path, are far in advance of their English brethren. 
Indeed, the latter advanced so far that he has been 
obliged to retrace at last some of his steps, though 
his merits on the whole are unquestionably very high. 

It is probable that many, though perhaps not all, in 
this assembly are aware that to Mons. Dutrochet was 
awarded the gold medal of the French Academy for 
his researches on the Motilite, or cause of motion in 



/r 



25 

plants, — particularly with regard to the flow of sap. 
This he ascribed to a sort of galvanism, or intra- 
capillary electricity; to the two currents of which, or, 
more properly, to the motions produced by them, he 
gave the melodious epithets of endosmose and exos- 
mose. His experiments and his reasonings were, 
however, afterwards shown to be fallacious ; and, with 
a degree of candor and love of truth, more honora- 
ble to him than many golden medals, he retracted his 
opinions. 

Another gentleman has still more recently come 
forth with the publication of a series of experiments 
and inferences, which are said to prove satisfactorily, 
at least to himself, that caloric, in its annual and di- 
urnal fluctuations, is alone the cause of movement in 
the sap. It were well, perhaps, if both these gentle- 
men had been satisfied with attributing the phenom- 
enon to an inherent vital action, without puzzling 
themselves with a vain search after first causes, — 
which always leaves the most successful inquirer ex- 
actly where he set out. 

Although observation is the faculty principally em- 
ployed in the study of Natural History, and should 
always be on the alert to surprise Nature in the 
midst of her operations, and thus detect her secrets ; 
yet, in some cases, and to a limited extent, experi- 
ment may be employed to extort them from her. 
But the Naturalist cannot, like the Chemist, regulate 
the conditions of the phenomena he studies ; nor can 
he separate the elementary parts from each other, in 

the objects he examines. Such objects usually come 

4 



f 



?z> 



26 



under his view in a complex form ; and he can de- 
compose them and analyze their component parts 
only in thought. What a variety of conditions, for 
example, are necessary to vegetable life ! If, in at- 
tempting to analyze the nature of life, we were to 
separate from it any of those requisite conditions, its 
duration must instantly cease, and the object of our 
researches be frustrated ; so that, in matters like this, 
the utmost we can ever expect to attain is but an 
approximation to the truth. 

Mere observation will, however, avail but little 
without comparison. We must observe attentively 
the same body in the various positions in which it is 
placed at different times by Nature ; and we must 
compare different bodies with each other until we 
can recognize any invariable relations, which may 
exist between their structure and the phenomena 
they exhibit. Thus may such bodies, when diligently 
observed and carefully compared with each other, 
be considered as experiments ready prepared by the 
hand of Nature ; who may be supposed to add to, or 
subtract from, each, in the manner the Chemist does 
in his laboratory with the inert materials subject to 
his control, — and herself to present us with the re- 
sult of such additions and subtractions. In this way 
we may arrive at some knowledge of the laws which 
regulate the phenomena of Natural History, strictly 
speaking, subject to our observation ; and which are 
employed by the great Governor of the Universe 
with the same determinate precision, as those which 
are opened to our view by the general sciences. 



1*1 



71 



27 

The reproduction of vegetable forms is unquestion- 
ably a vital process, but there is no reason to believe 
that more may not be known respecting it, than has 
yet been developed ; and it is possible future re- 
searches may throw such light upon its different 
modes, and the modifications of which it is suscep- 
tible from the varied conditions under which it may 
take place, as will enable art to effect a proposed 
end, by supplying and arranging those conditions. 
The whole surface of the globe has now been so 
thoroughly explored, that we can scarcely expect the 
discovery of any very important addition to our kitch- 
en, fruit, or even flower gardens ; our principal re- 
source, therefore, for improvement in this respect, 
lies in the production of new varieties. To avail 
ourselves of this, with any determinate degree of 
success, requires that knowledge to which I have 
just alluded. This field is still open to the enter- 
prising physiologist, and promises a rich reward to 
him whose industry and skill shall compel it to yield 
a harvest. 

With regard to the other departments of botanical 
science, viz — Glossology, which teaches the names of 
the different parts of plants; Phytography, which treats 
of nomenclature, and the art of describing plants, so 
that they may be easily recognized ; Taxonomy, or 
the theory of classification and arrangement, applied 
to plants ; Botanical Geography, which teaches the 
natural distribution of plants over the earth's surface, 
showing their relations to temperature, elevation, 
soil, &c. as well as the several minor divisions adopt- 



28 

ed by modern writers, such as Historical, Agricul- 
tural, Medical, and Economical Botany, — they may 
all be studied with an advantage, often essential, and 
always important, by every one who would have his 
ground or his intellect cultivated in the most pleasant 
and useful manner. Picturesque or Landscape Gar- 
dening, the period for the study of which is now 
dawning upon our country, is a subject involving prin- 
ciples profoundly and intricately connected with the 
most refined and with the most recondite specula- 
tions, which have occupied the human mind. Con- 
scious that no notice I could now make of it, or of 
the studies connected with it, would convey any 
adequate or satisfactory exposition of the subject, I 
leave it entire, for a more convenient time and a 
more able hand. 

Such then, gentlemen, are some of the most prom- 
inent features in the science of Horticulture, — and 
such its associated and auxiliary studies. It is un- 
necessary to expatiate upon the peculiar interest that 
is attached to such pursuits, even when followed 
merely as a recreation ; on the pleasant excitement 
which they kindle in the youthful mind, or the ex- 
pansion they give to the heart in more mature life ; 
on the advantages they possess in an eminent degree, 
of disciplining the intellectual powers, — training us 
to habits of quick observation, accurate discrim- 
ination, and methodical distribution of ideas; or on 
the benign influence which they are calculated to 
have upon the moral sentiments and conduct ; which 
I believe to be far greater than is commonly suspect- 



/ 



29 

ed ; for the more we trace design and purpose in 
the works of Nature, shall we not sympathize the 
more with the fitness of means to end in human 
conduct ? The more we enter into the details of 
natural operations, shall we not increase our taste 
for facts ? — which is, in other words, the love of 
truth — the very foundation of justice and honesty ? 
The venerable Bewick boldly asserts that " a good 
naturalist cannot be a bad man !" 

It has been said that ignorance in philosophy is 
preferable to superficial knowledge ; but it is other- 
wise in the study of Nature ; where every acquisition 
is useful, from the simplest perception to the deepest 
researches ; from the minutest detail to the most gen- 
eral views ; where there are problems to be solved 
which may gently exercise the weakest, or severely 
task the strongest, intellectual powers. Indeed, it 
frequently happens, that the most ingenious and ap- 
parently incontrovertible reasoning in Natural His- 
tory is overturned or confirmed by facts accidentally 
observed by the feeble and unscientific. Fortunately, 
a profound knowledge of all, or even of any of its 
branches is not essential to the horticulturist, however 
desirable it may be ; and although a slight acquaint- 
ance may not enable him to make make many very 
valuable reprisals from the dark abyss of Nature's 
mysteries, or add much to the advancement of science 
for the good of mankind, it certainly will do what is 
perhaps the next best thing in the world, — it will 
incalculably promote his own enjoyments. 



30 

The prosperity of this Society hitherto, is, I be- 
lieve, altogether unexampled ; and its future pros- 
pects are bright and exhilarating in the extreme. 
Warned by the deplorable embarrassments of some 
and guided by the happy example of other Horticul- 
tural establishments, the strong and sagacious minds 
which have conducted the affairs of ours so felicit- 
ously, to the present moment, will not be likely to 
err greatly in their management of them hereafter. 
Should heaven intercept some of them from seeing 
all their wise and tasteful plans perfectly accomplish- 
ed, they may at least enjoy the present confident 
assurance, that posterity will appreciate and be 
grateful for their labors. The amazing power of 
combinations is well known ; but has seldom been 
more agreeably illustrated, than in the formation of 
associations where the results of individual exertions, 
experiments and opinions are collected and compar- 
ed, corrected and concentrated, and the knowledge, 
thus acquired and prepared, diffused in an attractive 
form among the mass of mankind by periodical 
publications. It has been, and I think may again 
be, confidently asserted, that " more real, useful im- 
provements have been made in gardening since the 
formation of the London Horticultural Society, than 
have been made in China within the last thousand 
years." 

Even in the short space since the foundation of 
this Society, its influence has become strongly mark- 
ed, not only around the residences of its members, 



31 

but throughout this section of the country. Never be- 
fore was there so much inquiry for ornamental trees 
and for the choicer kinds of fruits, among people of 
all classes. Never before did gardening and rural 
affairs engross so large a share of common conversa- 
tion, — often entirely excluding those unprofitable and 
acrimonious discussions on politics, and those relig- 
ious controversies, which are so apt to terminate 
only in uncharitableness and ill will. Never before 
was there an opportunity for the interchange of 
such cheap but acceptable civilities, as the offer of 
desirable plants, seeds, and scions of favorite fruits, 
or the timely donation of a delicious melon or basket 
of grapes. By these means, harmony of neighbor- 
hoods has been preserved, valuable acquaintances 
acquired, unpleasant feuds have been suppressed, and 
many petty jealousies, which secretly rankled in the 
bosom, have been allayed, and may soon be forgot- 
ten. If, within the last three years, there is a decided 
improvement in the grounds of men of wealth and 
leisure, it is still more conspicuous in the gardens 
and court-yards of the middling class of citizens ; 
and even the home of the laboring poor has, in not 
a few instances, acquired an additional point of in- 
terest, to attract him from the haunts of dissipation ; 
his leisure hours are pleasantly occupied ; his mind 
expanded, and his heart warmed and softened. 

All this, it must be admitted, is more than well. 
It is excellent. Had no higher benefits accrued from 
the expenditure of the time, the labors, and the 
funds of this society, the speculation must have been 



If 4 



32 



accounted most fortunate. It is not, however, the 
simple, the rude and uneducated, who derive the 
most exquisite gratification from a contemplation 
of the works of Nature. It is the mind, which, in 
addition to refined literary accomplishments, an 
intimacy with the fine arts and the cultivated sen- 
sibilities of polite society, has added a considerable 
attainment in those scientific pursuits which I have 
been striving to recommend. The uniform testi- 
mony of all who have walked in these paths is, that 
they are ways of pleasantness. Dr. Elliott, to whom 
the Botany of this country is so much indebted, says, 
" It has been for many years, the occupation of my 
leisure moments ; and it is a merited tribute to say, 
that it has lightened for me many a heavy and 
smoothed many a rugged hour ; that, beguiled by 
its charms, I have found no road rough or difficult, 
no journey tedious, no country desolate or barren. 
In solitude never solitary, in a desert never without 
employment, I have found it a relief from the lan- 
guor of idleness, the pressure of business and the 
unavoidable calamities of life." " I have traveled 
throughout America," says Mr. Nuttall, "principally 
with a view to becoming acquainted with some favor- 
ite branches of Natural History. I had no other 
end in view but personal gratification ; and, in this, 
I have not been disappointed ; for innocent amuse- 
ment can never leave room for regret. To converse, 
as it were, with Nature, to admire the wisdom and 
beauty of creation, has been, and I hope ever will 
be, a favorite pursuit. To communicate to others a 



*-te 



S3 



portion of the same amusement and gratification, has 
been the only object of my botanical publications." 
There is not, in fact, a flower in the garden, or 
by the way-side, but has some beauty only unveiled 
to the minute inquirer ; — some peculiarity in struc- 
ture, fitting it for its destined place and purpose, and 
yet not obvious to a casual glance. Many are 
full of remembrances and associations, in which it is 
good for us to indulge. To the enlightened student, 
" a yellow primrose on the brim" is something more 
than a yellow primrose. He is, to borrow the words 
of the author of the Sketch Book, " continually com- 
ing upon some little document of poetry in the blos- 
somed hawthorn, the daisy, the cowslip, or some 
other simple object that has received a supernatural 
value from the muse." And as his pursuits lead him 
into the most wild and beautiful scenes of Nature, 
so his knowledge enables him to enjoy them with a 
higher relish than others. They are " full of his 
familiar friends," with whom he holds a kind of in- 
tellectual communion, and finds from experience that 

" The meanest flower that blows can give 
Thoughts that oft lie too deep for tears." 

In the spirit of that pure natural religion, and full 
of those ennobling sentiments which such contem- 
plations always awaken, he is ready to exclaim in 
the language of the poet, 

Nature in every form is lovely still ; 
Nothing in her is mean, nothing superfluous. 
How wondrous is this scene ! where all is form'd 
With number, weight, and measure ! — all design'd 
For some great end ! — where not alone the plant 
Of stately growth ; the herb of glorious hue, 

5 



1° u 



34 

Or food-full substance ; not the laboring steed ; 

The herd and flock that feed us ; not the mine 

That yields us stores of elegance and use ; 

The sea that loads our tables, and conveys 

The wanderer man from clime to clime, with all 

Those rolling spheres, that, from on high, shed down 

Their kindly influence ; — not these alone, 

Which strike even eyes incurious, but each moss, 

Each shell, each crawling insect holds a rank, 

Important in the plan of Him, who form'd 

This scale of beings : 

* * • * 

A blade of silver hair-grass, nodding slowly 
In the soft wind ; — the thistle's purple crown, 
The ferns, the rushes tall, and fungus lowly, — 
A thorn, a weed, an insect, or a stone, 
Can thrill us with sensations exquisite ; 
For all is exquisite ; — and every part 
Points to the mighty hand that fashion'd it. 

Then, as we look aloft with yearning heart, 

The trees and mountains, like conductors, raise 

Our spirits upward on their flight sublime, 

And clouds, and sun, and Heaven's marmorean floor. 

Are but the stepping-stones by which we climb 

Up to the dread Invisible, to pour 

Our grateful feelings out in silent praise. 



I c tl 



THIRD 



ANNIVERSARY FESTIVAL 



■OF THE 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL, SOCIETY* 



The third Anniversary of the Massachusetts Horticultural 
Society was celebrated on the twenty-first of September. In the 
forenoon a well written, learned and elaborate address was de- 
livered to the members of the Society, and a collection of ladies 
and gentlemen, assembled at the Athenaeum Lecture Room, by 
Dr. M. A. Ward, of Salem. 

Among the donation of Fruits and Flowers, which were pre- 
sented for the Festival were the following, viz : 

By Dr. Webster, Sweetwater and Isabella Grapes, Peaches. 
By Mr. H. A. Breed, of Lynn, Water-melons. By Mr. Abel 
Houghton, of Lynn, Citron Muskmelons and Isabella Grapes. 
By Mr. Samuel Pond, Cambridgeport,Sweet-water, Red Chasse- 
las and Isabella Grapes. By Dr. O. Fiske, Worcester, a large 
basket of Pears, called Chamberlain, resembling the St. Michael. 
By Mr. Joseph Joy, Boston, Brown Beurre Pears. By Mr. E. 
Vose, Dorchester, Black Hamburg, White Chasselas, and Gros 
Maroc Grapes, Capiaumont Pears, and Morris White Peaches. 
By Dr. S. A. ShurtlerT, Boston, White Chasselas Grapes, St. 
Michael, Seckle, and Broca's Bergamot Pears, and Shurtleff's 
seedling Grapes.. By Mr. D. Haggerston, Charlestown, Black 
Hamburg and Sweetwater Grapes. By Mrs. R. Mackay, Wes- 
ton, superb Clingstone Peaches. By Mr. C. Cowing, Roxbury, 
Cape Grapes. By Gorham Parsons, Esq., Brighton, Hubbard's 
Nonsuch, Pomme neige fameuse, and Washington Pearmain 
Apples ; Broca's Bergamot, and Sylvanche verte d'hiver Pears. 
By Mr. S. C. Lyford, Meredith, N. PL, St. Michael Pears. By 
Mr. R. F. Phipps, Charlestown, Andrews Pears. By Dr. Z. B. 
Adams, Boston, St. Michael Pears, and a fine specimen of 



\<\% 



36 

Hibiscus Manihot. By Madam Parkman, Broca's Bergamot 
Pears. By Mr. Samuel Downer, Dorchester, Black Hamburg, 
Red Chasselas, Isabella, Schuylkill, Troy, Nazro and Gale 
Grapes, Capiaumont, Beurre, Knox and Seckle Pears. By Mr. 
Enoch Bartlett, Roxbuiy, Bartlett and Capiaumont Pears, Rib- 
stone Pippins, and Spitzenberg Apples, Isabella Grapes, and 
Watermelons. By Mr. William Kenrick, Newton, Isabella Grapes. 
By Mr. J. Wilson, Boston, Peaches. By Mr. Daniel Chandler, 
Lexington, Fruit of Passiflora edulis. By Mr. R. Toohey, Wal- 
tham, Heathcott and Seckle Pears. By Messrs. Winship, of 
Brighton, Black Hamburg, Black Cape, Black Muscadine, Black 
Cluster, Royal Muscadine, White Chasselas, White, Sweetwater, 
Saragossa, Wyatt, Isabella and Schuylkill Grapes. By Madam 
Dix, Boston, Dix Pears, a fine specimen. By Mr. Charles 
Senior, Roxbury, one large Lemon tree, one large and two small 
Orange trees in fruit. By Mr. David Fosdick, Charlestown, 
White Muscadine and Isabella Grapes, Apples, Pears and 
Peaches. By Mr. J. Bumstead, Boston, a basket of small blue 
Ischa Figs. By General Dearborn, Roxbury, Heath Peaches, 
Marie Louise, Beurre d'Anffleterre, English Bergamot, and a 
beautiful cluster containing thirty-six Seckle Pears. By John 
Prince, Esq. Jamaica Plain, Beurre du Roi, Fulton, Dr. Hunt's 
Connecticut and Capiaumont Pears, and Hubbardston Nonsuch 
Apples. By Mr. Ebenezer Breed, Charlestown, Black Hamburg 
Grapes. By Mr. Charles Lawrence, Salem, Black Hamburg 
Grapes, four clusters weighing 24, 18, 18, 17 ounces; white 
Muscat Reisling or Clairette de Limoux, Petit Rauschling and 
Gray Burgundy Grapes ; St. Michael Pears, and Kennedy's Car- 
olina Clingstone Peaches. By Zebedee Cook, Jr. Esq., Dor- 
chester, Black Hamburg, White Muscat, Barcelona, Constantia. 
Catawba and Isabella Grapes, Seckle Pears, Watermelons, one 
weighing thirty-eight pounds, and four varieties of Muskmelons, 
By Mr. Thomas Whitmarsh, Brookline, large Carolina Water- 
melons. By S. G. Perkins, Esq., Brookline, White Muscat, 
Muscat of Alexandria, and Black Cape Grapes ; Belle de Vitry 
(superb) Royal George, and Morris's Lucien's White Rare-ripe 
Peaches ; a potted branch of W^hite Chasselas Grapes, containing, 
wood of the years 1831, and wood which in ordinary culture, 
would have appeared in 1832, 33, 34, with the fruit of the last 
three years thereon, that of the present year having been gath- 
ered. By Hon. Richard Sullivan, Brookline, Black Hamburg, 
Sweetwater, and an unknown kind of Grapes. By Alderman 
Hall, of New- York, a basket of large and handsome Pears, name 
unknown. 



/ 



?f 



37 

The following letter from the Hon. O. Fiske, was sent with 
his donation of Chamberlain Pears, mentioned above. 

Worcester, September 16, 1831. 
My Dear Sir, 

I exceedingly regret that an engagement with the Governor as a Com- 
mittee to examine White Mulberry Nurseries for a premium, in various 
parts of the county (postponed on account of the weather) must deprive me 
of the pleasure of meeting my Horticultural friends at our Annual Festival. 
I, however, avail myself of the occasion to forward for their inspection a 
basket of native Pears. Although the produce of a farm within two miles 
of me, I was in ignorance of their existence until yesterday, when I re- 
quested the owner to preserve the gleanings of thirty bushels, which the 
tree had borne, for my use. I was on the ground to-day, and found the 
tree about fifteen inches in diameter near the ground, with a moderate de- 
crease for eight feet, when it struck off into a perpendicular, and two later- 
al branches, giving it a well proportioned and well balanced top. Although 
it had the appearance of age, there was not a scar on the body, or a dead, 
or a diseased limb, to be seen. I considered it as the best conditioned tree, 
for its age, I had ever noticed. On the most careful inspection it had every 
appearance of a native. 

The account I obtained from the present owner, was, that the farm for- 
merly belonged to a Deacon Chamberlain, one of whose sons found it in a 
pasture, some distance from the house, where his cattle had their range, and 
transplanted it to its present situation. 

I called on General Chamberlain, a grandson of the Deacon, who owns 
an adjoining farm. He corroborated the above statement, and added that 
the tree was removed above sixty years ago by his uncle Jacob, now liv- 
ing, and from that circumstance the fruit has always been called the 
"Jacob's Pear." It is generally a free bearer; and has never been 
known wholly to fail. As a table fruit, from the redundancy of its saccha- 
rine quality, and destitution of flavor, it will, doubtless, be considered as 
inferior to many of our varieties of native Pears. But for all domestic uses 
which in a family are of primary importance, I doubt whether it can be ex- 
celled. It comes in use when fruit of this character is not readily obtain- 
ed. I was told that it retains its form and size when baked, and gives a 
red and rich pulp. It is, moreover, longer in eating than most other kinds, 
as may be judged by the sample. 

Should the Committee think proper to give it a place, in their nomencla- 
ture, I would suggest the propriety of calling it the Chamberlain Pear. 
Respectfully your friend and servant, 

O. FISKE. 

Zebedee Cook, Jr., Esq. 



The following Letter from S. G. Perkins, Esq. was sent to- 
gether with the Fruit, &,c. presented by the gentleman. 

Broohline, September 21, 1831. 
Zebedee Cook, Jr., Esq., 
Chairman of the Committee of Arrangements, 

Dear Sir, 

I herewith send you a branch of the White Chasselas Vine, containing 
the wood of the years 1831, 1832, 1833, and 1834, with the fruits of the 
three last years attached to their respective shoots — that of the present year 
having been long since gathered and eaten. 

You will perceive, therefore, that this Vine has borne this season, the 
fruits of four years ; which may be considered by some of your guests an 



oLoo 



38 

object of curiosity, and I apprehend must be new to most of them. The 
wood of 1832, has one bunch of grapes only ; that of 1833, has two bunch- 
es ; and that of 1834, has three bunches. The first is ripe ; the second 
nearly so ; and the last, as you will see, quite small. There may be uses 
drawn from this fact which every gardener, who is acquainted with the cul- 
ture of the Grape Vine, will readily see ; and as it is in the power of every 
one to produce the same result, they may ascertain the species of grape 
they are cultivating one, two, or even three years before the vine in its 
natural course, would produce its fruit. 

Respectfully your obedient servant, 

SAMUEL G. PERKINS. 



At four o'clock, the Society, with their guests, consisting in all 
of about two hundred, sat down to a dinner, prepared by Mr. 
Eaton, at Concert Hall. This repast was all that could gratify 
the most keen, as well as please the most fastidious, appetite. It 
was served with a promptitude and precision, and attention to the 
wants and wishes of every individual, but rarely witnessed in an 
entertainment, given to so large a party. The Hon. Henry A. 
S. Dearborn, President of the Society, presided at the table, and 
was assisted as Toast-master by Zebedee Cook, Jr., Esq., first 
Vice-President of the Society. The entertainment exhibited a 
feast of intellect and a festival of wit, as well as choice viands, 
for those who are inclined to mingle the repast of the senses with 
the " flow of soul." The following regular toasts were drank. 

1. Our country — Where each exotic finds support — where nothing but 
the willow weeps. 

2. Massachusetts — In peace she furnishes Grapes for her friends — in war, 
Grape-shot for her enemies. 

3. The Massachusetts Horticultural Society — By introducing new modes 
and articles of culture, we hope to add new links to the chain of social be- 

in £- 

4. Political Horticulture — Which has shown experimentally that the 
Flower de luce does not succeed well in France, nor the Orange in 
Belgium. 

5. The Poles — Principle as well as Patriotism awakens sympathy in their 
heroic struggle — since it is the duty of every free citizen " to go to the 
polls." 

6. The Russian Grand Duke and the Portuguese Tyrant — We would not 
exchange a St. Michael 's pear , for a, pair of such Michaels. 

7. Lafayette — an anomaly in Cultivation — A Tree vigorous at 74 — whose 
grafts will survive the parent stock, and perpetuate the original flavor of its 
fruit. 

8. Our Alma Mater — Constant improvements in this original Nursery, 
until every Scion surpass the best of our Seedlings. 

9. The Two Websters — One an X-pounder of the American Language — 
the other a 76-pounder of the American Constitution. 

10. The Industry of New-England — The braiding of palm leaves and the 
spinning of cotton have shown that what we do not produce we render pro- 
ductive. 



£al 



39 

11. Our Festivals — While we draw from Vineyards in Europe, and from 
Plantations at the Tropics, we have satisfactory proofs of a good Kitchen 
Garden at home. 

12. Eden — The first abode of the living — Mount Auburn, the last resting 
place of the dead. If the Tree of Life sprung from the soil of the one, Im- 
mortality shall rise from the dust of the other. 

13. Cultivation, Commerce, and Manufactures — They must be co-existent, 
and we hope, in this country, they will be co-eternal. 

VOLUNTEER TOASTS. 

By Henry A. S. Dearborn, President. Rural and Intellectual Cultiva- 
tion — The rival labor of Hercules in the Hesperian Garden, rewarded with 
golden apples and the fruits of immortality. 

By Doctor Ward, of Salem. The Flora and Pomona of New-England — 
The man of science may plant, the man of wealth may water, but the man 
of practical skill must give the increase. Success to them all. 

By Rev. J. Pierpont. The tables turned since man first attended to 
Horticulture — then he had his worst fall in the Garden — now he has his 
best Garden in the Fall. 

By Mr. Assur, (a native of Poland.) The Poles — In America, they are 
necessary for the cultivation of Hojjs — In Europe, the Russians are taught 
by them a quicker step — -flight. 

By Hon. Nathan Appleton. Cultivation — 'The only process of obtaining 
Fruit, whether applied to Mind or Matter. 

By E. Vose, Esq. Belgium — The land of Van Mons ; in return for the 
scions of its fine fruits, we offer to it scions from our own Tree of Liberty. 

By E. Bartlett, Esq., Second Vice-President. Our Country — May those 
who administer the government remember that the Apple of Discord 
should never be cultivated. 

By Hon. Judge Davis. Our Modern Druids, who turn Forests into 
Fields, unite the Garden with the Grove, and are such decided Utilitarians 
as to prefer Maize to Mistletoe. 

By Samuel Appleton, Esq. The Garden of Eden — lost to Mankind by 
the curiosity of Woman — regained for Womankind by Horticultural 
Societies. 

By Thomas G. Fessenden. The Hon. John Lowell — the Patriarch of Im- 
proved Husbandry — his influence, precepts and examples have ameliorated 
the Farms and Gardens, and deserve the grateful acknowledgements of 
every New-England Cultivator. 

By a Member. The Orator of the Day — He has presented us this day, to 
use his own language, a nut of the sweetest kernel, and happily easy to 
crack. 

By Dr. Bigelow. Bunker Hill Monument — We regret to find that it re- 
sembles in nothing the worthies whom it commemorates, except in having 
come to an obstinate stand. 

By Zebedee Cook, Jr., Esq., First Vice-President, (after the President 
had retired.) Henry A. S. Dearborn, the President of the Massachusetts 
Horticultural Society — The scientific and practical Cultivator — the annals of 
our Institution attest the value of his labors ; the gratitude of his co-opera- 
tors is cheerfully and liberally accorded him. 

By a Member. Gorham Parsons, Esq. — a distinguished patron of the 
sister sciences, Agriculture and Horticulture. 

TRANSMITTED. 

By William Prince, Senior Proprietor of the Linnaean Botanic Garden. 
The Hon. John Lowell — the distinguished patron and benefactor of Horti- 
culture. 



<£c3-> 



40 

By William Robert Prince. The Horticulturists of Poland — May the 
Tree of Liberty, which they have so gloriously planted, overshadow and 
exterminate all germs of despotism. 

By Alfred S. Prince. Flora and Pomona. Alike animating the hearts 
of their votaries in every clime. 

THE FEAST OF FRUITS AND FLOWERS. 

BY THOMAS G. FESSENDEN, ESQ. 
Sung during the entertainment by Mr. J. W, Newell, of Charlestown. 

Come, Cultivators, leave awhile 

Your Gardens, Fields and Bowers, 
And join with us to celebrate 

Our Feast of Fruits and Flowers ; 
With blameless luxury enjoy 

Rich products of the soil, 
Rewards, which crown the Art of Arts, 

When skill enlightens toil. 

What though within our temperate zone, 

No burning sun sublimes 
The Fruits the Destinies bestow 

On pestilential climes ? 
All health and happiness require, 

All man should ask of heaven 
To satiate innocent desire 

Is in profusion given. 

The worst privations we endure 

Prove blessings in the event, 
And should our gratitude excite 

Instead of discontent ; 
For ills which task our highest powers 

To conquer or evade 
But bid the human race aspire 

To reach its highest grade. 

No imps of sloth lie basking here, 

Like serpents in the sun, 
Even mountain streams to turn machines 

Must labor as they run ; 
Within New-England's granite bounds 

No useless beings lurk, 
The rough and raging elements 

We yoke and set to work. 

When sentimental zephyrs blow 

For love and rhyming fit, 
Our windmills make them work like dogs 

Compelled to turn the spit ; 
Niagara's thundering cataract 

Our power shall hamper till 
It toils like Dutchman in a ditch 

Or Samson in his mill. 



41 

Since fire and water, harnessed here, 

Compose a Yankee team, 
Perhaps our General Government 

Might go as well by steam ; 
But as this case were better brought 

Before some higher court, 
'Tis left for Congress, when they meet, 

To argue and report. 

The Lime nor Olive will not grow 

Spontaneous here — what then ? 
We've hearts of oak and nerves of steel 

In noble crops • f men ; 
Our plant called Female Excellence 

No hot-bed culture needs 
To yield sublunar Seraphim 

Of pure celestial breeds. 

When winter dissipates the heat, 

Beneath an iron sky, 
Hot-houses with hot water fraught 

Caloric will supply ; 
Thus gardeners by and by will make 

Fine climates of their own, 
And raise, by manufactured heat, 

The plants of every zone : — 

With Lime and Sulphur doctor off 

Vile insects by the host, 
Till Art, at length, of Nature's plagues 

Completely chars the coast. 
Thus every blessing may be ours 

Which Providence has given 
To every land and clime beneath 

The canopy of Heaven. 



6 



Aoj 



PROCEEDINGS 



OF THE 

MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY, 

AT A MEETING HELD AT THE HALL OF THE INSTITUTION, 
ON SATURDAY, OCTOBER 1, 1831. 



THE FOLLOWING OFFICERS WERE ELECTED FOR THE ENSUING YEAR 

PRESIDENT. 

HENRY A. S. DEARBORN, Roxbury. 

VICE-PRESIDENTS. 

ZEBEDEE COOK, Jr. Dorchester, 
JOHN C. GRAY, Boston. 
ENOCH BARTLETT, Roxbury. 
ELIAS PHINNEY, Lexington. 

TREASURER. 

CHEEVER NEWHALL, Boston. 

CORRESPONDING SECRETARY. 

JACOB BIGELOW, M. D. Boston. 

RECORDING SECRETARY. 

ROBERT L. EMMONS, Boston. 

COUNSELLORS. 

AUGUSTUS ASPINWALL, BrooJcline. 

THOMAS BREWER, Roxbury. 

HENRY A. BREED, Lynn. 

BENJAMIN W. CROWNINSHIELD, Salem. 

J. G. COGSWELL, Northampton. 

NATHANIEL DAVENPORT, Milton. 

E, HERSEY DERBY, Salem. 






43 

SAMUEL DOWNER, Dorchester, 

OLIVER FISKE, Worcester. 

B. V. FRENCH, Boston. 

J. M. GOURGAS, Weston. 

T. W. HARRIS, M. D. Cambridge. 

SAMUEL JAQUES, Jr. Charlestown. 

JOSEPH G. JOY, Boston. 

WTLLIAM KENRICK, Newton. 

JOHN LEMLST, Roxbury. 

S. A. SHURTLEFF, Boston, 

E. M. RICHARDS, DedJiam. 

BENJAMIN RODMAN, New-Bedford. 

JOHN B. RUSSELL, Boston. 

CHARLES SENIOR, Roxbury. 

WILLIAM H. SUMNER, Dorchester. 

CHARLES TAPPAN, Boston. 

JACOB TIDD, Roxbury. 

M. A. WARD, M. D. Salem. 

JONATHAN WINSHIP, Brighton. 

WILLIAM WORTHINGTON, Dorchester. 

ELIJAH VOSE, Dorchester. 

AARON D. WILLIAMS, Roxbury. 

J. W. WEBSTER, Cambridge. 

GEORGE W. PRATT, Boston. 

E. W. PAYNE, Boston. 

GEORGE W. BRIMMER, Boston. 

PROFESSOR OP ROTANY AND VEGETABLE PHYSIOLOGY. 

MALTHUS A. WARD, M. D. 

PROFESSOR OF ENTOMOLOGY. 

T. W, HARRIS, M. D. 

PROFESSOR OF HORTICULTURAL CHEMISTRY, 

J, W. WEBSTER, M D. 



&6& 



44 

STANDING COMMITTEES OF THE COUNCIL. 

I. 

ON FRUIT TREES, FRUITS, &-C. 

To have charge of whatever relates to the multiplication of 
fruit trees and vines, by seed, scions, buds, layers, suckers, or 
other modes ; the introduction of new varieties ; the various 
methods of pruning and training them, and whatever relates to 
their culture, and that of all other fruits ; the recommendation of 
objects for premiums, and the awarding of them. 

E. VOSE, Chairman. 
SAMUEL DOWNER, 
OLIVER FISKE, 
ROBERT MANNING, 
CHARLES SENIOR, 
WILLIAM KENRICK, 
K M. RICHARDS, 
B. V. FRENCH. 
S. A. SHURTLEFF. 

II. 

ON THE CULTURE AND PRODUCTS OF THE KITCHEN GARDEN. 

To have the charge of whatever relates to the location and man- 
ment of Kitchen Gardens ; the cultivation of all plants appertain- 
ing thereto ; the introduction of new varieties of esculent, medici- 
nal, and all such vegetables as arc useful in the arts or are sub- 
servient to other branches of national industry ; the structure and 
management of hot-beds ; the recommendation of objects for 
premiums, and the awarding of them. 

DANIEL CHANDLER, Chairman. 
JACOB TIDD, 
AARON D. WILLIAMS, 
JOHN B. RUSSELL, 
NATHANIEL SEAVER, 
LEONARD STONE. 

III. 

ON ORNAMENTAL TREES, SHRUBS, FLOWERS, AND GREEN-HOUSES. 

To have charge of whatever relates to the culture, multiplica- 
tion, and preservation of ornamental trees and shrubs, and flow- 
ers of all kinds ; the construction and management of green- 
houses, the recommendation of objects for premiums, and the 
awarding of them. 

ROBERT L. EMMONS, Chairman. 

JONATHAN WINSHIP, 

JOSEPH G. JOY, 

DAVID HAGGERSTON, 

GEORGE W. PRATT. 



Ao> 



i 



45 
IV. 

ON THE LIBRARY. 

To have charge of all books, drawings, and engravings, and 
to recommend from time to time such as it may be deemed ex- 
pedient to procure ; to superintend the publication of such 
communications and papers as may be directed by the council ; 
to recommend premiums for drawings of fruits and flowers, and 
plans of country houses, and other edifices and structures con- 
nected with horticulture ; and for communications on any sub- 
ject in relation thereto. 

H. A. S. DEARBORN, Chairman. 

JOHN C. GRAY, 

JACOB BIGELOW, 

T. W. HARRIS, 

E. H. DERBY, 

ZEBEDEE COOK, Jr. 

V. 

ON THE SYNONYMS OF FRUITS. 

At a meeting of the Society, June 20, the following gentle- 
men were chosen a Committee to facilitate a change of fruits with 
the Philadelphia, New- York, and Albany Horticultural Societies, 
and others, for the purpose of establishing their synonyms. 

JOHN LOWELL, Chairman. 
ROBERT MANNING, 
SAMUEL DOWNER. 

VI. • 

ON THE GARDEN AND CEMETERY. 

Hon. JUDGE STORY, Chairman. 
H. A. S. DEARBORN, 
JACOB BIGELOW, M. D. 
G. W. BRIMMER, 
GEORGE BOND, 
EDWARD EVERETT, 
ZEBEDEE COOK, Jr. 
B. A. GOULD, 
G. W. PRATT. 

VII. 

EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE OF THE COUNCIL. 

ZEBEDEE COOK, Jr. Chairman. 
G. W. PRATT, 
CHEEVER NEWHALL, 
CHARLES TAPPAN, 
JOSEPH P. BRADLEE. 



4^©^ 



46 



The President read the following Report of the Cemetery and 
Garden Committee, which was accepted. 

The committee on laying out the grounds and forming a plan 
of the experimental Garden, and Cemetery of Mount Auburn, 
respectfully 

REPORT : 

That measures were promptly taken for accomplishing those 
objects, and, although considerable progress has been made, it 
will require further time to complete the work. 

Alexander Wadsworth, Esq. a skilfull civil engineer, was em- 
ployed to make an accurate topographical survey, and to locate 
the numerous avenues, which it was found necessary to establish, 
through the extensive and beautifully diversified grounds of the 
Cemetery and Garden, both for convenience and embellishment. 
The map has been so far perfected, that it is submitted for in- 
spection, and to exhibit the general outlines of the projected im- 
provements ; but considerable labor is yet required in clearing 
out the principal carriage avenues and foot paths, before the 
sites of the public and private cemetery squares can be definite- 
ly established, and designated on the plan. 

Models and drawings of the Egyptian gateways, and of a 
Gothic tower, and a Grecian tower, one of which is proposed to 
be erected on the highest hill, have been made, and are offered 
for examination. 

It has been ascertained that the most lofty eminence is one 
hundred and twenty-five feet above Charles river, which grace- 
ful!^ sweeps round its gently sloping base ; and, when crowned 
by the proposed tower, will become a most interesting place 
of resort, as commanding an extensive panoramic view of that 
richly variegated region of magnificent scenery, embraced with- 
in the far distant heights which encircle the metropolis, and the 
waves of the ocean, while it will present a prominent and im- 
posing feature in the landscape, of which it becomes the centre. 

At some future period, when the munificence of the citizens 
shall be commensurate with their debt of patriotic gratitude, this 
structure may perhaps give place for a stupendous monument, 
to the most illustrious benefactor of his country ; — there will be 
reared the cenotaph of Washington, in massive blocks of granite 
or ever-during marble. Should the funds hereafter justify it, a 
Doric Temple, to be used as a chapel for the performance of 
funereal rites, and lodges for the gardener and superintendent 
of the Cemetery, are contemplated, and designs are in progress 
for each. 

As the season for rural labor is far advanced, it is not con- 
sidered expedient to commence the construction of the ave- 
nues, before the next spring ; but they can be divested of the 



^ca Q 



/ 



47 

underwood, and the whole of the grounds so far cleared up, as to 
give them the appearance of a park, during the present autumn. 
It is expected that the lots may be assigned within twenty days. 

The committee has been cheered in the discharge of its du- 
ties, by the deep interest which has been manifested for the suc- 
cess of an undertaking, so important to the prosperity of the 
Horticultural Society and so honorable to the country. Such is 
the exalted estimation in which it is held by the public, — so 
universal is the approbation, — so intense the interest, that, be- 
side the constant requests for permission to become subscribers, 
by the more affluent, numerous applications have been made for 
cemetery lots, by farmers, mechanics and dealers in building 
materials, on condition, that they may be paid for in labor, or 
such articles as shall be required in the prosecution of the pro- 
posed improvements. Within a few days, offers have been made 
to a considerable amount ; and as it was the intention and is 
the anxious desire of the Society, that every citizen should have 
an opportunity of participating in the advantages of the establish 
ment, the committee has availed of the services thus tendered 
in executing much of the work which has been performed, and 
there is not a doubt, that a very considerable portion of the ex- 
pense in constructing roads, fences, gateways and the various 
other edifices, may be defrayed, by a compensation in cemetery 
lots ; this will not only be a great accommodation to numerous 
individuals, who are desirous to become subscribers, but be 
highly advantageous to the Society : it is therefore recommended 
that the committee be authorized, to prosecute such improve- 
ments, as may be deemed necessary, on these reciprocally ben- 
eficial terms. 

With the view of fully meeting the expectations and exigen- 
cies of the community, it is considered advisable that sites for 
single graves should be designated, in various parts of the ceme- 
tery, embracing all the diversified localities, to afford an oppor- 
tunity for individuals, who have no families, and the friends of 
such strangers as may be wept and honored far distant from their 
native land, to procure eligible places of sepulchre, on reason- 
able terms. 

As the tract which has been solemnly consecrated, by relig- 
ious ceremonies, as a burial-place forever, is so abundantly cov- 
ered with forest trees, many of which are more than sixty years 
old, it only requires the avenues to be formed, the borders, for 
some ten feet in width, planted with shrubs, bulbous and peren- 
nial flowers, the underwood cleared out, the fences, gateways 
and appropriate edifices erected, to put the grounds in a suf- 
ficiently complete state for the uses designed, and to render 
them at once beautiful and interesting. All this can be done 
within two years, at a comparatively small expense, and a result 



JLIO 



48 

produced which could not have been realized for forty years, if 
it had been necessary to have commenced the establishment, 
by planting out forest trees. There are numerous majestic oaks, 
pines, beeches and walnuts, which have braved the storms of a 
century. Towering aloft amidst the general verdure, and ex- 
tending their huge branches far and wide, they appear as the 
venerable monarchs of the grove, but still exhibit the vigor of 
their luxuriant progeny, which, in umbrageous contiguity, cover 
each hill and plain and sloping vale, and form many an 

-' alley green, 



Dingle, or bushy dell, in this wild wood, 
And many a bosky bourn, from side to side.' 

The Garden also, can be very considerably advanced, within 
the same short period which will suffice for developing the im- 
provements of the Cemetery. The nurseries may be established, 
the departments for culinary vegetables, fruit, and ornamental 
trees, shrubs and flowers, laid out and planted, a green house 
built, hot-beds formed, the small ponds and morasses converted 
into picturesque sheets of water, and their margins diversified 
by clumps and belts of our most splendid native flowering trees, 
and shrubs, requiring a soil thus constituted for their successful 
cultivation, while their surface may be spangled with the brilliant 
blossoms of the Nymphae, and the other beautiful tribes of aquat- 
ic plants. The excavations for deepening and enlarging the 
ponds and morasses will afford inexhaustible sources of manure, 
of invaluable consequence to the Garden, as well as for those 
portions of the Cemetery which will be embellished by cultivated 
plants. 

From these favorable circumstances and the generous zeal 
which has been evinced for the energetic prosecution of the la- 
bors, which are required to perfect the details of the whole ex- 
tensive plan, there no longer remains the least doubt, that in 
the summer of 1834 Mount Auburn will rival the most celebrat- 
ed rural burial grounds of Europe, and present a garden in such 
a state of forwardness as will be highly gratifying to the Society, 
and the public. The work has been commenced on an ever- 
during foundation ; has the approbation, and patronage, of an 
enterprising, intelligent and prosperous community ; and cannot 
fail of progressing in a manner, that must give universal satis- 
faction. There has Horticulture established her temple, — there 
will all denominations of Christians surrender up their preju- 
dices, — there will repose the ashes of the humble, and exalted, 
in the silent and sacred Garden of the Dead, until summoned 
to tho se of eternal life, in realms beyond the skies. 

H. A. S. DEARBORN, 

For the Committe. 

Horticultural Hall, Sept. 3Qth, 183X. 



M E hi B E R S 



OF THE 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 






ASPINWALL, AUGUSTUS, Brookline 
AMES, JOHN W., Dedham. 
ANDREWS, JOHN H., Salem. 
ANDREWS, EBENEZER T., Boston, 
ANTHONY, JAMES, Providence. 
/ ADAMS, SAMUEL, Milton. 
ANDREWS, FERDINAND, Lancaster. 
ATKINSON, AMOS, Brookline. 
ADAMS, DANIEL, Newbury. 
ADAMS,. ABEL, Boston. 
ADAMS, BENJAMIN, Boston. 
ADAMS, C. FREDERIC, " 
ADAMS, Z. B., « 

APPLETON, NATHAN, " 
APPLETON, SAMUEL, « 
AUSTIN, JAMES T., " 

AUSTIN, WILLIAM, Charlestown. 

BARTLETT, ENOCH, Roxbury. 

BREWER, THOMAS, Roxbury. 

BRIMMER, GEORGE W., Boston. 

BRADLEE, JOSEPH P., " 

BREED, EBENEZER, " 

BREED, HENRY A., Lynn. 

B1GELOW, JACOB, Boston. 

BALDWIN, ENOCH, Dorchester. 

BREED, JOHN, Charlestown. 

BREED, ANDREWS, Lynn. 

BAILEY, KENDAL, Charlestown 

BALLARD, JOSEPH, Boston. 
) BREWER, GARDNER, « 
/ BROWN, JAMES, Cambridge. 
/ BARTLETT, EDMUND, Newbury port. 

BUCKMINSTER, LAWSON, Framingliam 

BUCKMINSTER, EDWARD F., " 

BRECK, JOSEPH, Pepperell. 

BADLAM, STEPHEN, Boston. 

BRADFORD, SAMUEL H., " 

BAILEY, EBENEZER, " 

BANGS, EDWARD D., Worcester. 

BOWDOIN, JAMES, Boston. 

BALCH, JOSEPH, Roxbury. 

BOND, GEORGE, Bostou. 

BACON, S. N., " 

BILLINGS, JOSEPH H., Roxbury. 

BARNARD, CHARLES, Boston. 

BROWN, CHARLES, " 

BROWN, JONAS B., « 

7 



BUSSEY BENJAMIN, Roxbury, 
BRADLEE, JOSEPH P., Boston, 
BAKER, JOSEPH, " 

BUCKINGHAM, JOSEPH T. " 
BUCKINGHAM, EDWIN, " 
BOYD, JAMES, " 

BROWN, JOHN, " 

BR1GHAM, LEVI, " 

BLAKE, JOSHUA, " 

BRIGHAM, DENNIS, " 

BIRD, JESSE, « 

BRYANT, JOHN, P « 

BULLARD, SILAS, « 

COOK, ZEBEDEE, Jr., Dorchester. 
CODMAN, JOHN, « 

CUNNINGHAM, J. A., « 

CLAPP, NATHANIEL, " 

COOLIDGE, JOSEPH, Boston. 
CORDIS, THOMAS, " 

COPELAND, B. F., Roxbury. 
COGSWELL, J. G., Northampton.. 
CIIAMPNEY, JOHN, Roxbury.. 
COWING, CORNELIUS, " 
CHANDLER, DANIEL, Lexington. 
CALLENDER, JOSEPH, Boston. 
CHASE, HEZEKIAH, Lynn. 
1DLAPP, JOHN, South-Reading. 
CARTER, HORATIO, Lancaster. 
COLMAN, HENRY, Salem. 
CARNES, NATHANIEL G., New- York. 
CURTIS, EDWARD, Pepperell. 
CHANDLER, SAMUEL, Lexington. 
.CAPEN, AARON, Dorchester. 
CROWNINSHIELD, BENJ. W., Salem. 
COTTING, WILLIAM, West-Cambridge. 
CABOT, SAMUEL, Brookline. 
COFFIN, HECTOR, Rock Fa*m, Newbury. 
CURTIS, NATHANIEL, Roxbury. 
CLAPP, ISAAC, Dorchester. 
CRAFTS, EBENEZER, Roxbury. 
CURTIS, CHARLES P., Boston. 
CURTIS, THOMAS, B. " 
COOLIDGE, SAMUEL F., « 
CAREY, ALPHEUS, " 

COFFIN, GEORGE W., " 
CHANNING. GEORGE G., " 
CRAIGIE, Mrs. E., Cambridge,. 



.£(3- 



50 



COOLIDGE, JOSHUA, Boston. 
COBB, ELIJAH, " 

DEARBORN, H. A. S., Roxbury. 
DAVIS, ISAAC P., Boston. 
DOWNER, SAMUEL, Dorchester. 
DOWSE, THOMAS, Cambridgeport. 
DUDLEY, DAVID, Roxbury. 
DOGGETT, JOHN, Boston. 
DREW, DANIEL, " 

DERBY, JOHN, Salem. 
DAVENPORT, NATHANIEL, Milton. 
DAVIS, CHARLES, Roxburv. 
DORR, NATHANIEL, " 
DODGE, PICKERING, Salem 
DEAN, WILLIAM, " 

DERBY, E. H., " 

DODGE, PICKERING, Jr., Salem. 
DAVIS, JOHN B., Boston. 
DRIVER, STEPHEN Jr., Salem. 
DAVIS, JOHN, Boston. 
DAVIS, DANIEL, Cambridge. 
DUTTON, WARREN, Boston. 
DENNY, DANIEL, " 

DAVIS, JAMES, " 

DICKSON, JAMES A., " 
DERBY, RICHARD C, " 
DARRACOTT, GEORGE, " 

EMMONS, ROBERT L., Boston. 
EVERETT, EDWARD, Charlestown. 
EUSTIS, JAMES, South-Reading. 
ELLIS, CHARLES, Roxbury. 
EDWARDS, ELISHA, Springfield. 
EAGER, WILLIAM, Boston. 
ENDICOTT, WILLIAM P., Danvers. 
EVERETT, ALEXANDER H., Boston. 
ECKLEY, DAVID, Boston. 

FRENCH, BENJAMIN V., Boston. 
FESSENDEN, THOMAS G., " 
FROTHINGHAM, SAMUEL, « 
FORRESTER, JOHN, Salem. 
FISKE, OLIVER, Worcester. 
FOSDICK, DAVID, Charlestown. 
FLETCHER, RICHARD, Boston. 
FIELD, JOSEPH, Weston. 
FITCH, JEREMIAH, Boston. 
FRANCIS, J. B., Warwick, Rhode-Island. 
FREEMAN, RUSSELL, New-Bedford. 
FAY, SAMUEL P. P., Cambridge. 
FARRAR, JOHN, Cambridge. 
FARLEY, ROBERT, Boston. 
FOLSOM, CHARLES, Cambridge. ' 

FISK, BENJAMIN, Boston. 
FULLER, H. H., " 

FOSTER, E. B., " 

GRAY, JOHN C, Boston. 
GRAY, FRANCIS C, " 
GREENLEAF, THOMAS, Quincy. 
GOURGAS, J. M., Weston. 
GREEN, CHARLES W., Roxbury. 
GORE, WATSON, " 

GANNETT, T. B., Cambridge. 
GOULD, DANIEL, Reading. 
GARDNER, W. F., Salem. 
GARDNER, JOSHUA, Dorchester. 
GOODALE, EPHRAIM, Bucksport, Me. 
GOODWIN, THOMAS J., Charlestown. 
GUILD, BENJAMIN, Boston. 
GIBBS, BENJAMIN, " 

GRANT, BENJAMIN B. r " 
GOULD, BENJAMIN A., " 



HARRIS, SAMUEL D., Boston. 
HUNTINGTON, JOSEPH, Roxbury. 
HASKINS, RALPH, « 

HUNTINGTON, RALPH, Boston. 
HEARD, JOHN Jr., " 

HILL, JEREMIAH, " 

HOLL1NGSWORTH, MARK, Milton. 
HARRIS, WILLIAM T., " 

HOLBROOK, AMOS, " 

HOWE, RUFUS, Dorchester. 
HAYDEN, JOHN, Brookline. 
HYSLOP, DAVID, Brookline. "v 
HOWES, FREDERICK, Salem. 
HAGGERSTON, DAVID, Charlestown. 
HUNT, EBENEZER, Northampton. 
ROWLAND, JOHN Jr., New-Bedford. 
HAYWARD, GEORGE, Boston. 
HIGGINSON, HENRY, Boston. 
HALL, DUDLEY, Medford. 
HARTSHORNE, ELIPHALET P., Boston. 
HOUGHTON, ABEL Jr. Lynn. 
HOVEY, P. B., Jr., Cambridgeport. 
HURD, WILLIAM, Charlestown. 
HOWE, HALL, J., Boston. 
HASKELL, ELISHA, " 
HICKLING, CHARLES, Boston. 
HICKS, ZACHARIAH, « 

HOWARD, ABRAHAM, " 
HASTINGS, THOMAS, " 
HASTINGS, OLIVER, Cambridge. 
HOSMER, Z., Cambridge. 
HENCHMAN, D., Boston. 
HOBART, ENOCH, " 
HOWE, SARAH L., Cambridge. 

IVES, JOHN M., Salem. 
INCHES, HENDERSON, Boston. 
LVGALLS, WILLIAM, " 

JAQUES, SAMUEL, Jr., Charlestown. 
JOY, JOSEPH G., Boston. 
JOY, JOSEPH B., " 
JONES, THOMAS K., Roxbury. 
JOHNSON, SAMUEL R.. Charlestown. 
JACKSON, PATRICK T., Boston. 
JACKSON, JAMES, " 

JOHONNOT, GEORGE S., Salem. 
JARVIS, DEMING, Boston. 
JACKSON, C. T., Boston. 

KENRICK, WILLIAM, Newton. 
KELLIE, WILLIAM, Boston. 
KING, JOHN, Medford. 
KIDDER, SAMUEL, Charlestown. 
KUHN, GEORGE H., Boston. 
KENDALL, ABEL Jr., " 

LINCOLN, LEVI, Worcester. 
LINCOLN, WILLIAM, " 
LOWELL, JOHN, Roxburv. 
LEE, THOMAS, Jr. " 
LEWIS, HENRY, « 

LEMIST, JOHN, 

LYMAN, THEODORE, Jr., Boston. 
LOWELL, JOHN A., " 

LAWRENCE, ABBOTT, " 

LYMAN, GEORGE W., " 

LAWRENCE, CHARLES, Salem. 
LITTLE, HENRY, Bucksport, Maine. 
LELAND, DANIEL, Sherburne. 
LELAND, J. P., " 

LITTLE, SAMUEL, Bucksport. 
LEONARD, THOMAS, Salem. 
LAWRENCE, WILLIAM, Boston. 



«*<3 



51 



LAWRENCE, AMOS, « 

LIVERMORE, ISAAC, Cambridge. 
LURING, JOSIAH, Boston. 
LOWELL, CHARLES, " 
LAMSON, JOHN, " 

LYNDE, SETH S., " 

LOWELL, FRANCIS C," 
LORING, HENRY, " 

LIENOW, HENRY, " 

MANNING, ROBERT, Salem. 
MANNERS, GEORGE, Boston. 
MINNS, THOMAS, « 

MORRILL, AMBROSE, Lexington. 
MUNROE, JONAS, " 

MUSSEY, BENJAMIN, Boston. 
MILLS, JAMES K., « 

M'CARTHY, EDWARD, Brighton. 
CACKAY, JOHN, Boston. 
MEAD, ISAAC W., Charlestown. 
MEAD, SAMUEL O., West-Cambridge. 
. , MOFFATT, J. L., Boston. 

MELVILLE, THOMAS, Boston. 
McLELLAN, ISAAC, " 

MERRY, ROBERT D. C, " 

NEWHALL, CHEEVER, Dorchester. 
NICHOLS, OTIS, « 

NUTTALL, THOMAS, Cambridge. 
NEWELL, JOSEPH R., Boston. 
NEWHALL, JOSIAH, Lynnfield. 
NEWMAN. HENRY, Roxburv. 
NICHOLSON, HENRY, Brookline. 
NEWELL, JOSEPH W., Charlestown. 

OTIS, HARRISON G., Boston. 
OLIVER, FRANCIS J., " 
OLIVER, WILLIAM, Dorchester. 
OXNARD, HENRY, Brookline. 

PERKINS, THOMAS. H. Boston. 
PERKINS, SAMUEL G. " 
PARSONS, THEOPHILUS, " 
PUTNAM, JESSE, " 

PRATT, GEORGE W., " 

PRESCOTT, WILLIAM, » 
PENNIMAN, ELISHA, Brookline. 
PARSONS, GORHAM, Brighton. 
PETTEE, OTIS, Newton. 
PRINCE, JOHN, Roxbury. 
PHINNEY, ELIAS, Lexington. 
PRINCE, JOHN, Jr., Salem. 
PEABODY, FRANCIS, « 
PICKMAN, BENJAMIN T., Boston. 
PENNIMAN, JAMES, Dorchester. 
POOR, BENJAMIN, New- York. 
PERRY, G. B., East-Bradford. 
PERRY, JOHN, Sherburne. 
POND, SAMUEL, Cambridge. 
PAYNE, EDWARD W., Boston. 
PAINE, ROBERT TREAT, " 
POND, SAMUEL M., Bucksport. 
PRESCOTT, C. H., Cornwallis, N. S. 
PARKER, DANIEL P., Boston. 
PRATT, WILLIAM, Jr., " 
PRIEST, JOHN F., " 

PHILBR1CK, SAMUEL, Brookline. 
PARKER, THOMAS, Dorchester. 
PARKER, ISAAC, Boston. 
PARKINSON, JOHN, Roxbury. 
PHILLIPS, S. C. Salem. 
/ POOL, WARD, Danvers. 
PIERPONT, JOHN, Boston. 



PERKINS, T. H. Jr., Boston. 
PARKMAN, FRANCIS, « 
POND, SAMUEL, Jr. 

aUINCY, JOSIAH, Cambridge. 

RUSSELL, JOHN B., Boston. 

ROBBINS, E. H., " 

ROLLINS, WTLLIAM, « 

RICE, JOHN P., " 

RICE, HENRY, " 

RUSSELL, J. W., Roxbury. 

READ, JAMES, " 

ROBBINS, P. G., " 

ROLLINS, EBENEZER, Boston. 

ROWE, JOSEPH, Milton. 

ROGERS, R. S. Salem. 

RODMAN, BENJAMIN, New-Bedford. 

ROTCH, FRANCIS, " 

ROTCH, WILLIAM, " 

RICHARDSON, NATHAN, South-Reading. 

RAND, EDWARD S., Newburyport. 

RICHARDS, EDWARD M., Dedham. 

RANDALL, JOHN, Boston. 

RUSSELL, J. L., Salem. 

RUSSELL, JAMES, Boston, 

RAYMOND, E. A., " 

ROBINSON, HENRY, " 

SHURTLEFF, BENJAMIN, Boston. 
SEARS, DAVID, « 

STEVENS, ISAAC, " 

SILSBY, ENOCH, " 

STORER, D. HUMPHREYS, « 
SULLIVAN, RICHARD, Brookline. 
SEAVER, NATHANIEL, Roxbury. 
SENIOR, CHARLES, " 

SUMNER, WILLIAM H., Dorchester. 
SWETT, JOHN, " 

SHARP, EDWARD, " 

SMITH, CYRUS, Sandwich. 
SUTTON, WILLIAM, Jr., Danvers. 
STORY, F. H., Salem. 
STEDMAN, JOSIAH, Newton. 
STRONG, JOSEPH, Jr., South-Hadley. 
STEARNS, CHARLES, Springfield. 
SHURTLEFF, SAMUEL A., Boston. 
SPRINGER, JOHN, Sterling. 
SALTONSTALL, LEVERETT, Salem. 
STORRS, NATHANIEL, Boston. 
SHAW, LEMUEL, « 

SMITH, J. M., « 

SISSON, FREEBORN, Warren, (R. I.) 
SWIFT, HENRY, Nantucket. 
SMITH, STEPHEN H., Providence. 
SWAN, DANIEL, Medford. 
STONE, LEONARD, Watertown. 
STONE, WILLIAM, South-Boston. 
STONE, ISAAC, « 

STORY, JOSEPH, Cambridge. 
SHATTUCK, GEORGE C, Boston. 
STANWOOD, WILLIAM, " 
STANWOOD, DAVID, « 

SARGENT, L. M., « 

STONE, HENRY B.,~ « 

SIMMONS, D. A., Roxbury. 
SAVAGE, JAMES S., Boston. 
SHAW, ROBERT G., " 
SPARKS, JARED, " 

SAVAGE, JAMES, " 

STONE, P. R. L., " 

STEARNS, ASAHEL, Cambridge. 
STONE, DAVID, Boston. 



X(H 



52 



Cambridge. 



STAPLES, ISAAC, « 
SHAW, C. B., " 

TAPPAN, CHARLES, Brookline. 
TIDD, JACOB, Roxbury. 
THOMPSON, GEORGE, Medford. 
TRAIN, SAMUEL, " 

THORNDIKE, ISRAEL, Jr., Boston. 
THWING, SUPPLY C, Roxbury. 
TUCKER, RICHARD E\, Boston, 
TILDEN, JOSEPH, " 

TOOHEY, RODERICK, Waltham. 
THOMAS, BENJAMIN, Hinghara. 
TRULL, JOHN W., Boston. 
TAYLOR, CHARLES, Dorchester. 
TUDOR, FREDERIC, Boston. 
THAYER, J. H., " 

THACHER, PETER, « 

VOSE, ELIJAH, Dorchester. 
VILA, JAMES, Boston. 

WILLIAMS, NEHEMIAH D., Roxbury. 

WILLIAMS, FRANCIS J., Boston. 

WILDER, M. P., « 

WILLIAMS, AARON D., Roxbuiy. 

WILLIAMS, MOSES, 

WILLIAMS, G., " 

WELD, BENJAMIN, " 

WORTHINGTON, WILLIAM, Dorchester. V ATERHOUSE, BENJAMIN, Cambridge. 

WELLES, JOHN, " WINSHIP, F. S. J., Brighton. 

WALES, WILLIAM, " WELD, JAMES, Boston. 

WEBSTER, J. W., Cambridge. WHITTEMORE, GEORGE, Boston. 

I 



WHITE, ABIJAH, Watertown. 
WILLIAMS, SAMUEL G., Boston. 
WIGHT. EBENEZER, " 

WYATT, ROBERT, " 

WINSHIP, JONATHAN, Brighton. 
W LKINSON, SIMON, Boston. 
WILDER, S. V. S., Bolton. 
WALDO, DANIEL, Worcester. 
\\ YETH, NATHANIEL J. Jr. 
W SST, THOMAS, Haverhill. 
W'LLARD, JOSEPH, Boston. 
WLHTMARSH, SAMUEL, Northampton. 
WHITMARSH, THOMAS, Brookliue. 
WARREN, JONATHAN, Jr., Weston. 
WEBSTER, NATHAN, Haverhill. 
.WiLSON, JOHN, Roxbury. 
WHITE, STEPHEN, Boston. 
WARD, MALTHUS A., Salem. 
W EBSTER, DANIEL, Boston. 
VI ARD, RICHARD, Roxbury. 
Vv ELD, AARON D. Jr., Boston. 
\\ \LKER, SAMUEL, Roxbury. 
WELLS. CHARLES, Boston. 
V'HITWELL, SAMUEL," 
WHITE, BENJAMIN F. " 
A" I LEY, THOMAS, Watertown. 
\ VLES, THOMAS B., Boston. 

MAN, RUFUS, Charlestown. 
\ \RE, HENRY, Cambridge. 



4 t£ 



53 



HONORARY MEMBERS. 



ADAMS, Hon. JOHN aUlNCY, late President of the United States. 

AITON, WILLIAM TOWNSEND, Curator of the Royal Gardens, Kew. 

ABBOTT, JOHN, Esq., Brunswick, Me. 

ABBOTT, BENJAMIN, LL. D., Principal of Phillips Academy, Exeter, New-Hampshire. 

BUEL, J. Esq.. President of the Albany Horticultural Society. 

BODIN, Le Chevalier SOULANGE, Secretaire-General de la Societe D'Horticulture 

de Paris. 
BANCROFT, EDWARD NATHANIEL, M. D,, President of the Horticultural and Agri- 
cultural Society of Jamaica. 
BARCLAY, ROBERT, Esq., Great Britain. 

BEEKMAN, JAMES, New-York. 
BARBOUR, P. P., Virginia. 

COXE, WILLIAM, Esq., Burlington, N. J. 

COLLINS, ZACCHEUS, Esq.., President of the Pennsylvania Horticultural Society, 
Philadelphia. 

COFFIN, Admiral Sir ISAAC, Great Britain. 

CHAUNCY, ISAAC, United States Navy, Brooklyn, New-York. 

jthABJER, LEWIS, Philadelphia. 

DICKSON, JAMES, Esq. Vice-President of the London Horticultural Society. 

DE CANDOLLE, Mons. ANGUSTIN PYRAMUS, Professor of Botany in the Academy 
of Geneva. 

ELLIOT, Hon. STEPHEN, Charleston, S. C. 

EVERETT, HORACE, Vermont. 

EVANSON, CHARLES ALLAN, Secretary King's County Agricultural Society, St John, 
New-Brunsw ick. 

FALDERMAN, F. Curator of the Imperial Botanic Garden at St. Petersburg. 

FISCHER, Dr., Professor of Botany, of the Imperial Botanic Garden at St. Petersburg. 

GREIC, JOHN, Esq.., Geneva, President of the Domestic Horticultural Society of the 
Western Part of the State of New-York. 

GORE, Mrs. REBECCA, Waltliam. 

GRIFFITHS, Mrs. MARY, Charlies Hope, New-Jersey. 

GIRARD, STEPHEN, Philadelphia. 

GIBBS, GEORGE, Sunswick, New-York. 

HERICART DE THURY, Le Vicomte, President de la Societe D'Horticulture de Paris. 

HOSACK, DAVID, M. D., President of the New-York Horticultural Society. 

HOPKIRK, THOMAS, Esq.. President of the Glasgow Horticultural Society. 

HUNT, LEWIS, Esq. Huntsburg, Ohio. 

HILDRETH, S. P., Marietta, Ohio. 

INGERSOLL, JAMES R., President of the Horticultural Society of Pennsylvania, Phila- 
delphia. 

JACKSON, ANDREW, President of the United States. 

JOHONNOTT, Mrs. MARTHA, Salem. 

KNIGHT, THOMAS ANDREW, Esq., President of the London Horticultural Society. 

LOUDON, JOHN CLAUDIUS, Great-Britain. 

LA FAYETTE, General, La Grange, France. 

LASTEYRIE, Le Comte de, Vice-President de la Societe D.'Horticulture de Paris. 

LITCHFIELD, FRANKLIN, Consul of the United States at Porto Cabello.. 



~2/£> 



54 

LORRILLARD, JACOB, President of the New-York Horticultural Society, New-York. 

LONGSTRETH, JOSHUA, Philadelphia. 

MADISON, Hon. JAMES, late President of the United States, Virginia. 

MONROE, Hon. JAMES, late President of the United States, Virginia. 

MICHAUX, Mons. F. ANDREW, Paris. 

MENTENS, LEWIS JOHN, Esq., Bruxelles. 

MITCHILL, SAMUEL L., M. D., New- York. 

MOSSELLMANN, , Esq., Antwerp. 

POITEAU, Professor of the Institute Horticole de Fromont. 

POWELL, JOHN HARE, Powelton, Pennsylvania. 

PRINCE, WILLIAM, Esq., Long Island, New-York. 

PRATT, HENRY, Philadelphia. 

PALMER, JOHN, Esq., Calcutta. 

ROSEBERRY, ARCHIBALD JOHN, Earl of, President of the Caledonian Horticultural 

Society. 
SABINE, JOSEPH, Esq., Secretary of the London Horticultural Society. 
SHEPHARD, JOHN, Curator of the Botanic Garden, Liverpool. 
SCOTT, Sir WALTER, Scotland. 
SKINNER, JOHN S., Baltimore. 

TURNER, JOHN, Assistant Secretary of the London Horticultural Society. 
THACHER, JAMES, M. D., Plymouth, Mass. 
THORBURN, GRANT, Esq., New-York. 
TALIAFERRO, JOHN, Virginia. 

THOURS, M. Du Petit, Paris, Professor Poiteau of the Institute Horticole de Fromont. 
VILMORIN, Mons. PIERRE PHILLIPPE ANDRE, Paris. 
VAUGHAN, BENJAMIN, Esq., Hallowell, Maine. 
VAN MONS, JEAN BAPTISTE, M. D., Brussels. 
VAUGHAN, PETTY, Esq., London. 
VAN RENSELLAER, STEPHEN, Albany. 
VAN ZANDT, JOSEPH R., Albany. 
WELLES, Hon. JOHN, Boston, Mass. 

WILLICK, NATHANIEL, M. D., Curator of the Botanic Garden, Calcutta. 
WADSWORTH, JAMES, Geneseo, New- York. 
YATES, ASHTON, Esq., Liverpool. 



,1(1 



55 



CORRESPONDING MEMBERS. 



ADLUM, JOHN, Georgetown, District of Columbia. 

ASPINWALL, Col. THOMAS, United States Consul, London. 

APPLETON, THOMAS, Esq., United States Consul, Leghorn. 

ALPEY, . 

AOUILAR, DON FRANCISCO, of Moldonoda, in the Banda Oriental— Consul of the 
United States. 

BARNETT, ISAAC COX, Esq., United States Consul, Paris. 

BURTON, ALEXANDER, United States Consul, Cadiz. 

BULL, E. W., Hartford, Connecticut. 

CARR, ROBERT, Esq., Philadelphia. 

COLVILLE, JAMES, Chelsea, England. 

CARNES, FRANCIS G., Paris. 

DEERING, JAMES, Portland, Maine. 

FLOY, MICHAEL, New-York. 

FOX, JOHN, Washington, District of Colombia. 

GARDINER, ROBERT H., Esq., Gardiner, Maine. 

GIBSON, ABRAHAM P., United States Consul, St. Petersburg. 

GARDNER BENJAMIN, United States Consul, Palermo. 

HALL, CHARLES HENRY, Esq., New-York. 

HAY, JOHN, Architect of the Caledonian Horticultural Society. 

HALSEY, ABRAHAM, Corresponding Secretary of the New- York Horticultural Society, 
New-York. 

HARRIS, Rev. T. M., D. D., Dorchester. 

HUNTER, , Baltimore. 

HOGG, THOMAS, New-York. 

HENRY, BERNARD, United States Consul, Gibralter. 

LANDRETH, DAVID, Jr., Esq., Corresponding Secretary of the Pennsylvania Horti- 
cultural Society. 

LEONARD, E. S. H., M. D., Providence. 

MAURY, JAMES, Esq., late United States Consul, Liverpool. 

MILLER, JOHN, M. D., Secretary of the Horticultural and Agricultural Soc. Jamaica. 

MILLS, STEPHEN, Esq., Long Island, New-York. 

MELVILLE, ALLAN, New-York. 

NEWHALL, HORATIO, M. D., Galena, Illinois. 

OFFLEY, DAVID, Esq., United States Consul, Smyrna. 

OMBROSI, JAMES, United States Consul, Florence. 

PARKER, JOHN, Esq., United States Consul, Amsterdam. 

PAYSON, JOHN L., Esq., Messina. 

PRINCE, WILLIAM ROBERT, Esq. Long Island, New- York. 

PRINCE, ALFRED STRATTON, Long Island. 

PERRY, M. C, United States Navy, Charlestown. 

PALMER, JOHN J., New-York. 

ROGERS, WILLIAM S., United States Navy, Boston. 

ROGERS, J. S., Hartford, Connecticut. 

SMITH, DANIEL D., Esq., Burlington, New-Jersey. 



«2«S 



56 

SMITH, GIDEON B., Baltimore. 

SHAW, WILLIAM, New-York. 

STRONG, Judge, Rochester, New-York. 

STEVENS, THOMAS HOLDUP, United States Navy, Middletown, Connecticut. 

SMITH, CALEB R., Esq., New-Jersey. 

SPRAGUE, HORATIO, Gibraltar. 

THORBURN, GEORGE C, New-York. 

WILSON, WILLIAM, New-York. 

WINGATE, J. F., Bath, Maine. 

WING ATE, JOSHUA, Portland. 



X l<\ 



DISCOURSE 

DELIVERED BEFORE THE 

MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY, 

ON THE CELEBRATION OF ITS 

FOURTH ANNIVERSARY, * 
OCTOBER 3, 1832. 
By THADDEUS WILLIAM HARRIS, M. D. 



CAMBRIDGE: 

E. W. METCALF AND COMPANY. 

1832. 



JLX° 



k 



=2 Xj 



DISCOURSE. 



Upon the return of this annual festival I have the 
honor to present to the President and Members of 
" The Massachusetts Horticultural Society " the con- 
gratulations of the season. 

During four years you have been associated for the 
purpose of promoting Horticulture ; and, although the 
summer has not been propitious, abundant evidence of 
the utility of your united efforts is afforded by the 
offerings of fruits and flowers with which your tables 
are this day crowned. 

To ensure continued success, it is necessary, not 
only to study the artificial science of Horticulture it- 
self, and to practise it in detail, but to advert to the 
close connexion subsisting between it and the natural 
sciences of Zoology, Botany, and Mineralogy. In the 
interesting Address of your Botanical Professor,* de- 
livered on the last anniversary, " the prominent fea- 
tures of Horticulture and its associated and auxiliary 
studies," were indicated. To pursue the subject so 
ably opened would seem to be incumbent upon those 
to whom, in the distribution of duties, you have as- 

* Malthus A. Ward, M. D. 



.2.2.0- 



signed the illustration of these studies. Upon the 
present occasion, however, it will be impossible to 
exhibit a complete view of all or of any one of the 
accessory sciences, and of their various bearings upon 
Horticulture. I shall therefore endeavour only to show 
the Relations subsisting between Insects and Plants, 
and the useful results to be obtained by the cultivator 
from a knowledge of the habits and economy of insects. 
American Entomology is yet in its infancy. Mel- 
sheimer, a Lutheran clergyman in Pennsylvania, may 
be considered as the father of the science in this 
country. His collection of insects was very extensive, 
and he published a catalogue of one order or group of 
them in 1806. It contained merely the names of 
about thirteen hundred and sixty native species, with- 
out descriptions or a history of their habits. The late 
Professor Peck rendered no inconsiderable aid to Hor- 
ticulture and Arboriculture, by his memoirs on several 
insects injurious to vegetation, illustrated by plates 
from original drawings of the most faithful kind. Pro- 
fessor Say, the author of an unfinished work, entitled 
"American Entomology," and of numerous papers in 
various periodical publications, has been engaged, for 
many years, in describing scientifically the unnoticed 
insects of this country ; and, by his continued labors, 
has materially facilitated the study, though he has been 
unable to furnish much respecting the habits of insects. 
Much, therefore, remains to be done in this department 
of Natural History, much of immense importance in its 
practical application to the various arts of life. Some 
degree of regard for the science appears to be awaken- 
ed among us ; and we are gradually growing sensible 



^X2 



of the utility of the pursuit. It must become a popular 
study, and be allowed to share, with Botany and Min- 
eralogy, a small portion, at least, of the time devoted 
by a judicious, enlightened, and agricultural people, to 
elementary education. It is recommended to us by 
its intrinsic merits, the novelties and wonders it un- 
folds ; it is enforced by the powerful influence which 
insects are permitted to exert upon our persons and 
possessions. 

Insects may be said, without exaggeration, to have 
established a universal reign over the earth and its 
inhabitants. Their kingdom extends from the torrid 
zone to the utmost limits of polar vegetation ; from the 
lowest valley to the mountainous regions of perpetual 
snow. Some of them have sent forth their colonies 
with man, and with him have circumnavigated the 
globe ; while others hold undisputed sway where man 
has not yet ventured to establish himself, and where 
their innumerable hosts and noxious powers have for- 
bidden his approach. 

As insects depend for sustenance either immediately 
or remotely upon vegetable productions, their disper- 
sion through various regions is subject to nearly the 
same laws that govern the geographical distribution of 
plants. 

Temperature exerts an influence upon them. An 
increase of heat is always attended with a proportional 
increase in the kinds and numbers of these creatures. 
Altitude has the same effect as latitude in diminishing 
the numbers of insects. Hence the insects, like the 
plants, of high regions will be the same as those of 
northern latitudes. On the summit of the White 



1 a^f 



6 



Mountains are found some of the plants of Lapland, 
and there also a species of butterfly* occurs, which 
appears to be identical with one in Lapland. The 
rice-weevil t is the constant concomitant of its favorite 
grain ; and, though often found alive in imported rice, 
does not seem to have established itself beyond the 
natural regions of its appropriate food. In all parts of 
America where the sugar-cane flourishes, the cucuij, 
or luminous beetle, f which lives upon it, may be found. 

The presence or absence of humidity, in a country 
or district, gives predominance to certain insect and 
vegetable races. Thus predatory and stercoraceous 
insects are more common and abundant in dry, sandy, 
and hot regions, than in more moist and temperate 
ones. The prevailing insects of Africa, of the south of 
Europe, of the steppes of Asia, of the pampas and 
prairies of America, are of this description ; and such 
also are those which frequent dry pathways and the 
arid sands of the sea-shore every where. Other tribes, 
destined to subsist upon vegetable juices, and those 
that imbibe their food by suction, are more prevalent 
in regions of perpetual moisture, as well as in the bogs 
and fens, and on the marshy margins of rivers, lakes, 
and seas, in all countries. 

Peculiar kinds of insects and plants appear to be 
appropriated to particular continents and countries. 
The laws, governing the geographical limits of indi- 
genous insects, are more absolute than those already 
specified. It is true that countries, possessing a simi- 

* The Hipparchia semidea of Say, appears to be identical with the 
Papilio foriunatus of Fabricius. 

f Calandra Oryzce. L. t Elater noctilucus. L. 



eJ*2 v5 



larity of climate and temprature, have many insects 
allied to each other in forms and habits ; but it will be 
found, that differences exist among them sufficient to 
prove that they could not have descended from a com- 
mon stock, or in other words, that they are of different 
species. Thus, of the tribe of butterflies, called by 
the French brassicaires, because they are appropri- 
ated to the cabbage, turnip, mustard, and other allied 
plants, there is one solitary species in the mountainous 
and northern parts of New England devoted to these 
plants.* The common cock-chaffer f of Europe is 
represented, in this country, by our nocturnal dorr- 
bug, t as it is usually called ; and the European vine- 
chaffer || by an allied species, H which has recently 
multiplied greatly, from some unknown cause, and 
threatens, if unchecked, to become as great a depre- 
dator. It appears now to be pretty well established, 
that countries, separated by a wide expanse of water, 
by extensive deserts of sterile sand, or by an unbroken 
chain of lofty mountains, possess vegetable and animal 
productions peculiar to themselves, which do not, 
under ordinary circumstances, pass these natural lim- 
its ; but that, when two continents, or great divisions 
of the globe, are contiguous, or nearly approach each 
other, the same animals and plants may be found in 
each to a limited extent. No one species or kind 
could have originated on two different points of the 
earth's surface ; each one must have commenced exist- 
ence in some one place, from whence, in the course of 



*It now attacks the turnip and cabbage, but probably lived originally 
upon the Arahis rhomboidea. The insect is the Pontia oleracea. Harris. 
f Melolontha vulgaris. F. J Meloloniha Quercina. Knoch. 

|| Anomala Vitis. L. 1T Anomala varians. F. 



z*C vJ-v* 



8 



successive generations, it would have spread over the 
whole globe, had it not been restrained and confined 
within narrow limits by insuperable geographical and 
physical barriers. From a careful comparison of the 
insects of our own country with those of other parts 
of the world, I am fully convinced that these laws 
are founded in nature, and can venture to assert that, 
with the exception of the polar species, there are no 
insects in America identical with those of the Eastern 
continent, which have not accompanied man and his 
imports from thence. 

The introduction of foreign insects, in a country 
before uninhabited by them, is a circumstance of more 
importance, than at first would be anticipated. It may 
occur in various ways. Man, in his wanderings and 
migrations, has been instrumental in the dispersion and 
colonization of a multitude of insects. They adhere 
to his garments and bedding, riot in his stock of pro- 
visions, and lurk among his imported seeds, fruits, 
plants, and drugs. The bed-bug, the flea, the cock- 
roach, the bacon-grub,* and the meal-worm f have been 
universal travellers, and are now citizens of the world. 
Commerce brought the first of these insects to England 
from the continent at an early period. % " The Scotch, 
it has been said, " bewail its introduction among them 
as one of the evils of the union, and for that reason dis- 
tinguish it by the name of the English bug." Kalm § 
observes, that it was unknown to the northern Indians 
of America. The common house-fly || is stated to have 



* Dermestes lardarius. L. f Tenebrio molitor. L. 

X See " A Treatise on Bugs, by J. Southall." 8vo. Lond. 1730. 
§ Travels, ed. 1770. Vol. II. p. 11. 
j| Belknap, Hist, of N. Hamp. Vol. III. p. 185. 



s*C_wC I 



9 



been brought by shipping to our shores, where it had 
not been seen before the arrival of Europeans. The 
sugar-mite,* a native of the West Indies, is now rather 
common in Europe and America. The violet-colored 
borer t of the pine, originally indigenous to our forests, 
is now naturalized in Europe, having been carried 
thither in timber from America ; while, in return, we 
have received from thence another pine-eating borer, % 
whose mischievous powers render it a formidable 
assailant of wooden edifices. This insect, we are in- 
formed by Kirby and Spence, § does material injury 
to the wood-work of houses in London, by piercing 
the rafters in every direction. Its stomach seems to 
have the insensibility of that of an ostrich, and its jaws 
the strength of iron nippers ; for it has been known to 
perforate sheets of lead, one sixth of an inch in 
thickness, with which roofs were covered, and in its 
stomach fragments of the metal were discovered. The 
pea-bug || of America is now found in England and a 
part of the continent of Europe. The minute beetle,!! 
so common in ship-bread, is a native of Europe ; it is 
often seen in our vessels, and occasionally on shore. 
The notorious poplar-worm,** a spiny caterpillar, whose 
falsely reputed venomous powers caused almost the 
extermination of the Lombardy poplar some years ago, 
is not indigenous to this country, but was probably in- 
troduced with the tree it naturally inhabits, but which 

* Lepisma saccharina. L. f Callidium violaceum. L. 

J Callidium bajulum. L. 

§ " Outlines of Entomology." (3d ed.) Vol. I. pp. 235, 236, note: 
|| Bruchus Pisi. L. IT Anobium paniceum. F, 

* # The larva of the Papilio Sniiopa. L. 

2 



10 

it deserts in preference for our more abundant willows 
and elms. The nettle and thistle have brought with 
them from Europe some of their peculiar insects,* which 
happily are more serviceable than the weeds they have 
accompanied. It cannot be denied that many of our 
destructive insects are now spread far and wide through 
those sections of the Eastern continent which have had 
commercial intercourse with America ; but it is evident 
that we have not been gainers by an exchange ; for in 
this country are now naturalized immense numbers of 
foreign insects, whose ravages are by no means com- 
pensated by the benefits derived from the Asiatic silk- 
worm, at this time an object of so much interest to 
statesmen and manufacturers, nor by those annually 
abstracted from the European honey-bee, "the white 
man's fly," now, through the instrumentality of our 
forefathers, swarming even in the Western wilds of this 
continent. 

It is of the greatest consequence, in devising reme- 
dies for the injuries of insects, first to learn something 
of their economy. Were our insect enemies at all 
times as apparent as their ravages, preventive means 
might more readily be adopted ; but many of them 
are not only masked in various disguises during the 
period of their devastations, but carry on their offen- 
sive operations only in the obscurity of the night, or 
insidiously conceal themselves while performing the 
work of destruction. Others, though their attacks are 
made in broad day-light, and though they may, while 
thus employed, be constantly exposed to our examina- 

* The PapUio Malanla inhabits the nettle, the Papilio Cardui the 
thistle. 



22 



7 



11 

tion, soon escape from us by changing their forms. 
These facts show the necessity of learning their habits 
and changes, if we wish to apply a remedy to the evils 
they occasion. The transformations of insects are 
indeed exceedingly interesting in themselves, and are 
almost without a parallel in the other animal races. 

Like birds, amphibious animals, and most fishes, 
insects are produced from eggs ; but, unlike theirs, the 
newly hatched young, either have not the same number 
of members as their parents, or are wholly different 
from them in form and habits. The offspring of rose- 
bugs and of moths are not rose-bugs and moths ; they 
are grubs and caterpillars, which, having been hatched 
in situations where the parental instinct has discovered 
their appropriate food, begin immediately to devour 
what is before them, and at the expiration of a definite 
period attain their full size, cast their skins, and ap- 
pear in a new form. In this new form the insects are 
said to be in the pupa or chrysalis state. Their former 
activity and voracity cease ; they no longer use their 
limbs to change their situation, but remain with them 
folded close to their bodies in a state of absolute ab- 
stinence and almost complete torpidity and rest. In 
process of time the delicate and tender skin that invests 
their bodies hardens, the flesh, with its new-grown 
skin, cleaves and separates beneath the old one, and 
at length the imprisoned insects burst their useless 
cases, withdraw their limbs from their envelopes, and, 
in due season, emerge from their retreats, warm and 
dry themselves in the sunbeams, and launch upon their 
untried wings into the air, the exact counterparts of 
their progenitors. 



2 3o 

12 

The term larva, originally signifying a mask, is ap- 
plied to all insects in the young or growing state ; to 
caterpillars, grubs, and maggots, whose future forms 
are completely disguised, and to the young of bugs, 
crickets, grasshoppers, plant-lice, and some other in- 
sects, whose subsequent stages are unattended with 
any remarkable changes of form. The second state 
is the pupa ; and, while in this, the insects last men- 
tioned continue to feed, grow, and move about like the 
larvae, which they also resemble in form. The third 
or final change developes all in their perfect state, with 
new organs and propensities. Hence two kinds of 
transformation are recognised. One of them seems to 
consist in little more than a casting of the external 
skin, and the acquisition of additional organs, with a 
preservation of the same general form and habits ; this 
is called incomplete transformation : the other, including 
an eating, a quiescent, and a winged state, exhibits 
insects, in their progress, in three distinct forms, and 
three different modes of existence ; this constitutes a 
complete transformation. 

A few examples will illustrate the transformations, 
or metamorphoses, of some common insects, and pre- 
sent a general view of their history. The squash-bug * 
passes through an imperfect transformation. In shape 
it is, while young or a larva, proportionally shorter and 
more rounded than the perfect insect, and its color is 
of a pale, ashy hue. When it enters upon the pupa 
state its form lengthens, and two little scales are seen 
upon its back, which are sheaths representing and 

* Coreus ordinatus. Say. 



±3i 



13 



actually enclosing the future wings of the insect. It 
continues all this time to walk about, and to imbibe, 
by means of its sharp proboscis, the juices of the plant 
on which it subsists. In the perfect state it appears 
with a pair of delicate, filmy wings folded beneath two 
tough covers, which lie flat upon its back and cross 
each other at their ends. In this stage it feeds also by 
suction upon the juices of the squash leaves ; but, 
with additional organs, it has acquired new propensi- 
ties, which lead it to provide for the continuation of its 
species, and, this being accomplished, it perishes. The 
transformations of grasshoppers also are incomplete ; 
young and old, larvae, pupae, and perfect insects being 
alike active, and partaking a common food. 

The following are instances of complete metamor- 
phosis. The white grub, which is so often turned up 
by the plough in fields, lives beneath the surface of 
the soil, and feeds upon the fibrous roots of the grasses. 
It afterwards becomes a pupa, exhibiting a form inter- 
mediate between that of a grub and a beetle ; legs 
small and useless are visible, a pair of eyes, and two 
little horns or antennae. For some time it remains at 
rest in the earth, till, its appointed season having 
arrived, it bursts the filmy skin that enfolded its body 
and limbs, digs itself a passage to the surface, and 
comes forth a chesnut-colored beetle,* commonly 
known here as the dorr-bug. In this, its last and 
winged state, it devours the leaves of trees, seeks its 
mate, and deposits its eggs in the ground. The whole 
generation of dorr-bugs perishes within six weeks after 
emerging from the earth in the beetle form. 

* Mdolontha Quercina. Knock. 






14 

The borer of the apple-tree, a white worm or grub, 
devours the fragments of wood it has gnawed in 
making its cylindrical path within the trunk of the 
tree, and pushes the undigested refuse out of the hole 
by which it has entered. When fully grown it be- 
comes a pupa, which, like that of the dorr-bug, ex- 
hibits short, folded legs, wings, and horns, of no use to 
it while within its burrow. Early in June the pupa- 
skin is ruptured, and the insect emerges from the tree 
by gnawing through the thin covering of bark that 
protected the upper extremity of its hole. Upon 
issuing into the air it is found to be a beetle,* white 
beneath and longitudinally striped with brown above. 
In this, its perfect state, it lives only upon the young 
and tender leaves of the apple and other allied trees. 

The caterpillars of the apple-tree, which are hatched 
from those curious ring-like clusters of eggs surround- 
ing the young twigs, are, as you well know, furnished 
with jaws, and devour the leaves of this tree. They 
have also sixteen legs, and, in crawling from leaf to 
leaf and branch to branch, spin from their lips a delicate 
thread, which is a clue to conduct them back to the 
shelter of their many -coated, silken tents. From the 
first to the middle of June they descend from the 
trees, and seclude themselves in various hiding-places. 
Each one then weaves around its body a small silken 
shroud or cocoon, fills the meshes with a yellowish 
powder, slips off and packs in one end of its case its 
old coat, and appears in a new form, that of a brown 
chrysalis or pupa devoid of prominent legs and 
wings. Sixteen days afterwards the pupa- skin is rent, 

* Saperda bivittata. Say. 



^3.5 



15 



a moth * issues from it, ejects from its mouth a quan- 
tity of liquid matter to soften the end of its cocoon, 
and then forces its way out. In the moth state it is 
furnished with a very short tongue, and subsists only 
upon the honey and dew of plants. 

The common potato-worm, when it ceases feeding, 
descends into the earth, and is there changed into a 
brown pupa of a cylindrical form, pointed at one end 
and rounded at the other, whence proceeds a sort of 
stem or hook that passes backwards beyond the middle 
of the body. This stem, which is the only external 
member it appears to have, is a case enclosing the 
tongue of the creature. It passes the winter in the 
earth below the reach of frost, and the next summer 
the perfect insect * comes forth, its robust body decked 
with large orange-colored spots, and its enormously 
long tongue compactly rolled up like a watch-spring. 
In the morning and evening twilight hundreds of these 
insects may be seen, now darting from flower to 
flower with the velocity and sound of humming-birds, 
now poising upon their extended wings over the fra- 
grant honeysuckle, uncoiling in an instant their slender 
tongues, and thrusting them with unerring aim into 
the nectared tubes of the blossoms. 

It is unnecessary to multiply examples ; enough 
have been given to show that the forms, the organs 
for taking food, the kinds of food, and the places of 
abode of the insects which undergo a complete trans- 
formation, vary essentially in the larva and in the. 
perfect state of these insects. 

* Bombyx castrensis. L. f Sphinx Carolina. Lu 



2lq 



16 



It should be recollected, that the winged is the ulti- 
mate stage of insect life ; that the last and, in many 
instances, the only function performed in this stage of 
existence is to provide for a succession of the species ; 
and that, after the eggs are deposited in their appro- 
priate situations, the parent insects, having then per- 
formed the various tasks assigned them, and having 
fulfilled the last injunctions of nature, universally perish, 
most of them without witnessing the birth, of the suc- 
ceeding generation. 

Insects are profusely scattered over vegetation. 
Several kinds are often found upon one plant. Leaves, 
blossoms, and fruits are alive with them ; the branches 
and trunks afford concealment and nourishment to 
thousands of intestine enemies, and the roots are 
sapped and destroyed by them. Our present concern 
is with some of those which are injurious to the kitchen 
and flower garden, and to the fruitery. 

The products of the kitchen-garden, though formerly 
they received less attention that those of the field, are 
growing more into general favor; a result owing to 
the change of pursuits in a portion of our population, 
to the low price of farm -produce, and especially to the 
recommendations and example of the horticultural so- 
cieties of the country, and the improvements which 
they have introduced. 

The pea is universally esteemed one of the most 
palatable of our vegetables. At its first appearance in 
the markets it commands a high price ; and its first 
appearance on the table is not only an object of pride 
to the gardener, but of pleasure to the partaker. Few, 
however, while indulging in the luxury of early pease, 






17 



are aware how many insects they unconsciously con- 
sume. When the pods are carefully examined, small, 
discolored spots may be seen within them, each one 
corresponding to a similar spot on the opposite pea. 
If this spot in the pea be opened, a minute, whitish 
grub or maggot will be discovered. It is the insect in 
its larva form, which lives upon the marrow of the 
pea, and arrives at its full size by the time that the 
pea becomes dry. It then bores a round hole quite 
to the hull, which however is left untouched, as is also 
the germ of the future sprout. In this hole the insect 
passes the pupa state, and survives the winter ; at the 
expiration of which, its last change being completed, 
it has only to gnaw through the thin hull, and make its 
exit, which frequently is not accomplished before the 
pease are committed to the ground for an early crop. 
Pease, thus affected, are denominated buggy by seeds- 
men and gardeners ; and the little insects, so often 
seen within them in the spring, are incorrectly called 
bugs, a term of reproach indiscriminately applied to 
many kinds of insects which have no resemblance to 
each other in appearance and habits. The pea Bru- 
chus* for such is its correct name, is a small beetle, 
a native of this continent, having been unknown in 
Europe before the discovery of America. Early in the 
spring, while the pods are young and tender, and the 
pease are just beginning to swell, it makes small perfo- 
rations in the epidermis or thin skin of the pod, and de- 
posits in each a minute egg. These eggs are always 
placed opposite to the pease, and the grubs, when 



# Bruchus Pisi. L. 

3 



18 

hatched, soon penetrate the pod, and bury themselves 
in the pease, by holes so fine, that they are hardly per- 
ceptible, and are soon closed. Sometimes every pea 
in a pod will be found to be thus inhabited ; and the 
injury done by the pea Bruchus has, in former times, 
been so great and universal as nearly to put an end to 
the cultivation of this vegetable. That it should pre- 
fer the prolific exotic pea to our indigenous, but less 
productive pulse, is not a matter of surprise, analogous 
facts being of common occurrence ; but that, for so 
many years, a rational method for checking its ravages 
should not have been practised, is somewhat remark- 
able. An exceedingly simple one is recommended by 
Deane, but to be successful should be universally 
adopted. It consists merely in keeping seed pease in 
tight vessels over one year before planting them. 
Latreille recommends submitting them to the heat of 
water at sixty-seven degrees of Fahrenheit, by which 
the same results might be obtained ; and if this was 
done just before the pease were to be put into the 
ground, they would then be in a state for immediate 
planting. The Baltimore Oriole, or hang-bird, is one 
of the natural enemies of the Bruchus, w T hose larvae it 
detects, picks from the green pease, and devours. 
How wonderful is the instinct of this bird, which, un- 
taught by experience, can detect the lurking culprit 
within the envelope of the pod and pea : and how 
much more wonderful that of the insect ; for, as the 
welfare of its future progeny depends upon the suc- 
cession of a crop of pease the ensuing season, the 
rostellum or sprout of the pea is never injured by the 
larva, and consequently the pulse will germinate, though 
deprived of a third of its substance. 



J.3 



19 



Roots are undoubtedly the most important produc- 
tions of the vegetable garden ; and, among these, the 
potato stands first in point of utility and value. I am not 
aware that it is ever very seriously injured by insects, 
though many appear upon its leaves. The common 
potato-worm has already been noticed. A small, striped 
beetle,* of the size and shape of that appropriated to 
the cucumber, is found in abundance upon the potato ; 
and its numerous larvae, creeping about under back- 
loads of filth, riot upon the luxuriant foliage. Occasion- 
ally potato patches are ravaged by two or three species 
of Cantharides, or blistering-beetles. It is only in the 
perfect state that they are injurious to the potato-vine, 
for the larvae live in the earth upon the small roots of 
various kinds of herbage. Their appearance on the 
potato is occasional only, for they devour the leaves of 
several other plants. These native Cantharides are suc- 
cessfully employed in medicine instead of the Spanish 
Cantharides, and, were not the price of labor among 
us so high, might be procured in sufficient quantity to 
supply the demand in the markets for this important 
medicinal agent. I regret to observe that the ash-col- 
ored Cantharis t has recently appeared in great profu- 
sion upon hedges of the honey-locust, J which are 
almost defoliated by them. For many years past the 
same insects have invariably attacked the Windsor bean 
in the garden of a friend of mine in this vicinity. This 
summer they were neglected ; and the consequence 
was, that they entirely stripped the foliage from the 
stalks, so that but a small and impoverished crop of 

* Crioceris trilineata. Oliv. f Cantharis cinerea. Oliv. 

} Gleditschia triacanihos. Willd. 



o*. 



20 

beans was gathered, and the prospect of a second 
crop, usually obtained from the suckers after the stalks 
are headed down, was entirely ruined. Should the 
devastations of the Cantharides increase, it would be- 
come an object to attempt to diminish their numbers 
by collecting them for medical use. 

I am disposed to rank the turnip, as a root, next in 
value to the potato. In many countries it forms a 
large part of the vegetable sustenance of man and of 
his domestic animals. It is stated that in England, 
soon after the turnip appears above ground, a host of 
little jumping beetles, called by the farmers the fly ,* 
attack and devour the seed-leaves, so that, on account 
of this destruction, the land is often obliged to be re- 
sown, and frequently with no better success.f The 
consequent loss sustained in the turnip crops of Dev- 
onshire, in the year 1786, is estimated, in Young's 
" Annals of Agriculture," to amount, at least, to one 
hundred thousand pounds sterling. In the same country 
the caterpillar of the cabbage-butterfly % attacks the 
turnip also in great numbers. Insects allied to these 
are found upon the turnip in this country. The leaves, 
in all stages of their growth, are eaten through and 
through with numerous holes by a small, black, jumping 
beetle, a species of Haltica. Some of these insects 
infest several of our useful plants, such as the horse- 
radish, the mustard, the radish, the cucumber, &c. 
The same means for protecting these plants are to be 

* Haltica nemorum. F. 

f Kirby & Spence's Introduction to Entomology. Vol. I. (3d ed.) 
p. 188. 
\ Pontia Brassica. L. 



06 JJ 



? 



21 

used, because the habits of all the Halticas are similar. 
It has been recommended to sow a quantity of radish 
seed with the turnip seed ; for the jumping beetles are 
found to be so much more fond of the radish than of the 
turnip leaf, that it will desert the latter for the former. 
Air-slacked lime, sifted or dusted over plants, in some 
instances preserves them, and sprinkling with strong 
alkaline solutions * will kill the insects without injuring 
the plants. 

The native insect allied to the European cabbage- 
butterfly has been already mentioned.! Like its con- 
geners, it can subsist upon many and perhaps all of the 
cruciferous plants, among which are the cabbage, broc- 
coli, cauliflower, kale, radish, mustard, and turnip. It 
is of a beautiful white color, with dusky veins beneath 
the hinder wings, and in size it is rather larger than 
the small yellow butterfly of the New England States. 
Hitherto it has been observed only in the hilly regions 
of New Hampshire and of the northern part of Massa- 
chusetts. There are two broods in a season. About 
the last of May and the beginning of June the white 
butterfly may be seen fluttering over plantations of 
cabbages, and turnip and radish beds, but seems to 
prefer the turnip leaf for the place of depositing its 
eggs. These are hatched between the seventh and the 
tenth day. The caterpillars attain their full size in 
twenty-one days, and are then, on an average, one 
inch and a quarter in length. Being of a pale green 

* The solution may be made by dissolving one pound of hard soap in 
twelve gallons of the soap-suds left after washing, and it should be 
applied twice a day with a water-pot or garden engine. 

f Page 7. 



«2^ 



22 



color, they are not readily distinguished from the leaves 
under which they reside, and upon which they subsist. 
When they have completed the feeding stage, they quit 
the plants, and retire beneath palings, or the edges of 
stones, or into the interstices of walls, suspend them- 
selves by the tail and a loop around the body, and be- 
come pupae. This state lasts eleven days, at the ex- 
piration of which the insect comes forth a butterfly, 
which, during the month of August, lays the foundation 
for a second generation, and perishes. The caterpil- 
lars of the second brood become pupae or chrysalids 
in the autumn, and remain in this form until the next 
spring. In gardens and fields infested by these cater- 
pillars, boards should be placed horizontally an inch or 
two above the surface of the ground ; these would 
form a tempting shelter for the pupae, and render it 
easy for the farmer to collect and destroy them, j 

Another American butterfly,* originally appropriated 
to our native umbellate plants, has discovered the 
natural affinities of those of foreign origin, and made 
them subservient to the support of its progeny. The 
carrot, parsley, and celery of the garden appear now 
to be more subject to its attacks, than the conium and 
cicuta of the fields, though these troublesome and 
poisonous weeds are suffered to grow in unchecked 
abundance. This butterfly is one of our most common 
species ; it is of large size, of a black color, ornament- 
ed above with yellow, and beneath with tawny spots ; 
and the caterpillar, from which it proceeds, is a pale 
green, smooth worm, checkered with black and yellow 

* Papilio asterias. F. 



23 

spots. When irritated, this caterpillar has the power 
of projecting from the fore -part of its body a pair of 
orange -colored feelers, which exhale an intolerably 
nauseous odor, and, like those of the snail, can be 
withdrawn and concealed at pleasure. This scent- 
organ is given to it for repelling its enemies, and it 
has, undoubtedly, made the insect known to many 
of you. Like the caterpillar of the turnip, this retires 
from the plants when fully grown, suspends itself in 
the same way, and, in process of time, becomes a but- 
terfly. The only means that occur to me for destroy- 
ing this insect, consist in carefully picking it, in the 
caterpillar state, from the plants which it inhabits. It 
is evident, however, that this can be done only to a 
limited extent ; and, fortunately, it can be necessary 
only with respect to the parsley, for the abundant 
foliage of the other plants renders them less liable to 
suffer by the loss of a portion of it. 

The lettuce and cabbage, in common with almost 
every plant, are subject to the attack of their peculiar 
aphides, or plant-lice. The fecundity of these insects 
surpasses that of any known animal ; for Reaumur has 
proved, that, in five generations, one individual may 
become the progenitor of nearly six billions of descend- 
ants ; and many generations succeed each other in a 
single season. What is still more singular in regard 
to these insects, is their mode of increase. The first 
brood is hatched in the spring from eggs laid in the 
preceding autumn, but all the other broods during 
summer are produced alive.* Aphides, in all their 



* For some other particulars a paper, by the author, may be consulted 
in "The New England Farmer," Vol. VI. p. 393. 



24 

stages, are active, and live by suction. They are fur- 
nished with a tubular mouth or proboscis, with which 
they pierce the leaves, buds, and annual stems of 
plants, injuring and even poisoning them by their nu- 
merous punctures, and exhausting them by abstracting 
the sap for their own nourishment. Different methods 
of destroying plant-lice have been suggested, all of 
which may undoubtedly be useful. The preference, 
in my opinion, is to be given to strong soap-suds, or 
to a mixture of that with tobacco-water, thrown warm 
upon the infested plants, which afterwards should be 
thoroughly drenched with pure water, if their leaves 
are to be used as food. It is said that hot water may 
be employed with perfect safety and success to de- 
stroy these noxious insects, wherever they exist. 

An insect, called the cut-worm is the pest of the 
cabbage yard. It is a naked caterpillar, the larva of a 
moth or JYoctua, so named from its nocturnal habits. 
It passes the first two states of its existence in the 
earth, and in the last, or moth state, flies only by night. 
In the night, also, the caterpillar issues from its retreat, 
and attacks and eats off the young cabbage at its root. 
In the morning the enemy may usually be discovered 
an inch or two beneath the surface of the soil, im- 
mediately about the roots of the cabbage. Rolling 
the roots and stems of the plants in ashes or ground 
plaster before transplanting, as well as surrounding 
them with paper cylinders, has proved a preservative 
against the cut- worm. 

Cucumbers in England enjoy an immunity from 
insect assailants, but with us they are deprived of this 
privilege. Besides the minute black Haltica or jumping 



J 1J 



25 



beetle, which is so injurious to it immediately after the 
expansion of its seed-leaves, the well-known cucumber- 
fly* a little beetle, striped with black and yellow, 
devours its leaves in the spring and summer, but is 
particularly obnoxious in the early part of the season. 
The metamorphoses of this insect have not yet been 
traced, but I have reason for believing that they take 
place in the earth. Various means have been tried to 
protect the vines, and to destroy the insects upon them. 
Dr. Barton f says, that " nothing has been found so 
beneficial as a mixture of tobacco and red pepper 
sprinkled over the vines." Some have advised water- 
ing them with a solution of one ounce of Glauber's 
salts in a quart of water. One writer, in " The New- 
England Farmer," applies ground plaster ; a second, 
slacked lime ; and a third extols the use of charcoal 
dust. Some protect their young vines with millinet 
stretched upon small frames ; and others stick in the 
ground at night torches of pine knots, or splinters of 
tar-barrels, to attract and consume the insects. 

The squash, pumpkin, and melon vines are occa- 
sionally attacked by these insects, but not to so great 
an extent as the cucumber. They are, however, more 
infested by some other noxious insects. Among these 
the most redoubtable is the large squash-bug already 
noticed. % This insect conceals itself on the approach 
of winter in any crevice which will afford it shelter, 
and remains torpid until the ensuing spring, when it 
issues from its winter-quarters, and deposits its eggs 

* Galeruccb vittata. F. 

f Fragments of the Natural History of Pennsylvania. Part I. Tables, 
p. 4. | Page 12. 

4 



26 

in clusters beneath the leaves of the vine. These 
ought daily to be sought for and crushed. Whatever 
contributes to bring forward the plants rapidly, and to 
promote the vigor and luxuriance of their foliage, ren- 
ders them less liable to suffer by the exhausting punc- 
tures of the young bugs. Water drained from a cow- 
yard and similar preparations have, with this intent, 
been applied with benefit. 

During the month of August the squash and other 
cucurbitaceous vines are frequently found to die sud- 
denly down to the root. The cause of this premature 
decay is a little whitish worm or caterpillar, which be- 
gins its operations near the ground, perforates the 
stem, and devours the interior. It afterwards enters 
the soil, forms a cocoon of a coarse, silky substance, 
covered with particles of earth, changes to a chrysalis, 
and comes forth the next summer a perfect insect. 
The insect, thus disclosed, is nearly related to the 
peach-tree borer, and belongs to the same genus. It 
has been described * by the name oiJEgeria Cucurbit^ 
the trivial name indicating the family of plants on 
which the larva feeds. It is conspicuous for its orange- 
colored body, spotted with black, and its hind legs 
fringed with long orange-colored and black hairs. 
From the tenth of July till the middle of August I have 
seen it hovering over the vines, and occasionally alight- 
ing upon them close to the roots to deposit its eggs. 
From what is known of its habits, periods, and place 
of attack, it is probable that smearing the vine around 
the roots with blubber, repeatedly, during the month 
of July, may repel the invader. 

* New England Farmer. Vol. VII. p. 33. 



27 

So far as my own observations extend, the annual 
and perennial flowers that embellish our parterres and 
pleasure-grounds seem less exposed to insect depre- 
dations, than the produce of the kitchen-garden. One 
of our greatest favorites, the rose, often has its foliage 
sheared by the leaf-cutter bee, which uses the scal- 
loped fragments in the fabrication of its patch-work 
nest. That general despoiler, the rose-bug, which 
receives its name from its fondness for the petals of the 
rose, will be noticed in another place. For the extermi- 
nation of the Jlphides that infest this and other plants, 
in the garden, the parlour, or the green-house, fumiga- 
tions and decoctions of tobacco, or solutions of soap, 
may be used with advantage, as already recommended. 

Housed plants are considerably injured by an oval 
bark- louse, the Coccus Hesperidum of Linnaeus, which 
has been introduced from abroad. It looks like an 
inanimate scale adhering to the plant, and is furnished 
with a proboscis beneath the breast, through which it 
draws the sap and deprives the plant of no inconsider- 
able portion of its nutriment. By piercing them with 
a pin, they can be made to quit their hold in the early 
stages of their life ; but later they become immovably 
fixed, the males in order to undergo their last meta- 
morphosis, and the females for the purpose of deposit- 
ing their eggs. The body then hardens and becomes 
a shell, under which these operations take place. 
Subsequently the males, which are very small, and 
furnished with wings, issue backwards from their 
shells ; but the females perish without acquiring wings, 
leaving beneath them the eggs, which their lifeless 
bodies shelter till they are hatched. Another foreign 



Ify 



28 



bark-louse, called the mealy-bug, is naturalized in our 
green-houses, where it does much injury. It is the 
Coccus Jldonidum, and is at once distinguished from 
the former by the white dust with which it is covered, 
and by the cottony substance with which it envelopes 
its eggs. Bark-lice of every kind may be destroyed 
by the application of a ley of ashes, or a solution of 
potash. 

An infinite number of noxious insects invade our 
fruit-bearing trees and shrubs. It will be possible 
to notice but a few of them. Passing by, therefore, 
the minute bugs which revel upon the juices of the 
raspberry and strawberry, and make themselves known 
only by their abominable odor when crushed ; — the 
ants, wasps, and flies, which unite to rob us of our ripe 
grapes, cherries, peaches, and pears ; — the saw-fly, an 
imported insect, whose gregarious larvae devour the 
leaves of the gooseberry ; — the JEgeria* also a for- 
eigner, which, in the caterpillar state, perforates the 
stems of the currant-bush ; — the muscle-shaped bark- 
louse which adheres to the limbs, and the moth whose 
caterpillar lives in the fruit, of the apple-tree, both 
apparently introduced from abroad ; — passing by 
these, and a host besides, we must advert only to 
some of the insects, whose threatened, repeated, or 
extensive ravages render them peculiarly obnoxious 
to the lover of good fruit. 

From a period of high antiquity, the culture of the 
grape has occupied the attention of civilized man. In 
regions favorable to its growth, it forms a very con- 

* JEgtrla tipuliformis. F. 



o<* ^y j 



29 



siderable portion of the daily food of the inhabitants ; 
to the well it is one of the most wholesome and nour- 
ishing of fruits, and to the sick and feeble the most 
innocent and grateful. As a staple commodity it is an 
important source of national wealth and happiness, 
affording employment and support to a great population 
engaged in its cultivation, and in the manufacture and 
exportation of its valuable products. The insects, which 
prey upon this noble plant, have always been viewed 
with great solicitude, and, at times, the most vigorous 
individual and united efforts have been made for their 
destruction. In our own country, where the foreign 
vine is now successfully cultivated, and the native 
sorts have already been brought to yield a profitable 
vintage, some progress has been made in devising and 
putting into execution the means of limiting the ravages 
of insects. The more perfect our knowledge of these 
insects, and the more general and united our pursuit 
of them, the greater will be the success that will crown 
our efforts. 

It is said,* that some persons have entirely aban- 
doned their vines in consequence of the depredations 
of a small insect, which, for many years, was supposed 
to be the vine-fretter of Europe. So far from being 
identical, it does not belong even to the same genus, 
and its economy is widely different from that of the 
vine-fretter, puceron, or Aphis. It is described, in the 
" Encyclopaedia Americana," f by the name of Tetti- 
gonia Vitis. In its perfect state it is nearly one tenth 
of an inch long, is furnished with four wings, the under 



* Fessenden's New American Gardener. 6th ed. p. 299. 
f Vol. VIII. page 43. Article Locust. 



sp 



30 



pair, when at rest, being concealed by the upper pair, 
which are straw-colored, with two broad scarlet bands 
across them, and a black spot at the tips. On turning 
up the leaves of the vine cautiously, the insects will 
be seen in great numbers with their puncturing 
tubes thrust into the tender epidermis. When the 
vine is agitated, the little Tettigonia leap from it in 
swarms, but soon alight and recommence their destruc- 
tive operations. The infested leaves at length become 
yellow, sickly, and prematurely dry, and give to the 
plant, at midsummer, the aspect it assumes naturally 
on the approach of winter. These insects pass through 
all their metamorphoses upon the plant ; the wingless 
larvae and pupae are active, have a general resemblance 
to the perfect insect, and feed together in the same 
manner beneath the leaves, where also are found ad- 
hering innumerable empty skins, cast off by them in 
their progress to maturity. They survive the winter 
in the perfect state, hybernating beneath sticks, stones, 
and fallen leaves, and among the roots of grass. The 
Tettigonia of the vine is more hardy, and more viva- 
cious than the Aphis ; hence the applications that have 
proved destructive to the latter are by no means so 
efficacious with the former. Fumigations of tobacco, 
beneath a movable tent placed over the trellises, an- 
swer the purpose completely. They require frequent 
repetition and considerable care to prevent the escape 
and ensure the destruction of the insects ; circum- 
stances which render the discovery of some more 
expeditious method an object of great importance to 
those whose vineyards are extensive. 



31 

The natural history of the rose-bug, one of the most 
powerful assailants of the vine, was for a long time 
involved in mystery, but is at last fully cleared up.* 
Fabricius, a German naturalist, was the first to give a 
scientific description of this insect, which he received 
from America, and applied to it the name of Melolon- 
tha subspinosa. Its prevalence upon the rose, and its 
annual appearance coinciding with the blossoming of 
that flower, have gained for it the popular name by 
which it is here known. For some time after they 
were first noticed, rose-bugs appeared to be confined 
to their favorite, the rose ; but within twenty years they 
have prodigiously increased in number, have attacked 
indiscriminately various kinds of plants, and have be- 
come notorious for their extensive and deplorable 
ravages. The grape-vine in particular, the cherry, 
plum, and apple trees have annually suffered by their 
depredations ; many other fruit-trees and shrubs, gar- 
den vegetables and corn, and even the trees of the 
forest and the grass of the fields, have been laid under 
contribution by these indiscriminate feeders, by whom 
leaves, flowers, and fruits are alike consumed. The 
simultaneous appearance of these insects in swarms, 
and their sudden disappearance, are remarkable facts 
in their history. They arrive early in June, and con- 
tinue for about a month. At the expiration of this 
time, the males become exhausted, fall to the ground, 
and perish, while the females enter the earth, lay their 
eggs, and also die. The eggs laid by each female are 
about thirty in number, are deposited from one to four 

* See The Massachusetts Agricultural Repository (for July, 1827), 
Vol. X. p. 1, &c. ; also the New England Farmer. Vol. VI. pp. 18, 
41, 49, &c. 



ISO 



32 



Inches beneath the surface of the soil, and are usually 
hatched in twenty days. At the close of summer the 
larvae, which are whitish grubs, attain their full size, 
being then nearly three quarters of an inch long, de- 
scend below the reach of frost, and pass the winter in 
a torpid state. In the spring they approach the sur- 
face, form little cells or cavities by compressing the 
earth around them, and become pupae. This change 
occurs during the month of May ; and in the beginning 
of June, having divested themselves of their pupa- 
skins, they emerge from the earth in their perfect state. 
Such being the metamorphoses and habits of these 
insects, it is evident that we cannot attack them in the 
egg, the larva, or the chrysalis state ; the enemy, in 
these stages, is beyond our reach, and is subject to 
the control only of the natural but inscrutable means 
appointed by the Author of Nature to keep the insect 
tribes in check. When they have issued from their 
subterranean retreats, and have congregated upon our 
vines, trees, and other vegetable productions, in the 
complete enjoyment of their propensities, we must 
unite our efforts to seize and crush the invaders. 
They must indeed be crushed, scalded, or burned, to 
deprive them of life, for none of the applications usually 
found destructive to other insects seem to affect these. 
Experience has proved the utility of gathering them 
by hand, or of shaking them into vessels. They should 
be collected daily during the period of their visitation. 
Mr. Lowell* states, that in 1823 he discovered, on a 
solitary apple-tree, the rose-bugs " in vast numbers, 

* Mass. Agr. Repos. Vol. IX. page 145. 



°ZSI 



33 

such as could not be described, and would not be 
believed if they were described, or, at least, none but 
an ocular witness could conceive of their numbers. 
Destruction by hand was," in this case, " out of the 
question." He put sheets under the tree, and shook 
them down, and burnt them. Rose-bugs are day- 
fliers, and do not use their wings readily during the 
night, which would therefore be the most suitable time 
to perform the operation mentioned by Mr. Lowell. 
Dr. Green, of Mansfield, whose investigations * have 
rendered the history of this insect complete, proposes 
protecting particular plants with millinet, and says that 
in this way only did he succeed in securing his grape- 
vines from depredation. A strong mixture of black 
pepper and tobacco in water was applied by^him with a 
brush to the leaves and fruit ; but it came short of the 
end desired. Air- slacked lime or flowers of sulphur, 
dusted upon and beneath the leaves when wet wdth 
dew, have, in several instances, under my own obser- 
vation, partially screened them from attack. Of late 
years the rose-bug has perceptibly diminished in num- 
bers ; but I regret to observe, that it is likely to be 
replaced by a destroyer of the same genus* with simi- 
lar habits and powers. This insect is of a broad oval 
shape, of a rust color, and rather larger in size than 
the rose-bug. It is the Melolontha varians of Fabricius, 
and is closely allied to the vine -chaffer, so destructive 
to the vine in Europe. The leaves of the wild grape^ 
vine are its natural food, but, like the rose -bug, it is not 
particular in its choice. In the year 1825 I first 

* New England Farmer, Vol. VI. pages 41, 49, &e. 

5 



34 

observed it on the foreign grape-vine, in a garden in 
this vicinity. In a late visit to the same spot, I found it 
in great numbers on this vine, and also upon several 
kinds of garden vegetables. A much larger beetle,* of 
a brownish yellow color, with eight black spots on its 
back, also feeds upon the leaves of the cultivated and 
wild grape. These insects are to be combated by the 
same means that have been found successful against 
the rose -bug. 

The larvae of three species of Sphinx,] whose meta- 
morphoses are similar to those of the potato-worm, 
devour the leaves of the vine. They are large, fleshy, 
naked caterpillars, feeding mostly at night, and re- 
maining at rest during the day-time, when they will 
sit with the head and fore part of the body erect in the 
most self- sufficient and dogged manner for hours. 
From this odd attitude, resembling that of the fabulous 
Sphinx sculptured by the ancient Egyptians, the genus 
received its name. Three or four of these insects are 
able to devour every leaf upon a vine ; but their 
ravages early betray them, and render it easy to arrest 
them in their career. 

Omitting several other insects of minor powers, 
I shall close my list of the assailants of the vine with a 
few observations upon a species of Tenthredo, J or 
saw-fly, whose gradually increasing ravages I have 
long noticed. This insect does not appear to have 
been named or described, at least it is not to be iden- 
tified by any description accessible to me. In its 

* Melolontha punctata. L. 

f Sphinx Grantor, Cramer ; S. satellitia ? ,. Drury ' T and & pam- 
mnatrix, Smith. 

I Tenthredo (Selandria) Vitis. Harris.- 



<tS3 

35 

perfect state it is a little four- winged fly, of a jet-black 
color, except the thorax, or part of the back between 
the wings, which is red, and the legs, which are varie- 
gated with pale yellow. The body of the female 
measures one quarter of an inch in length, that of the 
male is somewhat shorter. Small and apparently 
innocuous as these insects are, each pair may become 
the progenitors of forty or fifty destructive larvae. The 
flies rise from the ground in the spring, not all at one 
time, but at irregular intervals, and deposit their eggs 
beneath the terminal leaves of the vine. The larvae, 
unlike those of the saw-fly of the cherry-tree, are long 
and cylindrical, resembling caterpillars ; they feed in 
company, side by side, beneath the leaves, each fra- 
ternity consisting of a dozen or more individuals. 
Commencing upon the first leaf, at its edge, they 
devour the whole of it, then proceed to the next, and 
so on successively down the branch, till all the leaves 
have disappeared, or till the insects have reached 
their full size. They then average five eighths of an 
inch in length ; the head and tip of the tail are black, 
and the body is pale green, with transverse rows of 
minute black points. Having finished the feeding state, 
they leave the vine, enter the earth, form for them- 
selves small oval cells, change to pupae, in due time 
emerge from the earth in the perfect state, and lay 
their eggs for a second brood. The larvae of this 
second brood are not transformed to flies until the 
ensuing spring, but remain torpid in their earthen cells 
through the winter. During the present summer many 
vines have been entirely stripped of their leaves by 
these insects, and the evil seems evidently on the 



o25^ 

36 

increase. Air- slacked lime, which is fatal to these 
larvae, should be dusted upon them ; and the ground 
beneath the vines should also be strewed with it or 
with ashes, to ensure the destruction of those that fall. 
A solution of one pound of common hard soap in five 
or six gallons of soft water, is used by English garden- 
ers to destroy the Tenthredo of the gooseberry, and 
might perhaps be equally destructive to that of the 
grape-vine. It is applied warm, by means of a garden 
engine, early in the morning or in the evening. 

The slug-worm, which in some seasons does so 
much injury to the cherry, pear, and plum trees, is a 
species of Tenthredo, agreeing in its metamorphoses 
with that just mentioned, but differing from it in some 
of its habits and in its appearance. The excellent 
and well-known history * of this insect, by Professor 
Peck, has left for me nothing to say, excepting that 
ashes or lime, sifted upon the trees by means of the 
simple apparatus recommended by Mr. Lowell, is fully 
adequate to the destruction of the slugs. 

The cherry-tree annually suffers to a greater or less 
extent from the destruction of its foliage by the beetle 
or dorr-bug.\ From the middle of May till the end of 
June, myriads of these large brown beetles congregate 
at night upon our fruit-trees ; the air is filled with 
swarms of them rushing with headlong and booming 
flight, and impinging against every obstacle ; while the 
very grass beneath our feet seems alive and rustling 
with the new-born beetles issuing from the soil, and 
essaying their untried wings. The metamorphoses of 

* Natural History of the Slug- worm. 8yo. Boston. 1799. 
| Melolontha Quercina. Knoch, 



£sh* 



37 



these insects have already been explained.* Their 
larvae continue in the soil three years, devour the roots 
of the grasses, and destroy them sometimes to such an 
extent, that the turf may be raised and rolled up like a 
carpet.f In the evening these beetles may be shaken 
from our young fruit-trees, and gathered in cloths 
spread to receive them. A writer in the " New York 
Evening Post " observes, that on the very first experi- 
ment two pails -full of beetles were thus collected. 

Cherries, in common with most other stone-fruits, 
are often found to contain grubs within them ; and it 
has been confidently and repeatedly asserted, that 
these were produced by the May-beetle, or Melolon- 
tha just mentioned. This is one of the many errors 
committed by persons unacquainted with Entomology ; 
and its correction is of importance to nomenclature, 
and, in its results, to horticulture. The real source of 
this mischief is a kind of weevil, called by Herbst, its 
first describer, Curculio nenuphar, and re-described by 
Professor Peck, J by the name of Rhynchcenus CerasL 
This insect is one fifth of an inch long, of a dark brown 
color, clothed with minute reddish and white hairs, and 
its wing- shells are covered with tubercles. It is fur- 
nished with a curved rostrum or snout, with which it 
inflicts its noxious punctures. Repeatedly has this 
insect been raised from the larvae or grubs, that are so 
well known to occasion the premature ripening and 
fall of the plum, cherry, nectarine, apricot, and peach. 



* Page 12. 

f This actually happened on the farm of John Prince, Esq. at Rox- 
bury. 
I Mass. Agr. Repos. & Journal. Vol. V. page 312, 



38 

Professor Peck also obtained it from the grubs that 
inhabit the excrescences of the cherry-tree ; and 
hence there is reason for believing, that those which 
are found in similar excrescences, that deform the 
limbs of the plum-tree, are produced by the same 
insect. Further observations are requisite to clear up 
this point. The larvae, whatever they may be, leave 
the diseased branches near the end of June ; hence is 
established the expediency of extirpating and burning 
the tumors early in that month. Those that inhabit 
the fruits above mentioned, enter the earth soon after 
the fall of the fruits, and pass through their last changes 
in the course of three weeks afterwards. Fallen stone- 
fruit should therefore be gathered without delay, and 
be given to swine. 

Peach-trees once were the glory of our gardens 
and orchards, yielding their rich fruit in such abun- 
dance, that not only were our tables amply supplied, 
but it was used by the distiller for the purpose of 
being converted into spirit, and by the farmer to feed 
his swine. These valuable trees are now the victims 
of disease and the prey of insects. From persons 
skilled in vegetable physiology and meteorology we 
have yet to learn, how far solar, atmospheric, and ter- 
restrial influences are concerned in exciting the various 
diseases with which they are annually attacked and 
contaminated; what treatment can be adopted for 
those which are upon the decline ; and what changes in 
soil, aspect, and management, will ensure the continued 
health of the young and vigorous. It is certain that 
Aphides and a species of Thrips attack the leaves, 
puncture, poison, and exhaust them, and occasion 



*SJ 



39 



them in time to curl up, thicken, and perish. The 
enemy is readily discovered, living in numbers within 
the little hollow, red convexities that deform the leaves : 
but it is not equally certain that these insects are the 
cause of the sudden disease, which, like a pestilential 
miasm, pervades the foliage, rapidly changes its struc- 
ture, suspends its vital functions, and causes it prema- 
turely to wither and fall. In some instances that have 
fallen under my own observation, no insects could be 
discovered beneath the leaves ; and the symptoms of 
disease were too recent and sudden in their appearance 
to have originated from such a source. The means of 
destroying Aphides are readily obtained and applied. 
Solutions of soap, and weak alkaline liquors, used 
warm, and thrown up by a garden engine, are the 
proper remedies. 

Nor is it difficult to guard the peach-tree against the 
borer, which attacks it near the root, or at that place 
denominated the neck, the most vital part of the tree. 
More than six years ago the following means were 
pointed out,* and success has uniformly attended their 
use. Remove the earth around the neck of the tree y 
crush or burn the cocoons and larvae existing there^ 
apply the common composition or wash for fruit-trees^ 
and surround the trunk with a strip of sheathing-paper, 
eight or nine inches wide, which should extend one or 
two inches below the level of the soil, and be secured 
with strings of matting above. Fresh mortar should 
be placed around the root, so as to confine the paper 
and prevent access beneath it, and the remaining cavity 

may be filled with fresh loam. This plan, if pursued 

. - — — — _/ 

* New England Farmer, Vol. V. page 3& 



J. si 

40 

every summer, will effectually protect the tree from 
being girdled at its most vital part ; and although the 
insects may occasionally attack the unprotected trunk 
and limbs, the injury will be comparatively slight and 
never fatal. Scalding water, and also soap-suds, poured 
round the root, have been highly recommended, both 
for destroying the grubs and for restoring the vigor of 
the tree. This remedy, from its simplicity, is deserving 
of further trial. The peach-tree borer is entirely dis- 
tinct, in all its stages, metamorphoses, and habits, from 
that which perforates the apple-tree. It is a whitish 
caterpillar, furnished with legs. Soon after it is hatched, 
it penetrates the cuticle, and lives upon the inner bark 
and alburnum or new wood, being often involved in 
great quantities of gum which issue from the wounds. 
During the winter it remains torpid ; but in the course 
of the spring it resumes its operations, and sooner or 
later constructs a cocoon from grains of the bark ce- 
mented by a glutinous matter, becomes a chrysalis, 
eventually bursts open its cocoon, and is changed 
to a four-winged insect. It deposits its eggs upon the 
bark of the tree near the root, soon after its ultimate 
metamorphosis is completed, which has been observed 
to take place from the middle of July to the last of 
September. In the " American Entomology " of Mr. 
Say, this insect is correctly figured and described by 
the name oiJEgeria exitiosa. 

None of our fruit-trees are so long-lived as the pear, 
and none have been so free from insect assailants. 
The slug of the saw-fly, as already mentioned, occa- 
sionally robs it of its foliage, and a minute wood-eating 
insect has lately preyed upon its limbs. The latter 



<jsy 



41 

insect, named Scolytus Pyri by Professor Peck, who 
detected the culprit in a withered branch of the pear- 
tree, has produced a great deal of discussion in the 
horticultural papers, which it is not my intention or 
desire to renew. Permit me, however, to remark, 
that, though long and carefully sought for in the blasted 
limbs and trunks of these trees, neither the insect in 
question nor its track has been found by me, and 
that the only specimen in my possession was, with 
many others, discovered by a friend in Worcester in 
the diseased limbs of his pear-trees. It is, therefore, 
not in my power to add any thing to the account pub- 
lished by Professor Peck.* His testimony, drawn 
from personal inspection of the seat and mode of attack 
selected by the insect, others have confirmed by their 
own observations heretofore made public ; and there 
can be no doubt that the Scolytus is capable of doing 
extensive injury ; indeed, from what we know of the 
habits of its nearest allies, we have every reason to 
fear, that, if permitted to increase in number, its pow- 
ers will eventually be beyond control. It is gener- 
ally admitted, if the leaves on the extreme branches 
of the pear-tree should suddenly wither in the months 
of July and August, that it is highly important imme- 
diately to cut off the affected and blackened limbs at 
some distance below the apparent extent of the injury ; 
and if, on a careful examination, these limbs are found 
to contain insects, they should undoubtedly be burned 
without delay. 

* Massachusetts Agricultural Repository, Vol. IV. page 205. 

6 



JL<*t> 



42 



To the inhabitants of New England, and even of 
the Middle States, the apple-tree is far more useful and 
important than any, and perhaps all, of the other fruit- 
bearing plants. This invaluable foreign tree has con- 
tinued to flourish in despite of the numerous insect 
foes, that have come with it to claim the rights of natu- 
ralization, and of those indigenous to the country, 
which have never ceased to molest it and dispute its 
claim to the soil. Among the former may be enume- 
rated several kinds of Aphides, which infest its leaves ; 
the muscle-shaped bark-louse,* and another species 
of Coccus,f of a larger size and broader form, both suf- 
ficiently described in " The New England Farmer " ; J 
the caterpillar, that lives beneath the rugged bark of the 
tree, and is ultimately changed to a moth ; § another 
caterpillar, |[ called here the apple -worm, that feeds in 
the centre of the apple and causes it prematurely to 
fall, an insect well known both in England and France ; 
the tent-making insect, called here, by way of distinc- 
tion, the caterpillar,^, which is also an imported spe- 
cies ; and the misnamed American blight, an Aphis ** 
clothed with a cottony fleece, which has been known 
in this country comparatively but a short time. Not to 
detain you by any further remarks upon these insects, 
I will only state, that the apple-worm is not, as has 
been asserted, the young of a curculio, nor of the 

* Coccus arborum linearis. Geoffroy. 

f Coccus cryptogamus ? Dalmann. 

X Vol. VII. pages 186, 289. 

§ Tinea corticalis. F. 

|| Tortrix pomana. F. See Rosel, Vol. I. Class IV. PI. 13. 

IT Bombyx castrensis. L. 

** Aphis lanigera. F. Eriosoma Mali. Leach. 



a^l 



43 

beetle or May -bug; but that it proceeds from a moth, 
of which an account, by Joseph Tufts, Esq., was printed 
in the Journal of the Massachusetts Agricultural Socie- 
ty,* and that it has also been described by the Euro- 
pean naturalists Rosel and Reaumur. These worms or 
caterpillars instinctively leave the fruit soon after it 
falls from the tree, and retire to some place of con- 
cealment to become pupse ; in order, therefore, to 
get rid of these noxious vermin it is necessary daily 
to gather wind-fall apples, and make such immediate 
use of them as will ensure the destruction, or prevent 
the metamorphoses, of the insects. 

A sketch of the history of the common caterpillar of 
the apple-tree has already been given, f Crushing 
them while young and within their encampments, is 
the best mode of destroying them. The use and 
merits of the brush, invented by Col. Pickering, are 
too well known and appreciated to require any ad- 
ditional recommendation. It is much to be wished, 
that some penalty could be enforced against those 
who neglect to employ the appropriate means for 
destroying caterpillars in the proper season, and thus 
expose their neighbours' orchards to continued depre- 
dations. 

It is highly probable that the canker-worm moth J 
will prove to be identical with the Phalcena brumata, or 

* Vol. IV. page 364. f Page 14. 

I Phalcena (Geometra) vernata. Peck. See his Prize Essay, published 
in the " Papers of the Massachusetts Agricultural Society " for 1796. 
See also the Rev. Noah Atwater's Prize Essay, ibid. ; Dr. Mitchell's 
Remarks on the Canker- Worm, in the " New York Magazine," Vol. VI. 
p. 201, with a plate; Dr. R. Green on the same insect, in "The 
Medical and Agricultural Register" for 1806, p. 134. 



js_4> X) 



AA 



winter moth of Europe ; their external appearance and 
habits correspond, and the difference in the season of 
their occurrence in the perfect state may be occasioned 
only by difference of climate. The canker-worm is 
very irregular in its visitations. For a long period our 
orchards may be entirely exempt from attack, and 
then, during several successive years, immense num- 
bers will appear, overspread fruit and forest trees, and 
deprive them of their leaves at midsummer, when the 
loss is most serious in its consequences. It is stated,* 
that whole forests have perished, when thus stripped 
of their sheltering foliage. Almost all insects, in the 
perfect state, are furnished with wings : this insect is 
an exception ; for, as you well know, the female is 
without them ; a deprivation that fortunately confines 
the individual within a limited space, and renders the 
migrations of the species slow and precarious. It was 
for a while supposed, that these insects rose from the 
earth only in the spring ; but it is ascertained that many 
of them do also appear in the autumn or early part of 
winter. In this vicinity f more were seen during the 
month of October, 1831, than in the ensuing spring. 
Irregularities in the period of the last developement of 
insects are not unfrequent, and they are evidently 
designed to secure the species from extinction. Com- 
plete exemption from the ravages of the canker-worm 
will depend upon keeping the wingless females from 
ascending the body of the tree to deposit their eggs. 
Many expedients to this end have, at various times, 

* Kalra. Travels, Vol. II. page 7. 

\ I noticed their occurrence in the autumn in Cambridge, where, in 
the open winter of 1830-31, an intelligent friend observed them 
ascending in every month. 



**£>3 



45 



been suggested ; but on trial none have stood the 
test of experience so well as the application of tar 
around the trunks. This should be used both late in 
the autumn and early in the spring, according to rules 
which are sufficiently understood. Attempts have 
been made * to destroy the insects in the pupa state 
by turning up the soil, and exposing them to the action 
of the frost, and by covering the earth an inch thick, 
and to the extent of three or four feet around the tree, 
with lime.f Should this practice supersede the neces- 
sity of tarring, it will not only be an important saving 
of time and expense, but will amply remunerate the 
farmer by the improved condition of the land, and the 
greater amount of the fruit. 

Apple-trees, throughout our country, are subject to 
the attack of a borer, a native insect ; nor is there any 
one so extensively and constantly prevalent. Notwith- 
standing the exertions annually made to banish it from 
the orchard and nursery, year after year it makes its 
appearance. The reasons of this are to be found in 
the economy of the insect, and in individual neglect, 
neither of which has excited sufficient attention. The 
common use of the term borer is deceptive and incor- 
rect ; but, when coupled with that of the plant upon 
which it preys, is admissible. There is, in fact, an im- 
mense number of kinds of insects, all agreeing in their 
habits of boring the trunks and limbs of trees, but 
differing essentially from each other in appearance, 

* See a paper by the Hon. John Lowell in the fourth volume of" The 
Massachusetts Agricultural Repository"; also, one by Mr. Roland 
Howard, in " The New England Farmer," Vol. IV. p. 391 ; and Pro- 
fessor Peck's communication, in " The Massachusetts Agricultural Re- 
pository," Vol. IV. p. 89. 

t Mass. Agr. Repos. Vol. III. p. 317. 



o^~ 



46 

periods, and metamorphoses, and as much in their 
choice of food. No one ever reared the JEgeria exi- 
tiosa from the apple-tree borer, nor could the latter 
subsist in the peach-tree. Certain species of borers 
are confined absolutely to one species of plant, while 
other species live indiscriminately upon several plants 
of the same natural family ; but there are few or none 
which exceed these limits. The borer of the apple- 
tree, or, in other words, the striped Saperda* lives, in 
the larva state, within the trunks of several pome- 
bearing plants, such as the apple-tree, quince,t medlar, 
and the near allies of the last, the June-berry and 
choke-berry bush, with other species of Jlronia. In- 
digenous plants of this last genus are its natural food, 
the perfect insects being found upon their leaves, and 
the larvae in their stems. This Saperda, after its final 
change, leaves the trunks of the trees to fulfill the last 
injunctions of nature. It is then furnished with ample 
wings beneath its striped shells, that give to it con- 
siderable powers of flight, which it does not fail to use 
in searching for the tender leaves and fruits of plants, 
upon which for a short period it subsists, in seeking 
a mate, and in selecting a proper place for the depo- 
sition of its eggs. Many orchards suffer from the ne- 
glect of their proprietors ; the trees are permitted to 
remain, year after year, without any pains being taken 
to destroy the numerous and various insects that infest 
them ; old orchards, especially, are overlooked, and not 
only the rugged trunks of the trees, but even a forest 
of unpruned suckers around them, are left to the undis- 

* Saperda bivittata. Say. 

f Also the Hawthorn and Mountain Ash, of the same family. 



<^Ls 



47 



turbed possession and perpetual inheritance of the 
Saperda. Did this slovenly and indolent practice 
affect only the owner of the neglected domain, we 
should have no reason for complaint ; but when the 
interests of the community are exposed by the har- 
bouring of such hosts of noxious insects, which annually 
issue from their places of refuge and overspread the 
neighbouring country, when our best endeavours are 
thus frustrated, have we not sufficient cause for serious 
accusation against those who have fostered our assail- 
ants 1 No plants are more abundant in our forests 
and fields, than the native medlars or aronias, that 
originally constituted the appropriate food of the striped 
Saperda. Taking into view T , therefore, the profusion 
of its natural food, its ample means of migration, and 
the culpable neglect of many of our farmers, we cannot 
be surprised that this insect is so generally and con- 
stantly prevalent. On the means that have been used 
to exterminate it I shall make but few remarks. Kil- 
ling it by a wire thrust into the holes it inhabits, is one 
of the oldest, safest, and most successful methods. 
Cutting out the larva, with a knife or gouge, is the 
most common practice; but it is feared that these 
instruments have sometimes been used without suf- 
ficient caution. A third method, which has more than 
once been suggested, consists in plugging the holes 
with soft wood. To this it has been objected, that 
the remedy is applied too late, or after the insect has 
issued from the tree. Now this is a gratuitous assump- 
tion, and made without adverting to the habits of the 
insect. The presence of the borer is detected by the 
recent castings around the roots of the tree ; and upon 



48 

examination it will be be found, that these castings 
proceed from a hole or boles, and that they are daily 
thrown out by the insects to give themselves room in 
their cylindrical burrows, as well as to admit the air. 
Before completing its last metamorphosis, the borer 
gnaws, Irom the other end of its tube, a passage quite 
to the bark, which, however, it leaves untouched until 
the month of June, when, having become a winged 
insect, it perforates the covering of bark, and makes 
its exit from the tree. It cannot turn in its burrow, 
nor does it ever leave it at its lower orifice. Those 
persons, who have recommended plugging the holes, 
never contemplated stopping any but those where the 
insects enter, and from whence they expel their excre- 
mentitious castings. By what I have seen of this 
practice I am persuaded, that, if done at an early 
period of the insect's life, it will be followed by suc- 
cessful results. 

Some of the remarks made upon the immunity 
enjoyed by this Saperda and upon its powers of mi- 
gration, will apply to many other noxious insects ; and 
hence it becomes a serious question, what further steps 
shall be taken to secure the productions of the garden, 
orchard, and field, from their ravages. As an essen- 
tial prerequisite, every opportunity should be employed, 
and every facility afforded, for obtaining a thorough 
knowledge of Entomology. Vain will be most of 
our attempts to repel the threatened attack or actual 
invasion of these creeping and winged foes, unless we 
can detect them in their various disguises, and dis- 
cover their places of temporary concealment. Those 
who would undertake to investigate the history of 



&LJ 



49 

insects, should go to the task with minds previously 
disciplined by habits of close observation and discrimi- 
nation, and stored with the results of others' labors in 
this department of science. Art is too long and life 
too short to permit or justify unaided devotion to any 
science. If a liberal and enlightened community make 
the demand, our public institutions will no longer be 
without the works of those who have preceded the 
rising generation in these scientific pursuits ; and the 
first principles of Entomology will no longer be omitted 
among the elementary studies of the young. Let us 
look to all branches of Natural History, and discover, 
by a more intimate knowledge of them, wherein 
through ignorance we have gone astray, and let us, 
if possible, retrace our steps. Were the services of the 
feathered race sufficiently known and duly appreciated, 
the exterminating war now waged against them would 
cease. But it is not to birds alone that we are indebt- 
ed for diminishing the numbers of noxious insects ; 
various quadrupeds, reptiles, and fish contribute to keep 
them in check, some living partially, and others entirely, 
upon insect food. Among the advantages that may be 
expected to arise from associations like yours, Gentle- 
men, is the adoption of universal and simultaneous 
efforts to repel and destroy noxious insects. Should 
your own example and influence be ineffectual, it is 
not unreasonable to expect legislative aid. If, in the 
season appointed for the annual visitation of each 
destructive kind, it were to become an object of pur- 
suit and extermination, and if every proprietor were 
obliged to destroy the more common insects on his 
own grounds, our gardens, nurseries, orchards, and 

7 



50 

fields would no longer be despoiled of their best pro- 
ductions. The animals that assist in keeping the 
insect tribes in check, deserve and should receive 
protection, and may well be permitted to glean from 
our abundant harvests their scanty remuneration. 

When their merits are better understood, we shall 
be in no danger of mistaking our friends, of the insect 
race, for the foes whose ravages we deplore. Of 
insects that are indirectly beneficial to us, may be 
mentioned those that remove animal and vegetable 
nuisances. Through the unremitted exertions of these 
little scavengers, all offensive animal substances and 
decayed vegetation are reduced to their primitive ele- 
ments, and incorporated with the soil, which is thus 
rendered more fertile, while the air above it becomes 
pure and salubrious. Others are the lions, the tigers, 
the exterminating animals of prey, of the insect world ; 
living wholly by rapine, and chiefly too upon those 
•insects that are destructive to vegetation, they appear 
destined to restrain their ravages, and are therefore to 
be accounted benefactors to ourselves and to the use- 
ful animals that depend upon the products of the soil 
for support. Besides being the appropriate food 
of many beasts, birds, and fishes, and being useful to 
the sportsman by affording him various tempting baits, 
as well as lines for his hooks, insects are actually em- 
ployed by man as nutritious and palatable articles of 
sustenance in many parts of the world. It has been 
remarked, that "probably a large proportion of insects 
were intended by Providence for food, and that, if we 
will not eat them, it is unreasonable to complain of 
their numbers." To insects are we indebted for many 



51 

valuable drugs employed in medicine and the arts, and 
to them also for materials for clothing, unrivalled in 
richness and durability by any animal or vegetable 
fabric. 

In addition to the obvious and salutary influence 
which insects are appointed to exert in keeping within 
due bounds the luxuriance of vegetation, they are of 
immense importance to plants in disseminating the 
fertilizing principle of blossoms. This principle, a 
yellow dust, called pollen, is brought, through the 
agency of insects that frequent flowers, into immediate 
contact with the organ which contains the yet un- 
formed or infertile seeds, that afterwards expand and 
are brought to perfection. Without this agency many 
plants would never mature their fruits, and others 
would yield no fertile seeds. Notwithstanding all that 
has been said to the contrary, it is evident that the 
bee was as much made for the blossom, as the blossom 
for the bee. Are not the beauty and harmony of the 
creation, and the mutual dependence of its various 
portions, strikingly exemplified in the relations subsist- 
ing between insects and plants 1 Allured by the 
attractions of flowers, insects confer an immediate 
benefit upon them by ensuring the fertility of their 
seeds, while, by a virtuous theft, they seek to rifle 
them of their sweets. 

The consequences resulting from the actual or an- 
ticipated introduction of insects into various countries 
are of very considerable importance in political, me- 
chanical, and agricultural economy. It is related that 
Kalm, the Swedish traveller, after his return from 
America, was filled with consternation upon discover- 



x 1 



52 



ing the pea Bruchus in a parcel of pease brought from 
this country, fearing, and very justly too, that he might 
be the instrument of introducing so noxious an insect 
into his beloved Sweden. Greater was the panic and 
more serious were the consequences to the British 
nation, arising from ignorance and error respecting the 
Hessian-fly. In 1788 the ravages of this insect had 
become so great in New York, New Jersey, and 
Pennsylvania, that an alarm was excited in England 
by an unfounded fear of importing it in cargoes of 
wheat from this country. After the subject had occu- 
pied the Privy Council and the Royal Society a long 
time, during which despatches were forwarded to his 
majesty's ministers in France, Austria, Prussia, and 
America, and expresses were sent to all the custom- 
houses to search the cargoes, — a mass of documents, 
amounting to above two hundred octavo pages, was 
collected, which, so far from affording any correct 
information on the subject, led only to the obnoxious 
and mistaken policy of prohibiting the importation of 
American grain, and ordering that which had arrived 
to be seized and stored. In the mean time the cele- 
brated Dr. Currie, of Liverpool, who had resided in 
this country, and knew something of the history of our 
miscalled Hessian-fly, pointed out to the committee of 
investigation the errors they had fallen into ; but, in 
consequence of political prejudice, it was not till many 
months afterwards, upon a confirmation of his state- 
ment being received from America, that the British 
government saw fit to reverse its orders, and take 
upon itself the expense to which it had put the parties 
by its ignorance. If, as soon as the ravages of this 



ol7/ 



>3 



insect had become notorious in America, an entomolo- 
gist could have been found to trace out its metamor- 
phoses and the brief duration of its existence, this 
panic and expense would have been avoided. So 
true is it, that a thorough knowledge of insects will 
serve to dissipate many unnecessary alarms, or will 
point out when and how preventive means may most 
effectually be adopted. One of our greatest philoso- 
phers, yea, one of the greatest that modern ages has 
produced, Franklin, did not deem it beneath his dignity 
to descend from the region of the clouds and investi- 
gate the transformations of a musquito : nor were his 
investigations without a useful result ; for, by directing 
us to cover our rain-water hogsheads and cisterns, he 
taught us how to put a stop to the multiplication of 
these insects around our dwellings. But the most 
remarkable triumph of science over the powers of 
insects was that achieved by Linnaeus. Being em- 
ployed by the king of Sweden to discover the cause 
of the rapid decay of the timber in the dock-yards, he 
traced it to the operations of insects ; and having 
ascertained the period of their metamorphoses, he 
directed the timber to be immersed in water during 
the time that the insects deposited their eggs, and 
thus secured it against further depredation. 

Horticulture and Agriculture have already derived 
some benefit from Entomology; and more is to be 
expected, when a larger number of individuals shall 
be found to undertake the necessary investigations. 
Guided by a knowledge of the habits, changes, and 
period of existence of each noxious insect, the culti- 
vator will find the way for successful experiment 



<&** I A-^ 



54 



clearly marked out to him. Correct descriptions and 
scientific names of insects will obviate much of the 
confusion existing in regard to them, and will enable 
the future investigator to transmit to others, without 
the risk of mistake, the useful results of his observa- 
tions. The prejudices of mankind have attached an 
idea of insignificance and worthlessness to the pursuits 
of the Entomologist; but these prejudices can no 
longer rest in any but contracted minds. However 
minute or mean, insects, individually considered, may 
seem, they cannot be accounted beneath our notice 
when they are found able to lay waste our most val- 
uable possessions, to counteract our agricultural plans, 
and to deprive us of the pleasure and profit of our 
labors. 



oc» 



FOURTH 
ANNIVERSARY FESTIVAL 



OF THE 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY, 



1* 



The Anniversary of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society was 
celebrated on the third of October. At noon a Discourse was 
delivered, by Dr. Thaddeus William Harris, to the members of the 
Society and a respectable and intelligent audience of ladies and gentle- 
men, assembled at the Masonic Temple. 

The display of Fruits and Flowers in the Dining-Hall was much 
superior to what could have been anticipated from a season so inau- 
spicious as the present to their production. It seemed that neither 
cold nor cholera could check the course of cultivation, nor prevent 
the display of that dominion of mind over matter, which moderates 
and modifies the untoward eccentricities of the elements, and gives 
the vegetable productions of every climate to seasons and soils appar- 
ently very unfit for their developement. 

The following are some of the donations of Fruits and Flowers, 
which were presented for the festival. 

Jacob Tidd, Roxbury ; three very large clusters of Grapes, called 
Horatio Grapes, the largest weighing 2 lbs. 13£ ozs. Mrs. Timothy 
Bigelow, Medford ; two elegant Roman Cypress trees, Lemons, and 
clusters of Lemons, weighing 3 lbs., 2 lbs. J 5 ozs., and 2 lbs. 6 ozs. 
James Read, Esq., Roxbury ; uncommonly large Porter Apples, fine 
Dahlias, Roses, &c. Thomas Whitmarsh, Esq., Brookline ; three fine 
clusters of Hamburg Grapes, two baskets of Lady Pears, Dahlias, and 
two fine clusters of St. Peter's Grapes. Enoch Bartlett, Esq., Roxbury; 
very fine Bartlett and Capiaumont Pears ; Ribstone Pippin, Porter, and 
Moody Apples ; and Dahlias. David Haggerston, Charlestown ; 
three baskets of beautiful Black Hamburg and White Sweet- Water 
Grapes, a fine specimen of the Brugnon Nectarines, and a large and 
very splendid collection of Dahlias. Elijah Vose, Esq., Dorchester ; 
superb Capiaumont Pears ; Pine Apple, Green Citron, Nutmeg, and Rock 
Melons; and large Water Melons. Madam Dix, Boston; splendid Dix 
Pears. Perrin May, Esq., Boston ; very fine Black Hamburg, White 
Sweet- Water, and Red Chasselas Grapes ; out-of-door culture. John 



^1 jj 



56 



Lee, Esq., Boston ; Isabella Grapes. John Prince, Esq., Roxbury ; a 
dozen of fine Pine- Apple Melons ; Pomrae Reine, Early Greening, Spit- 
zenberg, and Doctor Apples ; real Borroseau Apples ; and handsome Bon 
Chretien pears. Dr. S. A. ShurtlefT; three fine bunches of Shurtleff's 
Seedling Grapes, St. Michael and late Catherine Pears. Professor 
Farrar, Cambridge ; very large and handsome Porter Apples. Hon. 
John Lowell, Roxbury ; splendid clusters of White Chasselas, Black 
Hamburg, and other Grapes, and Flowers. J. P. Bradlee, Esq., Boston ; 
a basket of fine Peaches. Hon. Peter C. Brooks, Medford ; very large 
and fine clusters of Black Hamburg and Grisly Tokay Grapes. Mrs. 
J. Bray, Boston ; White Sweet-Water Grapes, and very fine Arango 
Quinces. B. A. Gould, Esq., Boston ; very large and fine Magnum 
Bonum Plums. Cheever Newhall, Esq., Dorchester ; two baskets 01 
beautiful White Chasselas Grapes ; out-of-door culture. Jeremiah Fitch, 
Esq., Boston ; a large basket of fine Peaches, and a Fig Tree, full of 
fruit. John Mackey, Esq., Weston ; three baskets of very beautiful 
Apples. Stephen Williams, Esq., Northborough ; Red Calville, Sum- 
mer Pearmain, Ribstone Pippin, and five very fine varieties of imported 
Apples. Messrs. Kenrick, Newton ; a vase, containing Dahlias, 
Roses, and other beautiful flowers. Messrs. Winship, Brighton ; a 
great variety of very handsome flowers. Dr. Z. B. Adams ; a basket 
of very beautiful St Michael Pears. S. G. Perkins, Esq. ; a flower- 
pot, containing a plant of the Cantua coronopifolia. Benjamin Guild, 
Esq., Brookline ; fine clusters of Black Hamburg, Black Cape, (grown 
under the direction of C. Senior,) Miller's Burgundy, and Isabella 
Grapes, (the latter, open culture,) and a variety of Peaches. Hon. T. 
H. Perkins ; White Chasselas Grapes, and a bunch of very fine 
Dahlias. C. Senior ; two fine bunches of Black Hamburg, two do. 
Frontignac, two handsome White Chasselas, and three varieties of fine 
Frenrh Grapes. John Breed, Esq. ; a collection of splendid Roses. 
Mrs. Watson, Boston ; fine American Swaalch Peaches. Gorham 
Parsons, Esq., Brighton ; Blue Pearmain, Summer Gilliflower, Hub- 
bardston Nonsuch, Bell flower, and Winter Gilliflower Apples. 
Charles Taylor, Esq., Dorchester ; three baskets of fine Black Ham- 
burg Grapes ; berries, very large size, and perfect. George Thomp- 
son, Brighton ; a very splendid collection of Dahlias. From the 
garden of Gardner Greene, Esq., Boston; Green Citron and other 
Melons, and Bergamot Pears ; under the care of Mr. Senior. 

After the exhibition, the Society, with their guests, sat down to an 
excellent dinner, prepared at Concert Hall, by Mr. Eaton. The Hon. 
H. A. S. Dearborn, President of the Society, presided at the table, 
and was assisted, as Toast-master, by Z. Cook, Jr., Esq., first Vice- 
President of the Society. The following regular toasts were drank. 

1. New England. — While her fields are crowned with the gifts of Ceres 
and Pomona, let us care little for the more questionable favors of Bacchus 
and Plutus. 

2. Rotation. — A principle so advantageous in Horticulture, cannot be 
otherwise than useful in its application to politics. 

3. Cattle Shows. — The noblest spectacle is the industrious race who show 
the cattle. 

4. Mount Jluburn. — A fortunate conception, happily bodied forth. While 
it adds solemnity and dignity to the attributes of Death, it offers to grief its 
proper mitigations. 



-*7j 



57 



5. Machinery. — An unsettled national policy is worse than the friction of 
the wheels, — this may be estimated and yield to remedy, — the other eludes 
calculation. 

6. Nullification, — the Spasmodic Cholera of the Union. Let speedy 
purgation and persevering cleanliness save us from its fatal collapse. 

7? The Statesman, who is true to his principles, and whose principle is 
the true interest of his country. 

8. The cause of Liberty in Europe. — The seeds have been profusely 
sown, though the growth has been kept down by the crown imperial and the 
Siberian crab. 

9. Gardeners. — The most useful, else the Creator had not made them the 
first class in his great school of icisdom and benevolence. 

10. Heroes. — The earth has bubbles, as the water hath, and these are of 
them. 

11. Woman ! — Like the Iris, indigenous in all countries, — like the Rose, 
admired by all nations ; — in modesty, equalling the Cowslip, — in fidelity, 
the Honeysuckle, — in disposition, the Clematis ; — may she never suffer from 
approximation to the Coxcomb, nor lose her reputation by familiarity with 
Bachelors' Buttons. 

VOLUNTEER TOASTS. 

By Gen. H. A. S. Dearborn. The Orator of the Day. — A true Philoso- 
pher, who renders science subservient to the useful arts. 

By E. Vose, Esq. Our Horticultural Brethren throughout the Union. — 
Their only competition being in doing each other good. —May no u root of 
bitterness" spring up among them. 

Hy T. G. Fessenden, Esq. The Massachusetts Horticultural Society. — 
Those who survey our Morning Glories, and peruse our Dahlias [not adver- 
tisers], " see our folks and get some peaches," will hope that in Thyme we 
shall be worth a Mint to the '• land we live in." 

By S. Appleton, Esq. Agriculture, Manufactures, Commerce, and Horticul- 
ture. — The first gives us food, — the second clothing, — the third gives us 
riches, — the fourth adds grace and ornament to the others ; and though now 
mentioned last, was first before Adam^s Fall. 

By Vice-President J. C. Gray. The Gardener, and Florists icho have con- 
tributed to this days Exhibition. — May we always honor the merit which is 
displayed in good Fruits and in striking Colors. 

By Vice-President Bartlett. The Massachusetts Agricultural Society. — A 
pioneer in good works. — May the only contention among her children be, 
which shall excel. 

By Z. Cook, Jr., Esq., First Vice-President of the Society. Culture in all 
its branches, — from that which raises a seed in a garden, to that which 
plants a Washington or a Franklin on the summit of human excellence. 

After some pertinent and eloquent remarks, Gen. Dearborn gave the 
following. Hon. John Lowell. — The Patriarch, Patron, and Pattern, of 
Farmers and Horticulturists. 

By Dr. T. W. Harris. Gentlemen Farmers, who bringing scientific attain- 
ments to bear upon practical skill, have done every thing for Horticulture in 
this country, and whose success these festivals annually exhibit. 

By Professor Farrar. Phrenology. — As our Country is more distin- 
guished by her rich and fertile plains, than by the number and height 
of her mountains, so may her sons be better known by the general devel- 
opement of all their faculties, than by the cultivation of any one power to the 
exclusion of the rest. 

By Gen. H. A. S. Dearborn. Drs. Knight and Van Mons. — The orna- 
ments of England and Belgium, and the benefactors of the human race. 

By Rev. Dr. Harris. — 

" The tree that bears immortal fruit, 
Without a canker at the root ! " 
Its healing leaves to us be given, 
Its bloom on earth, — its fruit in heaven ! 

8 



x% 



58 



By George C. Barrett. Agriculture, Horticulture, and Floriculture. — 
Three sisters more amiable than the three Graces, and more useful than the 
nine Muses. 

By B. V. French. Horticultural Associations, whose pursuits are pleasant, 
and lead to results, not, like many others, founded on selfishness, but con- 
ferring essential benefits on the whole human race. 

Anonymous. The Emperor JVicholas. An Anti-Horitculturist He has 
undertaken to engraft the noblest scions in the icy region of Siberia, in the 
vain hope of blasting the Tree of Liberty. May he soon learn that he has 
attacked a tree, whose roots are fixed from Pole to Pole. 

By Z. Cook, Jr., Esq , 1st Vice-President, after General Dearborn had 
retired. H. A. S. Dearborn, the worthy President of the Massachusetts Horti- 
cultural Society. His indefatigable labors, in both the scientific and prac- 
tical departments of Horticulture, reflect equal honor upon himself, and 
benefit upon the Society over which he so ably presides. 

Anonymous. If he be a benefactor, who instructs us how two spires of 
grass may grow where but one grew before, let everlasting gratitude, and 
the Society's first premium, be awarded to the man who shall devise (and 
make public) a method by which beets and turnips may be raised without 
tops, and peas without pods. 

Other toasts were uttered and responded too numerous for insertion. 



ODE, 

Written for the Anniversary Dinner of the Massachusetts Horticultural 
Society, Wednesday, October S, 1832. 

BY MISS H. F. GOULD. 

[Sung, during the entertainment, by Mr. J. W. Newell, of Charlestown.] 

From him who was lord of the fruits and the flowers 
That in Paradise grew, ere he lost its possession — 
Who breathed in the balm and reposed in the bowers 
Of our garden ancestral, we claim our profession ; 
While fruits sweet and bright, 
Bless our taste and our sight, 
As e'er gave our father, in Eden, delight. 
And fountains as pure in their crystal, still gush 
By the Vine in her verdure, the Rose in her blush. 

While others in clouds sit to murmur and grieve, 

That Earth has her wormwood, her pit-falls, and brambles, 
We, smiling, go on her rich gifts to receive 

Where the boughs drop their purple and gold on our rambles. 
Untiring and free, 
While we work like the bee, 
We bear off a sweet from each plant, shrub, and tree. 
Where some will find thorns but to torture the flesh, 
We pluck the ripe clusters our souls to refresh. 



JLfy 



59 

Yet, not for ourselves would we draw from the soil 
The beauty that Heaven in its vitals has hidden ; 
For, thus to lock up the fair fruits of our toil, 

Were bliss half-possessed, and a sin all-forbidden. 
Like morning's first ray, * 
When it spreads into day, 
Our hearts must flow out, until self fades away. 
Our joys in the bosoms around us, when sown, 
Like seeds, will spring up, and bloom out for our own. 

And this makes the world but a garden, to us, 

Where He, who has walled it, his glory is shedding. 
His smile lays the tints ; and, beholding it thus, 
We gratefully feast while his bounty is spreading. 
Our spirits grow bright, 
As they bathe in the light 
That pours round the board where, in joy, we unite. 
While the sparks that we take to enkindle our mirth 
Are the gems which the skies sprinkle down o'er the earth 5 

And, now, that we meet, and the chain is of flowers, 

Which bind us together, may sadness ne'er blight them, 
Till those who must break from a compact like ours, 
Ascend, and the ties of the blest reunite them ! 
May each who is here, 
At the banquet appear, 
Where Life fills the wine-cup, and Love makes it clear, 
Then Gilead's balm in its freshness will flow, 
O'er the wounds which the pruning-knife gave us below i 



>1% 



AN 



ACCOUNT OF THE PROCEEDINGS, 



IN RELATION TO THE 



EXPERIMENTAL GARDEN AND THE CEMETERY 



OF 



MOUNT AUBURN. 



On the establishment of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society, an 
Experimental Garden was considered indispensible for the full deve- 
lopement of all the great purposes of that institution. It was often the 
subject of anxious inquiry and interesting' discussion, and the only 
cause of delay, in commencing the important work, on an extensive 
plan, was the deficiency of adequate means. 

A Rural Cemetery had claimed the attention of several distinguished 
gentlemen, some ten years since, but no definite measures were taken 
for accomplishing an object of such deep interest and general solicitude 
among all classes of society. Among the originators of that laudable 
yet fruitless attempt, Dr. Jacob Bigelow was conspicuous for his zealous 
efforts to insure success ; and, although disappointed in his expectations 
at that time, he never abandoned the hope of an ultimate triumph over 
the numerous obstacles, which were to be encountered, in the achieve- 
ment of such a momentous project. Soon after the organization of the 
Horticultural Society, with characteristic promptness and energy, he 
suggested to the President the expediency and propriety of combining 
a Cemetery with an Experimental Garden. The proposition was cor- 
dially approved, and, having been communicated to the Society, it be- 
came a favorite theme of conversation among the members ; but no 
feasible plan was digested which promised a favorable result. The 
measure was commended to the serious attention of the public by 
Z. Cook Jr., Esq., in the Address which he delivered before the Horti- 
cultural Society, on the celebration of its second anniversary ; and the 
great advantages of a Garden of Experiment was repeatedly urged in 
the horticultural communications published in "The New England 
Farmer." There was no discrepancy of opinion as to the urgent 
necessity of founding both establishments ; all considered them, not 
only desirable, hut highly important objects of attainment. Still there 
were wanting the requisite funds ; and how to procure them was a 
problem of difficult solution, when George W. Brimmer, Esq. proposed 



^7 



61 



that a tract of land, called " Sweet Auburn," which he owned in Cam- 
bridge, should be taken by the Horticultural Society and appropriated 
for a Garden and Cemetery, and invited the President to visit that 
remarkable and most picturesque site, to ascertain whether it would, 
answer the desired purposes. After a thorough examination of the 
varied features and numerous advantages which it combines, they, were 
perfectly satisfied that it was impossible to make a .more admirable 
selection within <he vicinity of the metropolis. 

The land had been purchased by Mr. Brimmer with a view of appro- 
priating it to a country residence, and he had planted out many orna- 
mental trees, and opened several extensive avenues, which rendered it 
a favorite resort for the students of the University and the inhabitants 
of the town. But long previous it had been much frequented by the 
admirers of rural scenery, and was known as " Stone's Wood " ; but that 
appellation was changed to " Sweet Auburn " by Colonel George Sulli- 
van and Charles W. Gfreen, Esq., some thirty years since, when they 
were pursuing their studies in the academic halls of Harvard. Having 
passed the closing hours of a summer's day, in one of its many silent 
and secluded dells in the pleasing but melancholy perusal of that illus- 
trious bard, who sang the sad and varied fortunes of his own 

u Sweet smiling village, loveliest of the lawn," 

they bestowed its dearly cherished name upon the scene of theif youth- 
ful meditations. 

Notwithstanding Mr. Brimmer's attachment to the groves of Sweet 
Auburn, — for there, too, he had passed many delightful hours,while a 
pupil of the University, — still so anxious was he to advance the science 
and art of Horticulture, and to encourage the foundation of a Rural 
Cemeterv, that he liberally offered to surrender the whole estate to the 
Society for these purposes. It was presumed, that by subscriptions, the 
division of the property into shares, or some other practical mode, suffi- 
cient funds could be readily obtained for the purchase of the grounds, 
and to afford an income for their cultivation and embelishment ; it was, 
therefore, determined that the President should draw up a memoir ex- 
planatory of the great objects for which the land could be advantageously 
appropriated, and the means of accomplishing them. This was immedi- 
ately done,* and submitted to such gentlemen as it was supposed would 
readily cooperate in the undertaking ; and some thirty or forty having 
promptly expressed a disposition to do so, a special meeting of the Hor- 
ticultural Society was called, to whom the project was submitted, and 
H. A. S. Dearborn, Jacob Bigelow, George W. Brimmer, George Bond, 
and Abbot Lawrence, were chosen a committee to report on the expedi- 
ency of establishing a Garden of Experiment and Rural Cemetery in 
the vicinity of Boston. i*3 That committee had numerous meetings ; and 
in June, 1H31, it was authorised to increase the number of its members, 
and to ask the aid of such other gentlemen not belonging to the So- 
ciety as were disposed to forward the desired objects ; and to petition 
the Legislature for an act to enable the Society to hold real estate for 
the purposes of a Cemetery. 

* Besides the Experimental Garden and Cemetery, the plan recommended 
in the memoir included a Botanical Garden and an Institution for the educa- 
tion of scientific and practical gardeners. 



xp 



62 



In conformity to the authority thus granted, the Committee was 
enlarged, and consisted of the following members: 

JOSEPH STORY, Chairman. 
DANIEL WEBSTER, 
H. A. S. DEARBORN, 
SAMUEL APPLETON, 
CHARLES LOWELL, 
JACOB BIGELOW, 
EDWARD EVERETT, 
GEORGE BOND, 
G. W. BRIMMER, 
L. M. SARGENT, 
ABBOT LAWRENCE, 
FRANKLIN DEXTER, 
ALEXANDER H. EVERETT, 
CHARLES P. CURTIS, 
JOSEPH P. BRADLEE, 
JOHN PIERPONT, 
ZEBEDEE COOK, 
CHARLES TAPPAN, 
G. W. PRATT. 

After* much deliberation, a plan having been matured, it was deter- 
mined to submit the following Reports to the consideration of the 
Society : 

Proceedings of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society at an adjourned 
meeting, held in the apartments of the Institution, on Saturday the 
18th of June, 1831. 

The following Report was made by the committee on a Garden of 
Experiment and Rural Cemetery. 

The committee appointed to inquire into the expediency of measures 
being taken for the establishment of an Experimental Garden, and 
Rural Cemetery, ask leave to 

REPORT. 

When the Massachusetts Horticultural Society was organised, it 
was confidently anticipated, that, at no very distant period, a Garden of 
Experiment would be established in the vicinity of Boston ; but, to 
arrive at such a pleasing result, it was deemed expedient that our efforts 
should first be directed to the accomplishment of obje.cts which would 
not require very extensive pecuniary resources ; that we should proceed 
with great caution, and, by a prudential management, of our means, 
gradually develope a more complete and efficient system for rendering 
the institution as extensively useful as it was necessary and important. 
Public favor was to be propitiated by the adoption of stich incipient 
measures as were best calculated to encourage patronage and insure 
ultimate success. 

With these views, the labors of the Society have been confined to 
the collection and dissemination of intelligence, plants, scions, and 
seeds, in the various departments of Horticulture. An entensive cor- 
respondence was therefore opened with similar associations in this 



63 

country and Europe, as well as with many gentlemen, who were dis- 
tinguished for their theoretical attainments, practical information and 
experimental researches, in all the branches of rural economy, on this 
continent, and other portions of the globe. 

The kind disposition which has been generally evinced to advance 
the interests of the Society, has had a salutary and cheering influence. 
Many interesting and instructive communications have been received, 
and valuable donations of books, seeds, and plants have been made by 
generous foreigners, and citizens of the United States. A liberal offer of 
cooperation has been promptly tendered, in both hemispheres, and great 
advantages are anticipated from a mutual interchange of good offices. 

A library of considerable extent has been formed, containing many 
of the most celebrated English and French works on Horticulture, sev- 
eral of which are magnificent ; and the apartments for the accommoda- 
tion of the Society, have been partially embellished with beautiful paint- 
ings of some of our choice native varieties of fruits. By weekly exhibi- 
tions, during eight months of the year, of fruits, flowers, and esculent 
vegetables ; — by awarding premiums for proficiency in the art of 
gardening, and the rearing of new, valuable, or superior products ; — 
by disseminating intelligence, and accounts of the proceedings of the 
Society at its regular and special meetings, through the medium of 
" The New England Farmer " ; and by an annual festival, and public 
•exhibition of the various products of horticulture, an interest has been 
excited, and a spirit of inquiry awakened, auspicious to the institution, 
while a powerful impulse has been given to all branches of rural in- 
dustry, far beyond our most sanguine hopes. 

To foster and extend a taste for the pleasant, useful, and refined art 
of Gardening, the time appears to have arrived for enlarging the sphere 
of action, and giving the most ample developement to the original de- 
sign of the Society. 

The London, Paris, Edinburgh, and Liverpool Horticultural associa- 
tions have each established Experimental Gardens ; and their beneficial 
effects have been conspicuously experienced, not only throughout Eng- 
land, Scotland, and France, but the whole civilized world is deriving 
advantages from those magnificent depositories of the rarest products 
which have been collected from the vast domains of Pomona and Flora. 
These noble precedents have been followed in Russia, Germany, Hol- 
land, and Italy. We must also emulate the meritorious examples of 
those renowned institutions, and be thus enabled to reciprocate their 
favors from like collections of useful and ornamental plants. An equally 
enlightened taste will be thus superinduced for those comforts and em- 
bellishments, and for that intellectual enjoyment which the science and 
practice of horticulture afford. 

With the Experimental Garden it is recommended to unite a Rural 
Cemetery ; for the period is not distant, when all the burial grounds 
within the city will be closed, and others must be formed in the coun- 
try, — the primitive and only proper location. There the dead may 
repose undisturbed, through countless ages. There can be formed a 
public place of sepulture, where monuments can be erected to our illus- 
trious men, whose remains, thus far, have unfortunately been consign- 
ed to obscure and isolated tombs, instead of being collected within one 
common depository, where their great deeds might be perpetuated and 
their memories cherished by succeeding generations. Though dead, 



3~d$-' 



64 



they would be eternal admonitors to the living, — teaching them the 
way which leads to national glory and individual renown. 

When it is perceived what laudable efforts have been made in Eu- 
rope, and how honorable the results, it is impossible that the citizens of 
the United States should long linger in the rear of the general march 
of improvement. They will hasten to present establishments, and to 
evince a zeal for the encouragement of rural economy, commensurate 
with the extent and natural resources of the country, and the variety of 
its soil and climate. 

Your Committee have not a doubt that an attempt should be made in 
this state to rival the undertakings of other countries, in all that relates 
to the cultivation of the soil. The intelligent, patriotic, and wealthy 
will cheerfully lend their aid in the establishment of a Garden of Ex- 
periment, and a Cemetery. Massachusetts has ever been distinguished 
for her public and private munificence, in the endowment of colleges, 
academies, and numerous associations for inculcating knowledge, and 
the advancement of all branches of industry. A confident reliance is 
therefore reposed on the same sources of beneficence. The Legisla- 
ture will not refuse its patronage, but will readily unite with the people 
in generous contributions for the accomplishment of objects so well 
calculated to elevate the character of the Commonwealth and that of 
its citizens. 

The Experimental Garden is intended for the improvement of horti- 
culture in all its departments, ornamental as well as useful. 

The objects which will chiefly claim attention, are the collection and 
cultivation of common, improved, and new varieties of the different 
kinds of Fruits, Esculent Vegetables, Forest and Ornamental Trees 
and Shrubs, Flowering, Economical, and other interesting Plants, which 
do not exclusively belong to the predial department of tillage ; — pay- 
ing particular attention to the qualities and habits of each ; — instituting 
comparative experiments, on the modes of culture, to which they are 
usually subjected, so as to attain a knowledge of the most useful, rare, 
and beautiful species; — the best process of rearing and propagating 
them by seeds, scions, buds, suckers, layers, and cuttings; — the most 
successful methods of insuring perfect and abundant crops, as well as 
satisfactory results, in all the branches of useful and ornamental plant- 
ing appertaining to horticulture. 

Compartments to be assigned for the particular cultivation of Fruit 
Trees, Timber Trees, Ornamental Trees, and Shrubs, Esculent Veget- 
ables, Flowers, and for the location of Green Houses, Stoves, Vineries, 
Orangeries, and Hot Beds. 

For the accommodation of the Garden of Experiment and Cemetery, 
at least seventy acres of land are deemed necessary ; and in making 
the selection of a site, it was very important that from forty to fifty 
acres should be well or partially covered with forest trees and shrubs, 
which could be appropriated for the latter establishment ; and that it 
should present all possible varieties of soil, common in the vicinity of 
Boston ; be diversified by hills, valleys, plains, brooks, and low 
meadows, and bogs, so as to afford proper localities for every kind of 
tree and plant, that will flourish in this climate ; — be near to some 
large stream or river ; and easy of access by land and water ; but still 
sufficiently retired. 

To realize these advantages it is proposed, that a tract of land called 



2Z3 



65 



" Sweet Auburn," situated in Cambridge, should be purchased. As a 
large portion of the ground is now covered with trees, shrubs, and wild 
flowering plants, avenues and walks may be made through them, in 
such a manner as to render the whole establishment interesting and 
beautiful, at a small expense, and within a few years ; and ultimately 
offer an example of landscape or picturesque gardening, in conformity 
to the modern style of laying out grounds, which will be highly credit- 
able to the Society. 

The streams and parcels of bog and meadow land may be easily con- 
verted into ponds, and variously formed sheets of water, which will 
furnish appropriate positions for aquatic plants, while their borders may 
be planted with Rhododendrons, Azaleas, several species of the superb 
Magnolia, and other plants, which require a constantly humid soil, and 
decayed vegetable matter, for their nourishment. 

On the southeastern and northeastern borders of the tract can be 
arranged the nurseries, and portions selected for the culture of fruit- 
trees and esculent vegetables, on an extensive scale ; there may be 
arranged the Arboretum, the Orchard, the Culinarium, Floral depart- 
ments, Melon grounds, and Strawberry beds, and Green houses. 

The remainder of the land may be devoted to the Cemetery. 

By means of a more extensive correspondence, with eminent horti- 
culturists it is certain that many valuable, rare, and beautiful plants 
may be obtained, not only from all parts of our own country, but other 
regions of the globe, which could be naturalized to the soil and climate 
of New England. This can be efficiently undertaken so soon as a 
Garden of Experiment is formed ; but it would be almost useless to pro- 
cure large collections of seeds or plants, until we are enabled to culti- 
vate them, under the immediate direction of the Society. 

Accounts of the experiments which may be made should be periodi- 
cally reported and published ; and seeds, buds, cuttings, and uncommon 
varieties of rooted plants may be distributed among the members of the 
Society, and be sold for its benefit, in such manner as may be found 
most expedient, to render the garden the most extensively useful in 
all its relations with the wants, comforts, and pleasures of life. 

Such an establishment is required for " collecting the scattered rays 
of intelligence, and blending them with the science and accumulating 
experience of the times," and then diffusing them far and wide, to cheer 
and enlighten the practical horticulturist in his career of agreeable and 
profitable industry. It will powerfully contribute to increase the taste 
for rural pursuits, — stimulate a generous spirit of research and emula- 
tion, — suggest numerous objects worthy of inquiry and experiment, — 
multiply the facilities of information and the interchange of indigenous 
and exotic plants, — develope the vast vegetable resources of the Un- 
ion, — give activity to enterprise, — increase the enjoyment of all 
classes of citizens, — advance the prosperity, and improve the general 
aspect of the whole country. 

The establishment of a Cemetery in connexion with the Garden of 
Experiment, cannot fail of meeting public approbation. Such rural 
burial places were common among the ancients, who allowed no grave- 
yards within their cities. The Potter's Field was without the walls of 
Jerusalem, and in the Twelve Tables it was prescribed "that the dead 
should neither be buried nor burned in the city " of Rome. Evelyn 
states, " that the custom of burying in churches and near about them, 

9 






9-f£f 



66 



especially in great cities, is a novel presumption, indecent, sordid, and 
very prejudicial to health ; it was not done among the Christians in the 
primitive ages ; " was forbidden by the Emperors Gratian, Valentian, 
and Theodosius, and never sanctioned until the time of Gregory the 
Great. The Eastern Christians do not now inter the dead within their 
churches. During the age of the patriarchs, 'groves were se'ected as 
places of sepulture. When Sarah died, Abraham purchased "the field 
of Ephron, in Machpelah, with all the trees that were therein and the 
borders round about, as a burying place," and there he buried his wife ; 
"and there they buried Abraham, Isaac, Rebekah, and Leah"; and 
when Jacob had blessed his sons, " he said unto them, I am to be 
gathered unto my people : bury me with my fathers in the cave that is 
in the field of Ephron." Deborah "was buried beneath Bethel under an 
oak," and the valiant men of Jabeshgilead removed the bodies of Saul 
and his sons from the wall of Bcthshan and " buried them under a tree." 
JVIoses was buried in " a valley in the land of Moab " ; Joseph in " a par- 
cel of ground in Shechem " ; Elcazer, the son of Aaron " in a hill that 
pertained to Phinehas," and Manassah with Amon " in the garden of 
Uzza." 

The planting of rose-trees upon graves is an ancient custom ; Anac- 
reon says, that " it protects the dead " ; and Propertius indicates the 
usage of burying amidst roses. 

Plato sanctioned the planting of trees over sepulchres, and the tomb 
of Ariadne was in the Arethusian Grove of Crete. The Catacombs of 
Thebes were excavated in the gorges of the forest-clad hills, on the 
opposite bank of the Nile, and those of Memphis were beyond the lake 
Acherusia, from whence the Grecian mythologists derived their fabu- 
lous accounts of the Elysian Fields. There it was supposed the souls 
of the virtuous and illustrious retired after death, and roamed through 
bowers, forever green, and over meadows spangled with flowers, and 
refreshed by perennial streams. In the mountains near Jerusalem were 
located the tombs of the opulent Israelites; and in a garden, near the 
base of Calvary, had Joseph, the Aramatbean, prepared that memorable 
sepulchre in which was laid the crucified Messiah. The Greeks and 
Romans often selected the secluded recesses of wooded heights and 
vales, as favorite places of interment, or the borders of the great public 
highways, where elegant monuments were erected, and surrounded 
with cypress and other ever verdant trees. Many of the richly sculp- 
tured sarcophagi and magnificent tombs, reared by the once polished 
nations of Asia Minor are still to be seen in the vicinity of the numer- 
ous ruined cities on the deserted coast of Karamania. 

The Athenians allowed no burials within the city. The illustrious 
men who had either died in the service of their country, or were 
thought deserving of the most distinguished honors, were buried in the 
Ceramicus, — an extensive public cemetery on the road to Thria. 
Tombs and statues were erected to their memory, on which were re- 
counted their praises and exploits ; and to render them familiar to all, 
to animate every citizen to a love of virtue and of glory, and to excite 
in youthful minds an ardent desire of imitating those celebrated 
worthies, the spacious grounds were embellished with trees and made a 
public promenade. Within the Ceramicus was the Academy where 
Plato and the great men who followed him met their disciples and held 
assemblies for philosophical conference and instruction. Connected 



ats 



67 



with the Academy was a Gymnasium and a garden, which was adorned 
with delightful covered walks, and refreshed by the waters of the 
Cephisus, which flowed under the shade of the plane and various other 
trees, through its western borders. At the entrance and within the 
area of the garden were temples, altars, and statues of the gods. 

The bodies of the Athenians, who had fallen in battle, were collected 
by their countrymen, and, after they were consumed on the funeral pile, 
their bones were carried to Athens ; there they were exposed, in 
cypress coffins, under a large tent, for three days, that the relations 
might perform those libations, which affection and religion enjoined ; 
then they were placed on as many cars as there were tribes, and the 
procession proceeded slowly through the city to the Ceramicus, where 
funeral games were exhibited, and an orator, publicly appointed for the 
occasion, pronounced an eulogiuin. 

Even the Turks, who are so opposed to the cultivation of the line 
arts, embellish their grave-yards with evergreens. With them it is a 
religious duty to plant trees around the graves of their kindred, and 
the burying ground of Scutari is one of the most interesting objects in 
the environs of Constantinople. Situated in the rear of the town and 
extending along the declivity of the Asiatic shore, towards the sea of 
Marmora, it presents a vast forest of majestic trees ; and thither the 
inhabitants of the imperial city generally resort, during the sultry 
months of summer, to enjoy the cool breezes which descend from the 
Euxine, or are wafted over the waves of the Propontis. Throughout 
Italy, France, and England, there are many cemeteries which are 
ornamented with forest trees and flowering shrubs. Pere La Chaise, 
in the environs of Paris, has been admired and celebrated by every 
traveller who has visited that beautiful garden of the dead. 

In Liverpool a similar burying-ground was completed three years 
since, and a meeting has recently been held in London for forming one 
in the vicinity of that city, of a size and on a scale of magnificence 
which shall quadrate with the wealth and vast extent of the mighty 
capital of a great nation. Within the central area are to be exact 
models of the superb temples, triumphal arches, columns, and public 
monuments of Greece and Rome, as receptacles, or memorials of the 
departed worthies of the empire. 

The establishment of rural cemeteries similar to that of Pere La 
Chaise, has often been the subject of conversation in this country, and 
frequently adverted to by the writers in our scientific and literary pub- 
lications. Bnt a few years since, a meeting was held in Boston, by 
many of its most respectable citizens, for the purpose of maturing a 
plan and forming such an establishment in the environs of the city. 
No one can be indifferent to a subject of such deep and universal inter- 
est. In whatever point of view it is considered, who is there that does 
not perceive numerous and powerful inducements for aiding in its 
accomplishment? How consoling and pleasing is the thought that our 
memories shall be cherished sfter death ; and that the spot, where our 
ashes repose, shall be often visited by dear and constant friends ; that 
they will there linger to call up the soothing yet melancholy reminis- 
cences of by gone times ; that the sod, which covers us, will be kept 
ever verdant ; that a magnificent forest will be reared to overshadow 
our graves, by those truly kind hands which performed the last sad 
office of affection ; that flowers will fringe the pathways, leading to 



m> 



68 



our lowly resting-place, and their fragrance, mingled with the holiest 
aspirations, ascend towards the throne of the Eternal. 

To those who mourn, what a consolation to visit the bower-seques- 
tered monument of a much loved friend, under circumstances and with 
associations so favorably calculated to revive agreeable recollections of 
the past; and when those revolting ideas are excluded, which obtrude 
upon the mind, while standing in the usually dreary, desolate, and ruin- 
ous repositories of the dead. 

In a Rural Cemetery the names and virtues of the departed would 
live in perpetual freshness, and their souls seem to commune with those 
who come to do honor to their names. Thus would all like to repose in 
death : and who would not deem it a blessing, to be able to confer that 
favor on a parent, child, wife, husband, or friend ? How can this object 
be so successfully accomplished as in connexion with an Experimental 
Garden ? That part of the land which has been recommended for a 
Cemetery may be circumvallated by a spacious avenue, bordered by 
trees, shrubbery, and perennial flowers ; rather as a line of demarca- 
tion than of disconnexion ; for the ornamental grounds of the Garden 
should be apparently blended with those of the Cemetery, and the 
walks of each so intercommunicate as to afford an uninterrupted range 
over both, as one common domain. 

Among the hills, glades, and dales, which are now covered with 
evergreen and deciduous trees and shrubs, may be selected sites for 
isolated graves, and tombs, and these, being surmounted with columns, 
obelisks, and other appropriate monuments of granite and marble, may 
be rendered interesting specimens of art ; they will also vary and em- 
belish the scenery embraced within the scope of the numerous sinuous 
avenues, which may be felicitously opened in all directions and to a 
vast extent, from the diversified and picturesque features which the 
topography of the tract of land presents. 

Besides the great public advantages which will result from the horti- 
cultural departments, and from that portion of the land which may be 
consecrated to the dead, and rendered, like the Elysian fields of the 
Egyptians, a holy and pleasant resort for the living, — the whole will 
present one of the most instructive, magnificent, and pleasant prome- 
nades in our country. From its immediate proximity to the Capital of 
the State, it will attract universal interest, and become a place of 
healthful, refreshing, and agreeable resort from early spring until 
the close of autumn. 

To accomplish these two great objects, it is necessary that a fund 
should be created immediately, sufficient for the purchase of the land, 
surrounding it with a substantial fence, the erection of a gardener's 
lodge, laying out the grounds, and preparing them for the purposes of 
an Experimental Garden and a Cemetery. That this can be done, your 
committee do not entertain a doubt, and respectfully recommend the 
adoption of the fjllowing measures, as best calculated to insure success. 

H. A. S. DEARBORN, 

For the Committee. 

The Committee, to whom was referred the method of raising sub- 
scriptions for the Experimental Garden and Cemetery, beg leave to 

REPORT: 

1. That it is expedient to purchase, for a Garden and Cemetery, a 
tract of land, commonly known by the name of " Sweet Auburn,'' near 



=1/7 



69 

the road leading* from Cambridge to Watertown, containing- about 
seventy-two acres, for the sum of six thousand dollars ; provided this 
sum can be raised in the manner proposed in the second article of 
this report. 

2. That a subscription be opened for lots of ground in the said 
tract, containing not less than two hundred square feet each, at the 
price of sixty dollars for each lot, — the subscription not to be binding 
until one hundred lots are subscribed for. 

3. That when a hundred or more lots are taken, the right of choice 
shall be disposed of at an auction, of which seasonable notice shall be 
given to the subscribers. 

4. That those subscribers, who do not offer a premium for the right 
of choosing, shall have their lots assigned to them by lot. 

5. That the fee of the land shall be vested in the Massachusetts 
Horticultural Society, but that the use of the lots, agreeably to an act 
of the legislature respecting the same, shall be secured to the sub- 
scribers, their heirs and assigns for ever. 

6. That the land devoted to the purpose of a Cemetery shall contain 
not less than forty acres. 

7. That every subscriber, upon paying for his lot, shall become a 
member for life of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society, without 
being subject to assessments. 

8. That a Garden and Cemetery Committee of nine persons shall be 
chosen annually, first by the subscribers, and afterwards by the Horti- 
cultural Society, whose duty it shall be to cause the necessary surveys 
and allotments to be made, to assign a suitable tract of land for the 
Garden of the Society, and to direct all matters appertaining to the 
regulation of the Garden and Cemetery; five at least of this committee 
shall be persons having rights in the Cemetery. 

9. That the establishment, including the Garden and Cemetery, be 
called by a definite name, to be supplied by the committee. 

JOSEPH STORY, 
DANIEL WEBSTER, 
HENRY A. S. DEARBORN, 
SAMUEL APPLETON, 
CHARLES LOWELL, 
JACOB BIGELOW, 
EDWARD EVERETT, 
GEORGE BOND, 
GEORGE W. BRIMMER, 
ABBOT LAWRENCE, 
FRANKLIN DEXTER, 
ALEXANDER H. EVERETT, 
JAMES T. AUSTIN, 
CHARLES P. CURTIS, 
JOSEPH P. BRAOLEE, 
JOHN PIERPONT, 
ZEBEDEE COOK, 
CHARLES TAPPAN, 
LUCIUS M. SARGENT, 
GEORGE W. PRATT. 
Boston, June 11, 1831. 



*n 



70 



Resolved, That the Report of the Committee on an Experimental 
Garden and Rural Cemetery, be accepted, and that said committee be 
authorized to proceed in the establishment of a Garden and Cemetery, 
in conformity to the Report which has this day been made and 
accepted. 

It having- been considered important, that the public should be 
generally informed as to the character of the two associated establish- 
ments, the Hon. Edward Everett was requested to prepare an Address, 
explanatory of the objects which it was proposed to accomplish ; and 
he furnished the following, which was published in the Boston papers. 

THE PROPOSED RURAL CEMETERY. 

At the late session of the General Court, an act was passed, 
enlarging the powers of the Horticultural Society in such a manner, 
as to enable it to establish a rural cemetery, in connexion with the 
experimental garden, which forms a part of the original plan of that 
Society. Preliminary steps have been taken to exercise the powers 
granted by this additional act of incorporation. The subject has been 
under the consideration of a large and highly respectable committee, 
selected for their known interest in the design ; and a plan of meas- 
ures to be pursued, for carrying the object into effect, has been pre- 
pared and adopted. 

The spot, which has been selected for this establishment, has not 
been chosen without great deliberation, and a reference to every other 
plaee in the vicinity of Boston, which has been named for the same 
purpose. In fact, the difficulty of finding a proper place has been for 
several years the chief obstacle to the execution of this project. The 
spot chosen is as near Bsston as is consistent with perfect security 
from the approach of those establishments, usually found in the neigh- 
bourhood of a large town, but not in harmony with the character of a 
place of burial. It stands near a fine sweep in Charles River. It 
presents every variety of surface, rising in one part into a beautiful 
elevation, level in others, with intermediate depressions, and a con- 
siderable part of the whole covered with the natural growth of wood. 
In fact, the place has long been noted for its rural beauty, its romantic 
seclusion, and its fine prospect ; and it is confidently believed, that 
there is not another to be named, possessing the same union of 
advantages. 

It is proposed to set apart a considerable portion of this delightful 
spot, for the purpose of a burial place. Little will be required from 
the hand of art to fit it for that purpose. Nature has already done 
almost all that is required. Scarcely any thing is needed but a suit- 
able enclosure, and such walks as will give access to the different 
parts of the enclosed space, and exhibit its features to the greatest 
advantage. It is proposed, (as it appears from the report above cited,) 
to divide the parts of the tract, best adapted to that purpose, into lots, 
containing two hundred or more square feet, to be used by individuals 
becoming proprietors of them, for the purposes of burial. It will be 
at the option of those interested, to build tombs of the usual construc- 
tion on these lots, or to make graves in them, when occasion may 
require ; identifying the lot by a single monument, or the graves by 
separate stones, or leaving the whole without any other ornament, 
than the green turf and the overshadowing trees. 



£?y 



71 

By the act of the legislature, authorizing the Horticultural Society 
to establish this Cemetery, it is placed under the protection of the- 
laws, and consecrated to the perpetual occupancy of the dead. Being; 
connected with the adjacent experimental garden, it will be under the 
constant inspection of the Society's Gardener, and thus possess ad- 
vantages, in reference to the care and neatness with which it will be 
kept, not usually found in places of burial. A formal act of dedica- 
tion, with religious solemnities, will impart to it a character of sanc- 
tity, and consecrate it to the sacred purposes for which it is destined. 

It is a matter of obvious consideration, that, with the rapid increase 
of the city of Boston, many years cannot elapse, before the deposit of 
the dead within its limits must cease. It is already attended with 
considerable difficulty, and is open to serious objections. The estab- 
lishment now contemplated, presents an opportunity for all, who wish 
to enjoy it, of providing a place of burial for those, tor whom it is their 
duty to make such provision. The space is ample, affording room for 
as large a number of lots, as may be required for a considerable length 
of time ; and the price at which they are now to be purchased, it is 
believed, is considerably less than that of tombs, in the usual places of 
their construction. 

Although no one, whose?WJ(£]ings and principles are sound, can 
regard, without tenderness and delicacy, the question, where he will 
deposit the remains of those, whom it is his duty to follow to their last 
home, yet it may be feared, that too little thought has been had for the 
decent aspect of our places of sepulture, or their highest adaptation to 
their great object. Our burial places are, in the cities, crowded till 
they are full ; nor, in general, does any other object, either in town 
or country, appear to have been had in view in them, than that of 
confining the remains of the departed to the smallest portion of earth 
that will hide them. Trees, whose inexpressible beauty has been 
provided by the hand of the Creator as the great ornament of the 
earth, have rarely been planted about our grave-yards ; the enclosures 
are generally inadequate and neglected, the graves indecently crowded 
together, and often, after a few years, disturbed; and the whole ap- 
pearance as little calculated as possible to invite the visits of the 
seriously disposed, to tranquillize the feelings of surviving friends, and 
to gratify that disposition which would lead us to pay respect to their 
ashes. 

Nor has it hitherto been in the power even of those, who might be 
able and willing to do it, to remedy these evils, as far as they are 
themselves concerned. Great objections exist to a place of sepulture 
in a private field ; particularly this, that in a few years it is likely to 
pass into the hands of those, who will take no interest in preserving its 
sacred deposit from the plough. The mother of Washington lies 
buried in a field, the property of a person not related to her family, 
and in a spot which cannot now be identified. In the public grave- 
yard it is not always in the power of an individual to appropriate to a 
single place of burial, space enough for the purposes of decent and 
respectful ornament. 

The proposed establishment seems to furnish every facility for grati- 
fying the desire, which must rank among the purest and strongest of 
the human heart, and which would have been much more frequently 
indicated, but for the very serious, and sometimes insuperable obstacles 



tLfc> 

72 

of which we have spoken. Here it will be in the power of every one, 
who may wish it, at an expense considerably less than that of a com- 
mon tomb, or a vault beneath a church, to deposit the mortal remains 
of his friends, and to provide a place of burial for himself, which, while 
living, he may contemplate without dread or disgust ; one which is 
secure from the danger of being encroached upon, as in the grave- 
yards of the city ; secluded from every species of uncongenial intru- 
sion ; surrounded with every thing that can fill the heart with tender 
and respectful emotions; beneath the shade of a venerable tree, on 
the slope of the verdant lawn, and within the seclusion of the forest ; 
removed from all the discordant scenes of life. 

Such were the places of burial of the ancient nations. In a spot 
like this were laid the remains of the patriarchs of Israel. In the 
neighbourhood of their great cities the ancient Egyptians established 
extensive cities of the dead ; and the Greeks and Romans erected 
the monuments of the departed by the road side, on the approach to 
their cities, or in pleasant groves in their suburbs. A part of the 
Grove of Academus, near Athens, famous for the school of Plato, was 
appropriated to the sepulchres of their men of renown ; and it was the 
saying of Themistocles, that the monuments he beheld there would 
not permit him to sleep. The " Appian Way " was lined with the monu- 
ments of the heroes and sages of Rome. In modern times, the Turkish 
people are eminent for that respectful care of the places of sepulture, 
which forms an interesting trait of the oriental character. At the 
head and foot of each grave, a cypress tree is planted, so that the 
grave-yard becomes, in a few years, a deep and shady grove. These 
sacred precincts are never violated ; they form the most beautiful 
suburbs to the cities, and, not unfrequently, when the city of the 
living has been swept away by the political vicissitudes, frequent under 
that government, the Grove of Cypress remains, spreading its sacred 
shelter over the city of the dead. 

In the city of Boston, the inconveniences of the present modes of 
burial are severely felt; and it is as a becoming appendage and inter- 
esting ornament of the town, that this cemetery should be regarded. 
When it shall be laid out with suitable walks, and the appropriate 
spots shall begin to be adorned with the various memorials which 
affection and respect may erect to the departed, what object in or 
near Boston will be equally attractive? What would sooner arrest 
the attention of the stranger? Whither would a man of reflection 
and serious temper sooner direct his steps ? Had such a cemetery, 
with prophetic forethought of posterity, been laid out in the first 
settlement of the country, and all our venerated dead, — the eminent 
in church and state, — been deposited side by side, with plain but 
enduring monuments, it would possess already an interest of the 
most elevated and affecting character. Such a place of deposit is 
Pere la Chaise, near Paris, which has already become a, spot of the 
greatest interest and attraction, furnishing the model to similar estab- 
lishments in various parts of Europe, and well deserving to be had in 
view, in that which is in contemplation here. 

The vicinity of our venerable University suggests an interesting 
train of associations, connected with this spot. It has ever been the 
favorite resort of the students. There are hundreds now living, who 
have passed some of the happiest hours of the happiest period of their 



&?/ 



73 



lives, beneath the shade of the trees in this secluded forest. It will 
become the place of burial for the University. Here will the dust of 
the young- men, who may be cut off before their academic course is 
run, be laid by their class-mates. Here will be deposited those who 
may die in the offices of instruction and government. Nor is it impos- 
sible, that the several class-associations, which form a beautiful feature 
of our college life, may each appropriate to themselves a lot, where 
such of their brethren as may desire it, may be brought back to be 
deposited in the soil of the spot where they passed their early years. 

The establishment contemplated will afford the means of paying a 
tribute of respect, by a monumental erection, to the names and memory 
of great and good men, whenever or wherever they have died. Its 
summit may be consecrated to Washington, by a cenotaph inscribed 
with his name. Public sentiment will often delight in these tributes 
of respect, and the place may gradually become the honorary mauso- 
leum for the distinguished sons of Massachusetts. 

This design, though but recently made public, has been long in 
contemplation, and, as is believed, has been favored with unusual 
approbation. It has drawn forth much unsolicited and earnest con- 
currence. It has touched a chord of sympathy which vibrates in every 
heart. Let us take an affectionate and pious care of our dead ; let 
us turn to some good account, in softening and humanizing the public 
feeling, that sentiment of tenderness toward the departed, which is 
natural and ineradicable in man. Let us employ some of the super- 
fluous wealth, now often expended in luxury worse than useless, in 
rendering the place where our beloved friends repose, decent, attrac- 
tive, and grateful at once to the eye and the heart. 



At a meeting of the Horticultural Society on the second of July, the 
following additional act was accepted. 

COMMONWEALTH OF MASSACHUSETTS. 
In the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and thirty-one. 

An Act, in addition to an Act entitled, " An Act to incorporate the 
Massachusetts Horticultural Society." 

Section- I. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives 
in General Court assembled, and by the authority of the same, That the 
Massachusetts Horticultural Society be, and hereby are, authorized, in 
addition to the powers already conferred on them, to dedicate and 
appropriate any part of the real estate now owned or hereafter to be 
purchased by them, as and for a Rural Cemetery or Burying-Ground, 
and for the erection of Tombs, Cenotaphs, or other Monuments, for, or 
in memory of the dead ; and for this purpose, to lay out the same in 
suitable lots or other subdivisions, for family and other burying-places ; 
and to plant and embellish the same with shrubbery, flowers, trees, 
walks, and other rural ornaments, and to inclose and divide the same 
wi'h proper walls and enclosures, and to make and annex thereto other 
suitable appendages and conveniences, as the Society shall from time 
to time deem expedient. And whenever the said Society shall so lay 
out and appropriate any of their real estate for a Cemetery or Burying- 
Ground, as aforesaid, the same shall be deemed a perpetual dedication 
thereof for the purposes aforesaid j and the real estate so dedicated 

10 



*7*- 

74 

shall be for ever held by the said Society in trust for such purposes, 
and for none other. And the said Society shall have authority to grant 
and convey to any person or persons the sole and exclusive right of 
burial, and of erecting tombs, cenotaphs, and other monuments, in any 
such designated lots and subdivisions, upon such terms and conditions, 
and subject to such regulations, as the said Society shall, by their by- 
laws and regulations, prescribe. And every right so granted and 
conveyed shall be held for the purposes aforesaid, and for none other, 
as real estate, by the proprietor or proprietors thereof, and shall not 
be subject to attachment or execution. 

Section II. Be it further enacted, That for the purposes of this 
act, the said Society shall be, and hereby are authorized to purchase 
and hold any real estate not exceeding ten thousand dollars in value, 
in addition to the real estate which they are now by law authorized to 
purchase and hold. And to enable the said Society more effectually to 
carry the plan aforesaid into effect, and to provide funds for the same, 
the said Society shall be, and hereby are authorized to open subscrip- 
tion books, upon such terms, conditions, and regulations, as the said 
Society shall prescribe, which shall be deemed fundamental and per- 
petual articles between the said Society and the subscribers. And 
every person, who shall become a subscriber in conformity thereto, 
shall be deemed a member for life of the said Society without the 
payment of any other assessment whatsoever, and shall moreover be 
entitled, in fee simple, to the sole and exclusive right of using, as a 
place of burial, and of erecting tombs, cenotaphs, and other monu- 
ments, in such lot or subdivision of such cemetery or burying ground, 
as shall, in conformity to such fundamental articles, be assigned to him. 

Section III. Be it further enacted, That the President of the said 
Society shall have authority to call any special meeting or meetings 
of the said Society at such time and place as he shall direct, for the 
purpose of carrying into effect any or all the purposes of this act, or 
any other purposes within the purview of the original act to which 
this act is in addition. 

In the House of Representatives, June 22d, 1831. 

Passed to be enacted. WILLIAM B. CALHOUN, Speaker, 

In Senate, June 23d, 1831. Passed to be enacted. 

LEVER ETT SALTONSTALL, President 

June 23d, 1831. Approved. LEVI LINCOLN. 

A true Copy. 
Attest, EDWARD D. BANGS, Secretary of Commonwealth. 



At a meeting of the subscribers for lots in the Cemetery, in 4trfy, y ^ 3, 
the following gentlemen were elected members of the Garden and / 
Cemetery Committee. 

JOSEPH STORY, 

HENRY A. S. DEARBORN, 

Dr. JACOB BIGELOW, 

GEORGE W. BRIMMER, 

EDWARD EVERETT, 

B. A. GOULD, 

CHARLES WELLS, 

O. W. PRATT, 

GEORGE BOND. 



«/# 



75 

At the first meeting of the Garden and Cemetery Committee, 
H. A. S. Dearborn, Jacob Bigelow, and G. W. Brimmer were ap- 
pointed a sub-committee to report a plan for laying out the grounds ; 
and the Hon. Joseph Story, the Rev. Dr. Lowell, and others were 
instructed to report on the propriety of consecrating the Cemetery by 
religious ceremonies, who submitted the following: 

At a meeting of the Horticultural Society the following Report, 
from a committee chosen by the subscribers to the Cemetery, was 
made by the Hon. Judge Story. 

The committee, appointed at a meeting of the subscribers to the 
Mount Auburn Cemetery, to consider and report to the Massachusetts 
Horticultural Society, whether it is expedient to have any, and if any, 
what religious ceremonies, for the purpose of consecrating the said 
Cemetery, have had that subject under consideration, and beg leave 
respectfully to report to the said Society : 

1. That, in the opinion of the committee, it is expedient to have the 
said Cemetery consecrated by religious ceremonies on Saturday the 
twenty-fourth day of September instant, in the afternoon, at Mount 
Auburn. And if that day should not be fair, then on the next fair 
day, excluding Sunday. 

2. That the religious ceremonies proper for the occasion would be 

An Introductory Prayer, 

An Address, and 

A Closing Prayer, 
with an original Hymn to be sung by the Assembly, and other ap- 
propriate music. 

3. That the choice of the persons to officiate at the religious ceremo- 
nies of consecration, and all other arrangements suitable for the 
occasion, should be made by a committee of arrangements, to be 
chosen by the Horticultural Society, with full powers for that purpose. 

4. That the committee of arrangements should have full power to 
fill all vacancies occurring in their own body, and to appoint all suit- 
able officers to assist them in the discharge of their duties ; and that 
they should give due public notice of the order of their arrangements 
when they shall have been completed. 

All which is respectfully submitted. 

JOSEPH STORY, 
By order of the Committee. 

Voted, That the Report be accepted. 

Resolved, That a Consecrating Committee of nine members be 
chosen. 

The following gentlemen were elected : Hon. Joseph Story, Henry 
A. S. Dearborn, Charles P. Curtis, Rev. Charles Lowell, Zebedee 
Cook, Jr., J. T. Buckingham, George W. Brimmer, George W. Pratt, 
Z. B. Adams. 

At a meeting of the committed above named, on the same day, 
It was ordered, that Messrs. Curtis, Buckingham, and Pratt be a 
committee to invite the orator and clergyman, and to provide an ap- 
propriate hymn and suitable music, for the dedication of the Cemetery. 
^ Voted, That General Dearborn, Mr. Brimmer, and Mr. Cook be a 
committee to prepare the grounds at Mount Auburn, and to make 
arrangements for the accommodation of the company. 



-2fY 



76 



Voted, That Messr3. Cook and Pratt be a committee to make suit- 
able appointments of marshals and other officers, and to arrange all 
matters of police for the occasion. 

The sub-committee first above named announce to the Society that* 
they have, as far as practicable, at present, performed the service 
assigned them, and that an address, at the solemn consecration of the 
Cemetery, will be delivered by the Hon. JOSEPH STORY; the 
Prayers will be offered by the Rev. Dr. WARE and the Rev. Mr. 
PIERPONT; and an original Hymn will be prepared by the Rev. 
Mr. PIERPONT. The other arrangements will be announced as 
soon as completed. 

The site, selected for the performance of the consecration cere- 
monies, was a deep circular dell, formed by the united bases of four 
beautiful hills, in the south-western portion of the Cemetery grounds. 
In the centre is a small pool supplied by perennial springs, and 
from its margin, the acclivities, on three sides, gracefully rise, for 
more than a hundred feet in extent, presenting a magnificent am- 
phitheatre, sufficiently capacious to accommodate from six to eight 
thousand spectators. The flanks and summits of each eminence 
being covered with majestic forest trees, shrubs, and " many a wood 
flower wild," an area of more than six hundred feet in circuit, 
extending up the broad escarpments, for at least seventy feet, was 
divested of the under wood, and lined with seven ranges of seats for 
the accommodation of the audience. Near the northern margin of the 
miniature lake a rostrum was formed, a few feet above the surface of 
the water, for the orator, clergy, and officers of the Horticultural 
Society. This was decorated with evergreens, giving it the appear- 
ance of a natural bower, open towards the south. On the declivity of 
the fourth hill, and on the right of the rostrum, ranges of seats were 
placed, as an orchestra, for the band of music, choristers, and the 
various committees of arrangements. 

The approach from the main road leading to Watertown, was by a 
broad and umbrageous avenue to the foot of the hill, which closes the 
dale of consecration on the north. This small eminence was thickly 
overgrown with pines and cedars, but the lower limbs having been 
pruned, the symmetrical countour of the mound was disclosed, and 
it assumed the appearance of an ancient tumulus, reared to the memory 
of some great chieftain, like that of Achilles, of Ajax, and of Patroclus, on 
the plains of Troy. In the rear, under the shade of a stately grove of 
walnuts, where the main avenue divides and gracefully sweeps round 
the lofty hills to the east and west, the company descended from 
their carriages, and entered the secluded and romantic silvan theatre, 
by two foot paths, which wound through lonely vales of arching 
verdure. 

The day was cloudless, and the deep, blue vault of heaven cano- 
pied the immense area with a dome of more resplendent grandeur 
than all that genius can conceive, or art accomplish ; whispering 
zephyrs rustled the many twinkling leaves of those towering groves, 
which crowned the surrounding heights ; the glorious sun gilded, with 
his cheering beams, the smiling landscape ; while, far and wide over 
the deep and expanded glen, a thickened, flickering shadow screened, 
with balmy freshness, the assembled multitude, who listened, with 
intense and elevated thoughts, to the fervent prayer, the eloquent 



o? 



%s 



77 



appeal, the thrilling hymn of praise, and those swelling notes of 
music, which pealed sublime, through every vale and tufted hill of 
that sacred garden of the dead. Such was the solemn stillness, so 
motionless the surface ot the dark, deep pool, that it mirrored the 
steep, receding acclivities, and the innumerable spectators who 
thronged the encircling seats. 

At twelve o'clock a procession was formed, beyond the northern 
hill, of the officers of the Society, as an escort to the orator and 
officiating clergy, and, preceded by the band, entered the rostrum 
through the eastern vale. The effect was grand and imposing, calling 
up vivid recollections of those solemn funeral rites, which were 
performed by the patriarchs of old, in the field of Machphela ; or the 
assembled Athenians in the venerable groves of the Ceramicus. 



At the Annual Meeting of the Horticultural Society, -September 30, 
1831, the Committee on laying out the grounds and forming the 
plan of the Experimental Garden and Cemetry at Mount Auburn, 

REPORT, 

That measures were promptly taken for accomplishing those objects, 
and although considerable progress has been made, it will require 
further time to complete the work. 

Alexander Wadsworth, Esq., a skilful civil engineer, was employed 
to make an accurate topographical survey, and to locate the numerous 
avenues, which it was found necessary to establish through the exten- 
sive and beautifully diversified grounds of the Cemetery and Garden, 
both for convenience and embellishment. The map has been so far 
perfected, that it is submitted for inspection, and to exhibit the general 
outlines of the projected improvements ; but considerable labor is yet 
required in'clearing out the principal carriage avenues and foot paths, 
before the sites of the public and private cemetery squares can be 
definitely established, and designated on the plan. 

Models and drawings of the Egyptian Gateways, and of a Gothic 
tower, and a Grecian tower, one of which is proposed to be erected 
on the highest hill, have been made, and are offered for examination. 

It has been ascertained, that the most lofty eminence is one hundred 
and twenty-five feet above Charles River, which gracefully sweeps 
round its gently sloping base ; and, when crowned by the proposed 
tower, will become a most interesting place of resort, as commanding 
an extensive panoramic view of that richly variegated region of mag- 
nificent scenery, embraced within the far distant heights which 
encircle the metropolis, and the waves of the ocnan ; while it will 
present a prominent and imposing feature in the landscape, of which it 
becomes the centre. 

At some future period, when the munificence of the citizens shall 
be commensurate with their debt of patriotic gratitude, this structure 
may perhaps give place for a stupendous monument to the most illus- 
trious benefactor of his country; — there will be reared the cenotaph 
of Washington, in massive blocks of granite or ever-during marble. 
Should the funds hereafter justify it, a Doric Temple, to be used as a 
chapel, for the performance of funeral rites, and lodges for the gar- 
dener and superintendent of the Cemetery, are contemplated, and 
designs are in progress for each. 



a?^ 



78 

As the season for rural labor is far advanced, it is not considered 
expedient to commence the construction of the avenues before the 
next spring; but they can be divested of the underwood, and the 
whole of the grounds so fur cleared up, as to give them the appearance 
of a park, during the present autumn. It is expected that the lots may 
be assigned within twenty days. 

The committee has been cheered, in the discharge of its duties, by 
the deep interest which has been manifested for the success of an 
undertaking, so important to the prosperity of the Horticultural So- 
ciety, and so honorable to the country. Such is the exalted estimation 
in which it is held by the public, so universal is the approbation, so 
intense the interest, that, beside the constant requests for permission 
to become subscribers, by the more affluent, numerous applications 
have been made for cemetery lots, by farmers, mechanics, and dealers 
in building materials, on condition, that they may be paid for in labor, 
or such articles as shall be required in the prosecution of the proposed 
improvements. Within a few days offers have been made to a con- 
siderable amount; and as it was the intention and is the anxious 
desire of the Society, that every citizen should have an opportunity of 
participating in the advantages of the establishment, the committee 
has availed itself of the services thus tendered, in executing much of the 
work which has been performed ; and there is not a doubt, that a very 
considerable portion of the expense in constructing roads, fences, gate- 
ways, and the various other edifices, may be defrayed, by a compen- 
sation in cemetery lots. This will not only be a great accommodation 
to numerous individuals, who are desirous to become subscribers, but 
be highly advantageous to the Society. It is therefore recommended, 
that the committee be authorized to prosecute such improvements as 
may be deemed necessary, on these reciprocally beneficial terms. 

With the vie w of fully meeting the expectations and exigencies of 
the community, it is considered advisable that sites for single graves 
should be designated, in various parts of the cemetery, embracing all 
the diversified localities, to afford an opportunity for individuals, who 
have no families, and the friends of such strangers as may be wept 
and honored far distant from their native land, to procure eligible 
places of sepulture, on reasonable terms. 

As the tract which has been solemnly consecrated, by religious 
ceremonies, as a burial-place for ever, is so abundantly covered with 
forest trees, many of which are more than sixty years old, it only 
requires the avenues to be formed, the borders, for some ten feet in 
width, planted with shrubs, bulbous and perennial flowers, the under- 
wood cleared out, the fences, gateways, and appropriate edifices 
erected, to put the grounds in a sufficiently complete state for the 
uses designed, and to render them at once beautiful and interesting. 
All this can be done within two years, at a comparatively small 
expense, and a result produced which could not have been real- 
ized for forty years, if it had been necessary to commence the 
establishment by planting out forest trees. There are numerous 
majestic oaks, pines, beeches, and walnuts, which have braved the 
storms of a century. Towering aloft amidst the general verdure, 
and extending their huge branches far and wide, they appear as the 
venerable monarchs of the grove, but still exhibit the vigor of their 
luxuriant progeny, which, in umbrageous contiguity, cover each hill 
and plain, and sloping vale, and form many an 



J 77 

79 

" alley green, 

Dingle, or bushy dell, in this wild wood, 
And many a bosky bourn, from side to side." 

The Garden also can be very considerably advanced, within the 
same short period which will suffice for developing the improvements 
of the Cemetery. The nuiseries may be established, the departments 
for culinary vegetables, fruit and ornamental trees, shrubs and flowers, 
laid out and planted, a green-house built, hot-beds formed, the small 
ponds and morasses converted into picturesque sheets of water, and 
their margins diversified by clumps and belts of our most splendid 
native flowering trees and shrubs, requiring a soil thus constituted 
for their successful cultivation, while their surface may be spangled 
with the brilliant blossoms of the Nymphsea, and the other beautiful 
tribes of aquatic plants. The excavations for deepening and enlarging 
the ponds and morasses will afford inexhaustible sources of manure, 
of invaluable consequence to the Garden, as well as for those portions 
of the Cemetery whi-h will be embellished by cultivated plants. 

From these favorable circumstances and the generous zeal which 
has been evinced for the energetic prosecution of the labors, which 
are required to perfect the details of the whole extensive plan, there 
no longer remains the least doubt, that, in the summer of 1834, Mount 
Auburn will rival the most celebrated rural burial grounds of Europe, 
and present a garden in such a state of forwardness, as will be highly 
gratifying to the Society and the public. The work has been com- 
menced on an ever-during foundation, has the approbation and patro- 
nage of an enterprising, intelligent, and prosperous community, and 
cannot fail of progressing in a manner that must give universal satis- 
faction. There has Horticulture eatablished her temple, — there will 
all denominations of Christians surrender up their prejudices, — there 
will repose the ashes of the humble and exalted, in the silent and 
sacred Garden of the Dead, until summoned to those of eternal life, 
in realms beyond the skies. 

Respectfully submitted by H. A. S. Dearborn - , 

For the Committee. 



AN ACCOUNT OF THE WORK, 

DONE AT MOUNT AUBURN, DURING THE TEAR 1832. 

Most of the avenues and paths, which were laid out last autumn, 
were constructed during the spring, affording a carriage drive of 
nearly three miles, and an equal extent of foot walks, which rendered 
Mount Auburn the most pleasant place of resort in the vicinity of the 
capital, during the whole season. The visitors were numerous, be- 
yond all expectation, who thronged the grounds until the close of 
autumn. 

Early in August the Garden and Cemetery Committee caused 
other avenues to be laid out and constructed, and a road made on the 
eastern side, which unites the highways on the south and north east, 
and completes the line of centre communication with the main road 
from Boston to Watertown, thus furnishing a new and most interest- 
ing approach to the establishment, from Brighton, Brookline, Roxbury, 
and other towns south of Charles River, as well as from the city. 



toff 



80 



Under the authority of the Horticultural Society, twenty-five acres 
of land on the west have been purchased, making the whole quantity 
over one hundred acres, now appropriated to the Cemetery and 
Garden, which have been enclosed by a neat aud substantial fence 
seven feet high. The main entrance has been embellished by an 
Egyptian Gateway, twenty-five feet high, with lodges in imitation, 
of small temples for the porter, and superintendent, making the 
entire front one hundred and ten feet, terminated by obelisks. The 
plan of the gate was taken from one of those in Thebes, described in 
the great work of the French savans on Egypt. 

The Experimental Garden, including an area of more than thirty 
acres, has been laid out, and the paths and avenues constructed, and 
bordered with turf, so that the whole will be in readiness for cultivation, 
and to be planted out with fruit and ornamental trees and shrubs, 
next spring. 

A cottage for the superintendent and gardener has been raised, and 
will be finished, with the requisite offices, by the last of February. 
The upper Garden Pond has been excavated, to a sufficient depth 
to afford a constant sheet of water, with a fall at the outlet of three 
feet, and being embanked, avenues with a border of six feet, for 
shrubs and flowers, have been made all round it. In the centre an 
island has been formed, having a path on the margin, which is con- 
nected with the avenue on the western side by a bridge twenty-four 
feet in length, neatly railed and painted ; and another bridge of like 
form and extent thrown over the outlet, which affords a communica- 
tion with the Cemetery ground by the way of the Indian Ridge Path. 

A receiving tomb with walls formed of granite, and covered with 
massive blocks of stone, and surmounted by a quadrangular tumulus, 
covered with sods. The entrance is by a flight of stone steps, and 
is secured with an iron Gothic door. 

On the western side of Cypress Avenue, a public burial lot, ninety 
feet long and twenty-four feet wide, has been laid out and surrounded 
with an iron fence. Being divided into four compartments, by two 
paths, crossing each other at right angles, it will afford sufficient 
space for sixty sepulchres, for the accommodation of such persons as 
do not own one of the large cemetery lots. 

Arrangements have been made for excavating, to a greater depth, 
Forest and Consecration-Dell Ponds, and surrounding them by em- 
bellished pathways, like those of Garden-Pond, and for cleaning the 
eastern portion of Garden and of Meadow Ponds, of bushes and weeds; 
all which will be done during the winter, that season being the most 
favorable for such work. 

Mr. David Haggerston, of Charlestown, has been engaged as Su- 
perintendent and Gardener of the Cemetery and Experimental Garden, 
and' will enter on his duties the first of March, when the Cottage will 
be ready for his reception ; and from his known intelligence, skill, 
and taste, in the cultivation of trees, and plants of all kinds, we have 
the fullest confidence, that our labors, the next season, will be com- 
menced under the most favorable auspices. 

A number of superb marble and granite monuments, some of 
them fifteen feet high, have been erected; many lots are surrounded 
by beautiful iron fences, or prepared for planting out trees, shrubs, arid 
flowers, the next year ; while several tombs of superior construction 
have been made. 



Jff 



81 



But a little more than a year has elapsed since the purchase of the 
land, and the various works were commenced ; and the result is much 
more favorable than the most sanguine anticipated, leaving no doubt 
of a successful and speedy accomplishment of the entire plan. 

As some general system was considered necessary, as to the mode 
of constructing tombs, enclosing the lots, and ornamenting them with 
trees, shrubs, and flowers, the Garden and Cemetery Committee have 
considered it expedient to submit the following remarks to the con- 
sideration of the numerous proprietors, with the hope that they may be 
favorably received* 

SUGGESTIONS 

AS TO THE MANNER OF LAYING OUT AND IMPROVING THE CEMETERY 
LOTS, AT MOUNT AUEURN. 

As various modes of interment and of embellishing the lots may 
be projected, by the several owners, it is very desirable that such only 
should be adopted, as will ultimately be most satisfactory to each? 
proprietor, and produce the best general effect, as connected with the 
character and design of the whole establishment. 

MODE OF INTERMENT. 

The interments will be either in graves or tombs. Graves may be 
made in the common manner, or, if it is thought desirable, they may 
be so constructed as to possess most of the advantages of tombs, 
while many of the objections to them are avoided. The grave having 
been dug, a receptacle for the coffin may be formed, by surrounding 
the sides and ends with a wall of bricks, laid in mortar, one course 
thick and about a foot high. At the bottom, across each end, and in 
the middle, supports should be formed of bricks, one course wide and 
two thick, for the coffin ; and after it has been deposited, an arch is to' 
be turned over it, of the same thickness as the walls. By adopting 
this method, the earth will not come in contact with the coffin, while 
it will be rendered more secure, and when other graves are dug near 
it, will remain undisturbed. The expense will be small,* and the work 
can be executed in a few hours. 

If tombs are preferred, it is important that no part of them should 
appear above the surface of the ground ; and to accomplish this, the' 
excavation, where the lot is level, should be at least ten feet deep, 
and, by covering the tomb with slabs of granite, there will be left a 
space of two feet in depth, which can be filled with loam, and the' 
surface of the lot made again level, with the border in front, in which 
plants, such as are proper to be cultivated within the area of the lot, 
will have ample room to extend their roots^ In the centre of the lot, 
a foundation being laid on the top of the stone slabs, a monument 
can be erected, on the sides of which the names of the persons in- 
terred may, if it is thought proper, be inscribed. The entrance is to* 
be in front of the tomb by a flight of stone steps, and to be covered 
with a thin, flat stone, that may be readily removed. A perpendicular' 
iron door, at the bottom of the steps, secured by a lock, will render 
the entrance perfectly secure. Tombs, of this construction, have beera 
faithfully and neatly built, by Mr. Savage, for two proprietors of lots? 

II 



3o?> 



82 



on Beech Avenue, which are excellent models of this mode of con- 
struction. 

If the lot is on the side of a hill, which slopes to the rear, it should 
be made level by the earth, thrown out of the excavation for the tomb, 
and the exterior side covered with sods, on a slope of at least forty- 
five degrees. If the hill slopes towards the avenue, the mode of con- 
struction must be reversed. In the former, the entrance is to be at 
top in front, as in the first described tomb, and in the latter at top, in 
the rear. This mode of construction, on hill sides, effectually conceals 
the masonry, and the appearance of perpendicular openings is avoided, 
which are offensive to good taste, unless the construction of the whole 
work is of a highly ornamental and expensive character. If the monu- 
ment and tomb are combined in a structure covering a large portion 
of the lot, such as a temple, portico, mausoleum, or massive sar- 
cophagus, like some of those which embellish the cemetery of Pere Le 
Chaise, the entrance must necessarily be in one of the facades ; but 
from the character of such monuments the portals are often the most 
ornamental portions of the structure. 

When the monuments consist of slabs, they should be placed hori- 
zontally on the ground, and never be raised in a perpendicular di- 
rection, as is commonly the case in our church-yards ; for they 
would not harmonize with the natural and artificial beauties of a rural 
cemetery, but give a gloomy aspect to the scenery, which is intended 
to banish the cheerless associations, connected with the burial-places 
of our cities and country towns. At Mount Auburn, the dead will 
be ever in the midst of the living, as their place of interment will be 
the resort of many visitors, who admire the magnificence of natural 
scenery, combined with all the embellishments of tasteful gardening. 
It is therefore of the first consequence, that such sacred grounds should 
be rendered " pleasant, though mournful to the soul." 

MODE OF LAYING OUT AND EMBELLISHING THE LOTS. 

In the attempt to improve the appearance of the lots, by enclosures 
and cultivation, it should be constantly borne in mind, that they are 
very small compartments in the midst of an extensive grove, and to 
give them identity and beauty, the whole of their areas must be left 
open and unincumbered. They cannot be planted with trees or 
shrubs, and if surrounded by hedges, they will present, in a very few 
years, a tangled mass of weeds and bushes. We must recollect that 
they are to exist for ages ; and our effort should be, to render their 
appearance perpetually interesting, with the least possible attention, 
after being once put in the best condition, for present and future effect. 

Hedges, used as inclosures, will disappoint expectation, and require 
to be entirely eradicated after a few years, if even for a short time 
they should have a pleasing effect, when young, healthy, vigorous, 
and well managed. They are only proper for extensive grounds, farms, 
or large gardens, embracing some ten or twenty acres, or for long 
lines of circumvallation, which are to be seen at a distance, in which 
the imperfections, occasioned by insects and the ravages of time, are 
lost in the perspective, but should never be employed to surround a 
mere parterre, a buisson of roses, or a bed of hyacinths. To look 
even beautiful, hedges, of all kinds, require constant attention ; they 
must be kept clear of weeds, and be pruned and clipped several 



3o) 



83 

times in the course of the season of vegetation, and this, too, by 
a skilful hand. Edgings for such limited compartments as the 
Cemetery lots, must be formed of very humble plants, to be in keeping 
with their size and character ; the box, violet, auricula, Burgundy 
rose, daisy, or some other plants, not more aspiring, can alone be used; 
and for the purpose of protecting the monument, on its circumscribed 
location, these would constitute no barrier. Hedges of hawthorn, 
holly, the tripple-thorned acacia, pyracantha, or cedar, or any other 
naturally tall plant, would, if kept even tolerably well trimmed and 
cultivated, become so much filled with wood as to present a mass of 
branches, with but little verdure, save on the evergreens, while the 
whole ground would be filled with roots ; besides, the whole area of 
the lots and the monuments would be so screened from observation, as 
to render them invisible from the avenues and distant points of view, 
when the latter, at least, should be exposed from its base to its summit, 
and to accomplish this the space must remain open, or only be enclosed 
by the lightest constructed trellis, formed with iron posts and delicate 
pales, or small stone or iron posts and chains. 

As the proprietors of lots have a right to a foot of land beyond the 
prescribed bounds, for a fence, there will be an area seventeen feet 
wide and twenty-two feet in length to be improved. The length of 
the lot, however, is to extend the twenty-two feet from the edge of 
the strip of land, six feet wide, reserved, for the borders of the avenues 
and paths, when the end fronts upon them ; but where the lots are so 
laid out, as that the length is parallel thereto, the seventeen feet in 
width will be outside of the six feet border. 

Having equalized the surface of the lot, but leaving it any desired 
declivity or acclivity, according as it may be located, on a hill-side, 
that descends or rises from the avenue or pathway, it should be cov- 
ered with turf laid down even and compact, leaving an open space, 
one foot from the exterior edges, and two feet wide, all round, in which 
bulbous and other perennial flowers may be planted, and so arranged, 
in conformity to their periods of floration, as to present a constant 
succession of blossoms, until the commencement of winter ; or, as a 
less expensive mode, a verge of turf, one foot wide, may be laid round 
the lot, and the area within sown with grass- seed, and the whole may 
be thus rendered verdant in a few weeks. For this purpose red-top 
grass should be alone cultivated, as it forms the most compact, tenacious, 
and beautiful turf. Red clover, being a biennial plant, should not be 
introduced, and the other grasses do not send out so many offsets 
and roots as the red-top, and never produce so fine an effect, even 
when managed in the best manner. To insure a perpetual green, 
smooth, and pleasing surface, the grass should be cut every two or 
three weeks ; and the oftener this is done the better ; for if neglected, 
the tall grass loses its deep verdure, and when cut down, the surface 
of the ground, having been long shaded, will appear seared like a 
stubble-field. The whole secret of keeping turf always green is, 
the frequent cutting of the grass ; it can be done in no other way. In 
England, so celebrated for the spacious and superb lawns, verdant 
avenues, and velvet walks, which embellish the country seats and 
rural cottages of that nation of gardens, the grass is mowed, and 
the turf rolled every fifth or tenth day, and even more often where 
the best possible effect is desired. 



3c ju 



84 



The space of two feet in width, one foot from the edges of the lot 
intended for flowers, should be trenched two feet deep, and filled 
with loam and manure, taking care to rake out all the stones ; for 
bulbs require a light and rich soil. 

There being- a border six feet wide in front of the lots, and a 
space of at least six feet between them, and a still greater one in the 
rear, these can be planted with ornamental trees, shrubs, and flowers, 
which will be sufficient for all the purposes of shade and embellish- 
ment ; and where there are deciduous forest trees now growing in 
the immediate vicinity, especially if of a large size, it will not be proper 
to multiply them, lest the lots be too much overshadowed and ob- 
scured ; neither should the shrubs be numerous. The general appear- 
ance of the whole grounds, should be that of a well-managed park, 
and the lots only so far ornamented with shrubs and flowers, as to 
constitute rich borders to the avenues and pathways, without giving 
to them the aspect of a dense and wild coppice, or a neglected gar- 
den, whose trees and plants have so multiplied and interlaced their 
roots and branches, as to completely destroy all that airinesss, grace, 
and luxuriance of growth, which good taste demands. 

As the list of ornamental shrubs and plants, suitable for the decora- 
tion of lots and avenues, would be too extensive for this publication, 
the proprietors of lots will do well to consult an experienced gardener 
or nursery-man, in reference to the species which are best suited to 
particular soils, and which will secure a succession of flowers through- 
out the season. Messrs. Winships of Brighton, Mr. Carter at the 
Botanic Garden, or Mr. Haggerston on the premises, can give the 
requisite information, and. in most cases, furnish the plants desired. 
For the Committee, 

H. A. S. DEARBORN, 
President of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society 



PROCEEDINGS 



OF THE 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

AT A MEETING HELD AT THE HALL OF THE INSTITUTION, 
ON SATURDAY, SEPTEMBER 29, 1832, 



THE FOLLOWING OFFICERS WERE ELECTED FOR THE ENSUING YEAR 

PRESIDENT. 

HENRY A. S. DEARBORN, Roxbury. 

VICE-PRESIDENTS. 

ZEBEDEE COOK, Jr. Dorchester. 
JOHN C. GRAY, Boston. 
ENOCH BARTLETT, Roxbury. 
ELIAS PHINNEY, Lexington. 

TREASURER. 

CHEEVER NEWHALL, Boston. 

CORRESPONDING SECRETARY. 

JACOB BIGELOW, M, D. Boston, 

RECORDING SECRETARY, 

ROBERT L. EMMONS, Boston. 

COUNSELLORS. 

AUGUSTUS ASPINWALL, Brookline. 
THOMAS BREWER, Roxbury. 
HENRY A. BREED, Lynn. 
BENJAMIN W. CROWNINSHIELD, Salem. 
J. G. COGSWELL, Northampton. 
NATHANIEL DAVENPORT, Milton. 
E. HERSEY DERBY, Salem. 



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86 



SAMUEL .DOWNER, Dorchester. 
OLIVER FISKE, Worcester. 
B. V. FRENCH, Boston. 
J. M. GOURGAS, Weston. 
T. W. HARRIS, Cambridge. 
SAMUEL JACQUES, Jr. Charlestown. 
JOSEPH G. JOY, Boston. 
WILLIAM KENRICK, Newton. 
JOHN LEMIST, Roxbury. 
S. A. SHURTLEFF, Boston. 
E. M. RICHARDS, Dedham. 
BENJAMIN RODMAN, New-Bedford. 
JOHN B. RUSSELL, Boston. 
CHARLES SENIOR, Roibury. 
WILLIAM H. SUMNER, Dorchester. 
CHARLES TAPPAN, Boston. 
JACOB TIDD, Roxbury. 
JONATHAN WINSHIP, Brighton. 
WILLIAM WORTHINGTON, Dorchester. 
ELIJAH VOSE, Dorchester. 
AARON D. WILLIAMS, Roxbury. 
J. W. WEBSTER, Cambridge. 
GEORGE W. PRATT, Boston. 
GEORGE W. BRIMMER, Boston. 
DAVID HAGGERSTON, Charlestown. 
CHARLES LAWRENCE, Salem. 

PROFESSOR OF BOTANY AND VEGETABLE PHYSIOLOGY. 

MALTHUS A. WARD, M. D. 

PROFESSOR OF ENTOMOLOGY. 

T. W. HARRIS, M. D. 

PROFESSOR OF HORTICULTURAL CHEMISTRY, 

J. W. WEBSTER, M. D. 



3oS 



87 



STANDING COMMITTEES APPOINTED BY THE COUNCIL. 

I. 

ON FRUIT TREES, FRUITS, &C. 

To have charge of whatever relates to the multiplication of fruit 
trees and vines, by seed, scions, buds, layers, suckers, or other modes ; 
the introduction of new varieties; the various methods of pruning- and 
training them, and whatever relates to their culture, and that of all 
other fruits ; the recommendation of objects for premiums, and the 
awarding of them. 

-E. VOSE, Chairman. 
-SAMUEL DOWNER, 

OLIVER FISKE, 

ROBERT MANNING, 

CHARLES SENIOR, 

WILLIAM KENRICK, 

E. M. RICHARDS, 

B. V. FRENCH, 

S. A. SHURTLEFF. 

II. 

ON THE CULTURE AND PRODUCTS OF THE KITCHEN GARDEN, 

To have the charge of whatever relates to the location and man- 
agement of Kitchen Gardens ; the cultivation of all plants appertaining 
thereto ; the introduction of new varieties of esculent, medicinal, and 
all such vegetables as are useful in the arts or are subservient to 
other branches of national industry ; the structure and management 
of hot-beds ; the recommendation of objects for premiums, and the 
awarding of them. 

DANIEL CHANDLER, Chairman. 
JACOB TIDD, 
AARON D. WILLIAMS, 
JOHN B. RUSSELL, 
LEONARD STONE, 
NATHANIEL DAVENPORT. 

III. 

ON ORNAMENTAL TREES, SHRUBS, FLOWERS, AND GREEN-HOUSESv 

To have charge of whatever relates to the culture, multiplication, 
and preservation of ornamental trees and shrubs, and flowers of all 
kinds ; the construction and management of green-houses, the recom~ 
mendation of objects for premiums, and the awarding of them. 

JONATHAN WINSHIP, Chairman, 
JOSEPH G. JOY, 
DAVID HAGGERSTON, 
GEORGE W. PRATT, 
SAMUEL WALKER. 



3 c k 

88 



IV. 

ON THE LIBRARY. 

To have charge of all books, drawings, and engravings, and to* 
recommend from time to time such as it may be deemed expedient to 1 
procure ; to superintend the publication of such communications and 
papers as may be directed by the Council ; to recommend premiums 
for drawings of fruits and flowers, and plans of country houses, and 
other edifices and structures connected with horticulture ; and for 
communications on any subject in relation thereto. 

H. A. S. DEARBORN, Chairman. 

JOHN C. GRAY, 

JACOB B1GELOW, 

T. W. HARRIS, 

E. H. DERBY, 

ZEBEDEE COOK, Jr. 

V. 

ON THE SYNONYMS OF FRUITS. 

At a meeting of the Society, June 20, the following gentlemen 5 
were chosen a Committee to facilitate an exchange of fruits with the 
Philadelphia, New York, and Albany Horticultural Societies, and 
others, for the purpose of establishing their synonyms. 

JOHN LOWELL, Chairman. 
ROBERT MANNING, 
SAMUEL DOWNER. 

VI. 

ON THE GARDEN AND CEMETERY. 

JOSEPH STORY, Chairman. 
~H. A. S. DEARBORN, 
-JACOB BIGELOW, 

G. W. BRIMMER, 

GEORGE BOND, 

EDWARD EVERETT, 
-ZEBEDEE COOK, Jr. 

B. A. GOULD, 

G. W. PRATT. 

VII, 

EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE. 

ZEBEDEE COOK, Jr. Chairmm, 
G. W. PRATT, 
CHEEVER NEWHALL, 
CHARLES TAPPAN, 
JOSEPH P. BRADLEE, 



J>< 



o 



7 



MEMBERS 



OF THE 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



Aspinwall, Augustus, Brookline. 
Ames, John W., Dedham. 
Anirews, John H., Sulem. 
Andrews, Ebenezer T., Boston. 
Anthony, James, Providence. 
Adams, Samuel, Milton. 
Andrews, Ferdinand, Lancaster. 
Atkinson, Amos, Brookline. 
Adams, Daniel, Newbury. 
Adams, Abel, Boston. 
Adams, Benjamin, Boston. 
Adams, C. Frederic, " 
Adams, Z. B , " 

Appleton, Nathan, " 
Appleton, Samuel, H 
Austin, James T., " 
Austin, William, Charlestown. 
Austin, E. G., Boston. 
Adams, Charles F., Quincy. 

Bartlett, Enoch, Roxbury. 
Brewer, Thomas, " 
Brimmer, George W., Boston. 4 
Bradlee, Joseph P., " 

Breed, Ebenezer, " 

Breed, Henry A., Lynn. 
Bigelow, Jacob, Boston. 
Baldwin, Enoch, Dorchester. 
Breed, John, Charlestown. 
Breed Andrews, Lynn. 
Bailey, Kendall, Charlestown. 
Ballard, Joseph, Boston. 
Brewer Gardner, " 
Brown, James, West Cambridge. 
Bartlett, Edmund, Newburyport. 
Buckminster, Lawson, Framingham, 
Buckminster, Edward F., " 
Breck, Joseph, Pepperell. 
Badlam, Stephen, Boston. 
Bradford, Samuel H., " 
Bailey, Ebenezer, " 

12 



Bangs, Edward D., Boston. 
Bowdoin, James, " 

Balch, Joseph, Roxbury. 
Bond, George, Boston. 
Bacon, S. N., « 
Billings, Joseph H-, Roxbury 
Barnard, Charles, Boston. 
Brown, Charles, " 
Brown, Jonas B., " 
Bussey, Benjamin, Roxbury. 
Bradlee, Joseph P., Boston. 
Baker, Joseph, " 

Buckingham, Joseph T., " 
Buckingham, Edwin, " 
Boyd, James, " 

Brown, John, " 

Brigham, Levi, " 

Blake, Joshua, " 

Brigham, Dennis, u 

Bird, Jesse, " 

Brvant, John, " 

Bullard, Silas, " 

Burridge, Martin, Medford. 
Bond, George W., Boston. 

Cook, Zebedee, Jr., Boston. 
Codman, John, Dorchester. 
Cunningham, J. A., " 
Clapp, Nathaniel, " 
Coolidge, Joseph, Boston. 
Cordis, Thomas, " 

Copeland, B. F., Roxbury. 
Cogswell, J. G., Northampton. 
Champney, John, Roxbury. 
Cowing, Cornelius, " 
Chandler, Daniel, Lexington. 
Callender, Joseph, Boston. 
Chase, Hezekiah, Lynn. 
Clapp, John, South-Reading. 
Carter, Horatio, Lancaster. 
Colman, Henry, Salem. 



>?' 



90 



Carnes, Nathaniel G., New York. 
Curtis, Edward, Pepperell. 
Chandler, Samuel, Lexington. 
Capen, Aaron, Dorchester. 
Crowninshield, Benjamin W., Salem. 
Cotting, William, West- Cambridge. 
Cabot, Samuel, Brookline. 
Coffin, Hector, Rock Farm, Newbury. 
Curtis, Nathaniel, Roxbury. 
Clapp, Isaac, Dorchester. 
Crafts, Ebenezer, Roxbury. 
Curtis, Charles P., Boston. 
Curtis, Thomas B., " 
Coolidge, Samuel F., " 
Carey, Alpheus, " 

Coffin, George W., « 
Channing, George G., " 
Craigie, Mrs. E., Cambridge. 
Coolidge, Joshua, Watertown. 
Cobb, Elijah, Boston. 
Cowing^Howland, Jr., Roxbury. 

Dearborn, H. A. S., Roxbury. 
Davis, Isaac P., Boston. 
Downer, Samuel, Dorchester. 
Dowse, Thomas, Cambridge. 
Dudley, David, Roxbury. 
Doggett, John, Boston. 
Drew, Daniel, " 
Derby, John, Salem. 
Davenport, Nathaniel, Milton. 
Davis, Charles, Roxbury. 
Dorr, Nathaniel, " 
Dodge, Pickering, Salem. 
Dean, William, " 

Derby, E. H., 

Dodge, Pickering, Jr., Salem. 
Davis, John B., Boston. 
Driver, Stephen, Jr., Salem. 
Davis, John, Boston. 
Davis, Daniel, " 

Dutton, Warren, " 
Denny, Daniel, " 
Davis, James, " 

Dickson, James A., " 
Derby, Richard C, « 
Darracott, George, " 

Emmons, Robert L., Boston. 
Everett, Edward, Charlestown. 
Eustis, James, South-Reading. 
Ellis, Charles, Roxbury. 
Edwards, Elisha, Springfield. 
Eager, William, Boston. 



Endicott, William P., Danvers. 
Everett, Alexander H., Boston. 
Eckley, David, " 

French, Benjamin V., Boston. 
Fessenden, Thomas G., " 
Frothingham, Samuel, " 
Forrester, John, Salem. 
Fiske, Oliver, Worcester. 
Fosdick, David, Charlestown. 
Fletcher, Richard, Boston. 
Field, Joseph, Weston. 
Fitch, Jeremiah, Boston. 
Francis, J. B., Warwick, R. I. 
Freeman, Russell, New-Bedford. 
Fay, Samuel P. P., Cambridge. 
Farrar, John, " 

Farley, Robert, Boston. 
Folsom Charles, Cambridge. 
Fisk, Benjamin, Boston. 
Fuller, H. H., " 

Foster, E. B., " 

Faxon, Nathaniel, Boston. 

Gray, John C, Boston. 
Gray, Francis C, " 
Greenleaf, Thomas, Quincy. 
Gourgas, J. M., Weston. 
Green, Charles W., Roxbury. 
Gore, Watson, " 

Gannett, T. B., Cambridge. 
Gould, Daniel, Reading. 
Gardner, W. F., Salem. 
Gardner, Joshua, Dorchester. 
Goodale, Ephraim, Bucksport, Me. 
Goodwin, Thomas J., Charlestown. 
Guild, Benjamin, Boston. 
Gibbs, Benjamin, " 

Grant, Benjamin B., " 
Gould, Benjamin A., " 
Grant, B. B., « 

Harris, Samuel D., Boston. 
Huntington, Joseph, Roxbury. 
Haskins, Ralph, " 

Huntington, Ralph, Boston. 
Heard, John, Jr., " 

Hill, Jeremiah, " 

Hollingsworth, Mark, Milton. 
Harris, William T., Cambridge. 
Holbrook, Amos, Milton. 
Howe, Rufus, Dorchester. 
Hayden, John, Brookline. 
Hyslop, David, " 



91 



3o <f 



Howes, Frederick, Salem. ^ 
Haggerston, David, Cambridge. 
Hunt, Ebenezer, Northampton. 
Howland, John, Jr., New- Bedford. 
Hayward, George, Boston. 
Higginson, Henry, " 
Hall, Dudley, Medford. 
Hartshorn, Eliphalet P., Boston. 
Houghton, Abel, Jr., Lynn. 
Hovey, P. B., Jr., Cambridge. 
Hurd, William, Charlestown. 
Howe, Hall J., Boston. 
Haskell, Eiisha, " 
Hickling, Charles, " 
Hicks, Zachariah, " 
Howard, Abraham, " 
Hastings, Thomas, " 
Hastings, Oliver, Cambridge. 
Hosmer, Z., " 

Henchman, D., Boston. 
Hobart, Enoch, " 
Howe, S. L., Cambridge. 
, Hodges, J. L., Taunton. 
Hedge, Isaac L., Plymouth. 

Ives, John M., Salem. 
Inches, Henderson, Boston. 
Ingalls, William, " 

Jacques, Samuel, Jr., Charlestown. 
Joy, Joseph G., Boston. 
Joy, Joseph B., " 
Jones, Thomas K., Roxbury. 
Johnson, Samuel R., Charlestown. 
Jackson, Patrick T., Boston. 
Jackson, James, " 

Johonnot, George S , Salem. 
Jarves, Deming, Boston. 
Jackson, C. T., " 
Johnson, Otis, Savannah, Ga. 

Kenrick, William, Newton. 
Kellie, William, Boston. 
King, John, Medford. 
Kidder, Samuel, Charlestown. 
Kuhn, George H., Boston. 
Kendall, Abel, Jr. > « 
Kenrick, John A., Newton* 

Lincoln, Levi, Worcester. 
Lincoln, William, " 
Lowell, John, Roxbury. 
Lee, Thomas, Jr., " 
Lewis, Henry, " 






Lemist, John, Roxbury. 
Lyman, Theodore, Jr. Boston, 
Lowell, John A., " 

Lawrence, Abbott, " 

Lyman, George W., " 

Lawrence, Charles, Salem. 
Little, Henry, Bucksport, Me. 
Lelan' , Daniel, Sherburne. 
Leland, J. P., 

Little, Samuel, Bucksport, Me. 
Leonard, Thomas, Salem. 
Lawrence, William, Boston. 
Lawrence, Amos, " 

Livermore, Isaac, Cambridge* 
Loring, Josiah, Boston. 
Lowell, Charles, " 
Lamson, John, " 

Lynde, Seth S., " 
Lowell, Francis C./ ct 
Loring, Henry, " 

Lienow, Henry, " 
Loring, W. J., " 

Manning, Robert, Salem, 
Manners, George, Boston. 
Minns, Thomas, " 

Morrell, Ambrose, Lexington, 
Munroe, Jonas, " 

Mussey, Benjamin, Boston. 
Mills, James K., " 

M'Carthy, Edward, Brighton. 
Mackay, John, Boston. 
Mead, Isaac W., Charlestown. 
Mead, Samuel O., West- Cambridge, 
Moffatt, J. L., Boston. 
Melville, Thomas, Boston. 
Mc Lellan, Isaac, " 
Merry, Robert D. C, " 

Newhall, Cheever, Dorchester. 
Nicholas, Otis, " 

Nuttall, Thomas, Cambridge, 
Newell, Joseph R., Boston. 
Newhall, Josiah, Lynnfield, 
Newman, Henry, Roxbury. 
Nicholson, Henry, Brookline. 
Newell, Joseph W., Charlestown, 

Otis, Harrison G., Boston. 
Oliver, Francis J., " 
Oliver, William, Dorchester. 
Oxnard, Henry, Brookline. 



Perkins, Thomas H. Boston, 



3\t> 



92 



Perkins, Samuel G. Boston. 
Parsons, Theophilus, " 
Putnam, Jesse, " 

Pratt, George W., " 

Prescott, William, " 

Penniman, Elisha, Brookline. 
Parsons, Gorham, Brighton. 
Pettee, Otis, Newton. 
Prince, John, Roxbury. ' l % 

Phinney, Elias, Lexington. 
Prince, John, Jr., Salem. 
Peabody, Francis, " 
Pickman, Benjamin T., Boston. 
Penniman, James, Dorchester. 
Poor, Benjamin, New York. 
Perry, G. B., East- Bradford. 
Perry, John, Sherburne. 
Pond, Samuel, Cambridge. 
Payne, Edward W., Boston. 
Paine, Robert Treat, " 
Pond, Samuel M., Bucksport, Me. 
Prescott, C. H., Cornwallis, N. S. 
Parker, Daniel P., Boston. 
Pratt, William, Jr., " 
Priest, John P., " 

Philbrick, Samuel, Brookline. 
Parker, Thomas, Dorchester. 
Parker, Isaac, Boston. 
Parkinson, John, Roxbury. 
Phillips, S. C. Salem. 
Pool, Ward, Danvers. 
Pierpont, John, Boston. 
Perkins, T. H. Jr., Boston. 
Parkman, Francis, " 
Pond, Samuel, Jr., " 
Payne, W. E., " 

Preston, John, " 

Quincy, Josiah, Cambridge. 

Russell, John B., Boston. 

Robbins, E. H. " 

Rollins, William, " 

Rice, John P., " 

Rice, Henry, " 

Russell, J. W., Roxbury. 

Read, James, " 

Robbins, P. G., " 

Rollins, Ebenezer, Boston. 

Rowe, Joseph, Milton. 

Rogers, R. S , Salem. 

Rodman, Benjamin, New Bedford. 

Rotch, Francis, " 

Rotch, William, " 



Richardson, Nathan, South- Reading 

Rand, Edward S., Newburyport. 

Richards, Edward M., Dedham. 

Randall, John, Boston. 

Russell, J. L., Salem. 

Russell, James, Boston. 

Raymond, E. A., " 

Robinson, Henry, " 

Russell, George, M. D., Lincoln. 

Rogerson, Robert, Boston. 

Shurtleff, Benjamin, Boston. 
Sears, David, " 

Stephens, Isaac, " 

Silsby, Enoch, " 

Storer, D. Humphreys, " 
Sullivan, Richard, Brookline. 
Seaver, Nathaniel, Roxbury. 
Senior, Charles, " 

Sumner, William H., Dorchester. 
Swett, John, " 

Sharp, Edward, " 

Smith, Cyrus, Sandwich. 
Sutton, William, Jr., Danvers. 
Story, F. H., Salem. 
Stedman, Josiah, Newton. 
Strong, Joseph, Jr., South- Hadley. 
Stearns, Charles, Springfield. 
Shurtleff, Samuel A., Boston. 
Springer, John, Sterling. 
Saltonstall, Leverett, Salem. 
Storrs, Nathaniel, Boston. 
Shaw, Lemuel, " 

Smith, J. M., " 

Sisson, Freeborn, Warren, R. I. 
Swift, Henry, Nantucket. 
Smith, Stephen H., Providence, R. 1. 
Swan, Daniel, Medford. 
Stone, Leonard, Watertown. 
Stone, William, " 

Stone, Isaac, " 

Story, Joseph, Cambridge. 
Shattuck, George C, Boston. 
Stanwood, William, " 

Stanwood, David, " 

Sargent, L. M., ' " 

Stone, Henry B., " 

Simmons, D. A., Roxbury. 
Savage, James S., Boston. 
Shaw, Robert G., " 
Sparks, Jared, " 

Savage, James, " 

Stone, P. R. L., " 

Stearns, Asahel, Cambridge. 



31/ 



93 



Stone, David, Boston. 
Staples, Isaac, " 
Shaw, C. B., " 

Skinner, Francis, " 

Tappan, Charles, Brookline. 
Tidd, Jacob, Roxbury. 
Thompson, George, Medford. 
Train, Samuel, " 

Thorndike, Israel, Boston. 
Thwing, Supply C., Roxbury. 
Tucker, Richard D., Boston. 
Tilden, Joseph, " 

Toothey, Roderick, Waltham. 
Thomas, Benjamin, Hingham. 
Trull, John W., Boston. 
Taylor, Charles, Dorchester. 
Tudor, Frederic, Boston. 
Thayer, J. H., « 

Thacher, Peter O., " 
Tremlett, Thomas B., Dorchester. 

Vose, Elijah, Dorchester. 
Vila, James, Boston. 

Williams, Nehemiah D., Roxbury. 
Williams, Francis J., Boston. 
Wilder, M. P., " 

Williams, Aaron D., Roxbury. 
Williams, Moses, " 

Williams, G., « 

Weld, Benjamin, li 

Worthington, William, Dorchester. 
Welles, John, " A*o/ 

Wales, William, " 

Webster, J. W., Cambridge. 



White, Abijah, Wateriown* 
Williams, Samuel G., Boston. 
Wight, Ebenezer, " 

Wyatt, Robert, « 

Winship, Jonathan, Brighton. 
Wilkinson, Simon, Boston. 
Wilder, S. V. S., Bolton. 
Waldo, Daniel, Worcester. 
Wyeth, Nathaniel J., Cambridge. 
West, Thomas, Haverhill. 
Willard, Joseph, Boston. 
Whitmarsh, Samuel, Northampton. 
Whitmarsh, Thomas, Brookline. 
Warren, Jonathan, Jr. r Weston. 
Webster, Nathan, Haverhill. 
Wilson, John, Roxbury. 
White, Stephen, Boston. 
Ward, Malthus A., Salem. 
Webster, Daniel, Boston. 
Ward, Richard, Roxbury. 
Weld, Aaron D., Jr., Boston. 
Walker, Samuel, Roxbury. 
Wells, Charles, Boston* 
Whitwell, Samuel, " 
White, Benjamin F. " 
Wiley, Thomas, Watertown. 
Wales, Thomas B., Boston. 
Wyman, Rufus, Charlestown. 
Ware, Henry, Cambridge. 
Waterhou?e, Benjamin, Cambridge. 
Winship, Francis, Brighton. 
Weld, James, Boston. 
Whittemore, George, Boston. 
w^Willet, Thomas, Charlestown. 
Wolcott, Edward, Pawtucket. 



HONORARY MEMBERS. 

ADAMS, Hon. JOHN QUINCY, late President of the United States. 

AITON, WILLIAM TOWNSEND, Curator of the Royal Gardens, Kew. 

ABBOT, JOHN, Esq., Brunswick, Me. 

ABBOT, BENJAMIN, LL. D., Principal of Phillips Academy, Exeter, 
New-Hampshire. 

BUEL, J. Esq., President of the Albany Horticultural Society. 

BODIN, Le Chevalier SOULANGE, Secretaire-General de la Societe 
d'Horticulture de Paris. 

BANCROFT, EDWARD NATHANIEL, M. D., President of the Hor- 
ticultural and Agricultural Society of Jamaica. 

BARCLAY, ROBERT, Esq., Great Britain. 

BEEKMAN, JAMES, New- York. 



3 13l, 

94 

BARBOUR, P. P., Virginia. 

COXE, WILLIAM, Esq., Burlington, New Jersey. 

COLLINS, ZACCHEUS, Esq., President of the Pennsylvania Horti- 
cultural {Society, Philadelphia. 

COFFIN, Admiral Sir ISAAC, Great Britain. 

CHAUNCY, ISAAC, United States Navy, Brooklyn, New York. 

BLAPIER, LEWIS, Philadelphia. 

DICKSON, JAMES, Esq., Vice-President of the London Horticultural 
Society. 

DE CANDOLLE, Mons. ANGUSTIN PYRAMUS, Professor of Bota- 
ny in the Academy of Geneva. 

De La SAGRA, Don RAMON, Cuba. 

ELLIOTT, Hon. STEPHEN, Charleston, S. C. 

EVERETT, HORACE, Vermont. 

EVANSON, CHARLES ALLAN, Secretary of King's County Agricul- 
tural Society, St. John's, New-Brunswick. 

FALDERMANN, F., Curator of the Imperial Botanic Garden at St. Pe- 
tersburg. 

FISCHER, Dr., Professor of Botany, of the Imperial Botanic Garden at 
St. Petersburg. 

GREIG, JOHN, Esq., Geneva, President of the Domestic Horticultural 
Society of the Western Part of the State of New York. 

GORE, Mrs. REBECCA, Waltham. 

GRIFFITHS, Mrs. MARY, Charlies Hope, New Jersey. 

GIRARD, STEPHEN, Philadelphia. 

GIBBS, GEORGE, Sunswick, New-York. 

HERICART DE THURY, Le Vicomte, President de la Societe 
d'Horticulture de Paris. 

HOSACK, DAVID, M. D., President of the New York Horticultural 
Society. 

HOPKIRK, THOMAS, Esq., President of the Glasgow Horticultural 
Societv. 

HUNT, LEWIS, Esq., Huntsburg, Ohio. 

HILDRETH, S. P., Marietta, Ohio. 

INGEllSOLL, JAMES R., President of the Horticultural Society of 
Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. 

JACKSON, ANDREW, President of the United States. 

JOHONNOT, Mrs. MARTHA, Salem. 

KNIGHT, THOMAS ANDREW, Esq., President of the London Hor- 
ticultural Society. 

LOUDON, JOHN CLAUDIUS, Great Britain. 

LA FAYETTE, General, La Grange, France. 

LASTEYRIE, Le Comte de, Vice-President de la Societe d'Horticul- 
ture de Paris. 

LITCHFIELD, FRANKLIN, Consul of the United States at Porto 
Cabello. 

LORRILLARD, JACOB, President of the New York Horticultural So- 
ciety, New York. 

LONGSTRETH, JOSHUA, Philadelphia, 

LONGWORTH, NICHOLAS, Cincinnati. 

MADISON, Hon. JAMES, late President of the United States, Virginia. 

MONROE, Hon. JAMES, late President of the United States, Virginia. 

MICHAUX, Mons. F. ANDREW, Paris. 

MENTENS, LEWIS JOHN, Esq., Bruxelles. 



3 1 3 



95 



MITCHILL, SAMUEL L., M. D., New York. 

MOSSELLMANN, . Esq., Antwerp. 

MERCER, Hon. CHARLES F., Virginia. 

POITEAU, Professor of the Institut Horticole de Fromont. 

POWELL, JOHN HARE, Powellton, Pennsylvania. 

PRINCE, WILLIAM, Esq., Long Island, New York. 

PRATT, HENRY, Philadelphia. v 

PALMER, JOHN, Esq., Calcutta. 

ROSEBERRY, ARCHIBALD JOHN, Earl of, President of the Cale- 
donian Horticultural Society. 

SABINE, JOSEPH, Esq., Secretary of the London Horticultural Society. 

SHEPHERD, JOHN, Curator of the Botanic Garden, Liverpool. 

SCOTT, Sir WALTER, Scotland. 

SKINNER, JOHN S., Baltimore. 

TURNER, JOHN, Assistant Secretary of the London Horticultural So- 
ciety. 

THACHER, JAMES, M. D., Plymouth. 

THORBURN, GRANT, Esq., New York. 

TALIAFERRO, JOHN, Virginia. 

THOURS, M. Du Petit, Paris, Professor Poiteau of the Institut Hor- 
ticole de Fromont. 

VILMORIN, Mons. PIERRE PHILLIPPE ANDRE, Paris. 

VAUGHAN, BENJAMIN, Esq., Hallowell, Me. 

VAN MONS, JEAN BAPTISTE, M. D., Brussels. 

VAUGHAN, PETTY, Esq., London. 

VAN RENSELLAER, STEPHEN, Albany. 

VAN ZANDT. JOSEPH R., Albany. 

VANDERBURG, FEDERAL, M. D., New York. 

WELLES, Hon. JOHN, Boston. 

WILLICK, NATHANIEL, M. D., Curator of the Botanic Garden, Cal- 
cutta. 

WADSWORTH, JAMES, Geneseo, New York. 

YATES, ASHTON, Esq., Liverpool. 



CORRESPONDING MEMBERS. 

ADLUM, JOHN, Georgetown, District of Columbia. 
ASPINWALL, Col. THOMAS, United States Consul, London. 
APPLETON, THOMAS, Esq., United States Consul, Leghorn. 

ALPEY, . S 

AQUILAR, DON FRANCISCO, of Moldonoda, in the Banda Oriental, 

Consul of the United States. 
BARNETT, ISAAC COX, Esq., United States Consul, Paris. 
BURTON, ALEXANDER, United States Consul, Cadiz. 
BULL, E. W„ Hartford, Connecticut. 
CARR, ROBERT, Esq., Philadelphia. 
COLVILLE, JAMES, Chelsea, England. 
CARNES, FRANCIS G., Paris. 
DEERING, JAMES, Portland, Me. 



ii 



96 



FLOY, MICHAEL, New York. 

FOX, JOHN, Washington, District of Columbia. 

GARDINER, ROBERT H., Esq., Gardiner, Me. 

GIBSON, ABRAHAM P., United States Consul, St. Petersburg. 

GARDNER,, BENJAMIN, United States Consul, Palermo. 

HALL, CHARLES HENRY, Esq., New York. 

HAY, JOHN, Architect of the Caledonian Horticultural Society. 

HALSEY, ABRAHAM, Corresponding Secretary of the New York 
Horticultural Society, New York. 

HARRIS, Rev. T. M., D. D., Dorchester. 

HUNTER, , Baltimore. 

HOGG, THOMAS, New York. 

HENRY, BERNARD, United States Consul, Gibraltar. 

LANDIIETH, DAVID, Jk., Esq., Corresponding Secretary of the Penn- 
sylvania Horticultural Society. 

LEONARD, E. S. H., M. D , Providence. 

MAURY, JAMES, Esq., late United States Consul, Liverpool. 

MILLER, JOHN, M. D., Secretary of the Horticultural and Agricultural 
Society, Jamaica. 

MILLS, STEPHEN, Esq., Long Island, New York. 

MELVILLE, ALLAN, New York. 

JNEWHALL, HORATIO, M. D., Galena, Illinois. 

OFFLEY, DAVID, Esq., United States Consul, Smyrna. 

OMBROSI, JAMES, United States Consul, Florence. 

PARKER, JOHN, Esq., United States Consul, Amsterdam. 

PAYSON, JOHN L., Esq, Messina. 

PORTER. DAVID, Washington. 

PRINCE, WILLIAM ROBERT. Esq., Long Island, New York. 

PRINCE, ALFRED STRATTON, Long Island. 

PERRY, M. C, United States Navy, Charlestown. 

PALMER, JOHN J., New York. 

ROGERS, WILLIAM S., United States Navy, Boston. 

REYNOLDS, M. D., Schenectady, New York. 

ROGERS, J. S., Hartford, Connecticut. 

SHALER, WILLIAM, United States Consul General, Cuba. 

SMITH, DANIEL D., Esq., Burlington, New Jersey. 

SMITH, GIDEON B., Baltimore. 

SHAW, WILLIAM, New York. 

STRONG, Judge, Rochester, New York. 

STEPHENS, THOMAS HOLDUP, United States Navy, Middletown, 
Connecticut. 

SMITH, CALEB R., Esq., New Jersey. 

SPRAGUE, HORATIO, Gibraltar. 

THORBURN, GEORGE C, New York. 

WILSON, WILLIAM, New York. 

WINGATE, J. F., Bath, Maine. 

W1NGATE, JOSHUA, Portland. 



3/i 



AN 



ADDRESS 



DELIVERED BEFORE THE 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY, 



AT THEIR 



FIFTH ANNUAL FESTIVAL, 



SEPTEMBER 18, 1833. 



BY ALEXANDER H. EVERETT. 



PUBLISHED BY REQUEST OF THE SOCIETY. 



BOSTON: 

PRINTED BY J. T. BUCKINGHAM. 

M DCCC XXXIIi. 



3 it? 



-3/ 7 



ADDRESS 



Gentlemen of the Horticultural Society : — 

In attempting to address you on this occasion, I 
have consulted my wish not to appear insensible to 
the kindness of the request that brings me here, to a 
greater extent, perhaps, than prudence would justify. 
Though fully aware of the importance and attractive 
character of the art which forms the object of your 
institution, the nature of my pursuits through life has 
been such as to deprive me of the opportunity of 
obtaining more than a very limited acquaintance with 
its details ; and in the absence of the resources of 
imagination and eloquence which others might draw 
upon to supply the want of actual knowledge, I must 
throw myself, without reserve, on your indulgence. 
Even the little practical information to which I might 
pretend on the subject of fruits, flowers, and gardens, 
relates chiefly to those that are found in other coun- 
tries, where it has been my fortune to pass the 
greater part of the mature period of my life, and may 
not, perhaps, be applicable here. May I venture to 
add, that there is one particular in which my experi- 
ence, in regard to foreign fruits, differs from that of 



3i % 



4 



some preceding travelers ? The companions of Ulys- 
ses, as we are told by Homer, founds somewhere on 
the coast of Africa, a fruit which he calls the Lotus, 
the taste of which was so delicious, that those who 
had once eaten it lost the desire to return to their 
native country, and remained for life among the 
Lote-Eaters, who, it seems, derived their political 
name from their favorite fruit. Critics and horticul- 
turists are not agreed as to the precise fruit intended 
in this passage. Whatever it may have been, it has 
not been my fortune, in the course of my travels, to 
taste it ; and I have generally found that the fruits 
and flowers which pleased me best in other coun- 
tries, were those which brought most vividly to mind 
the recollection of my own. 

Horticulture, in its simplest application, proposes 
to improve the qualities of vegetables, flowers, and 
fruits. In its higher departments, it assumes the 
character of one of the elegant arts, and teaches the 
disposition of grounds and gardens, whether intended 
for the recreation of individuals, the ornament of 
cities and palaces, or the repositories of the dead. 
Permit me to say a few words upon each of these 
divisions of the subject. 

I. The first in order and in immediate practical 
importance of the objects of Horticulture, is the im- 
provement of the qualities of vegetables, fruits, and 
flowers, including the introduction of new and valua- 
ble varieties from foreign countries. " I am astonish- 
ed," says an elegant French writer, w at the indiffer- 
ence with which we regard the names and memories 
of those who have naturalized among us the fruits 



3 if 



and flowers of other climates." The case was not the 
same among the Romans. Pliny makes it his boast, 
that of the eiffht sorts of cherries known at Rome in 
his time, one was called the Plinian, in honor of one 
of the members of his family, who had brought it 
into Italy. The other seven, also, bore the names of 
the most distinguished families, including the Julian, 
which was that of the Emperors. The first cherry- 
trees were brought to Rome from Pontus, in Asia- 
Minor, by Lucullus, after the defeat of Mithridates, 
who was king of that country. In less than a cen- 
tury, they had spread themselves over the whole of 
Europe, — even into the then remote and barbarous 
island of Britain. The distinguished naturalist to 
whom I just alluded, also commemorates the good 
fortune of Pompey the Great, and the Emperor Ves- 
pasian, in having carried, in their triumphant entries 
into Rome, on their return from their campaigns in 
Syria, the Ebony-tree and the Balm of Gilead. 

Modern nations have not, however, been entirely 
regardless of the services of eminent individuals in 
this particular. France herself bestowed upon one 
species of the same fruit, w 7 hich bore, in ancient times, 
the names of Csesar and Pliny, the scarcely less illus- 
trious one of Montmorency. She also gave to our -" fra- 
grant weed" its scientific appellation of Nicotiana, 
in honor of Nicot, her Ambassador in Portugal, who 
is supposed, in France at least, to have introduced it 
into Europe, although the merit is attributed, in En- 
gland, to Sir Walter Raleigh. Her writers have 
gratefully recorded the service rendered to the West 
of Europe by Busbeck, an Austriaa Ambassador at 



6 

Constantinople, who brought home with him from 
his embassy, the Lilac, one of the most beautiful of 
our flowering shrubs. Of late years it has even be- 
come common to designate the most curious and 
beautiful sorts of non-descript plants, as they are 
discovered, by the name of the discoverer or that of 
some other person of high scientific fame. Thus the 
laurel of our woods has obtained its scientific name of 
Kalmia, from the Swedish naturalist, Kalm ; while 
his countryman, Dahl, has furnished one to the plant, 
whose brilliant and various flowers, though so re- 
cently naturalized among us, already adorn all our 
gardens, and contribute so much to the beauty of 
your exhibitions. 

In the culture of flowers, the Dutch have per- 
haps excelled all other nations. Their taste is, how- 
ever, somewhat limited in its objects, and confines 
itself almost exclusively to the tulip, the rose, and 
the hyacinth. The rage for tulips, that prevailed at 
one time in that country, and the extravagant height 
to which the conventional value of particular varieties 
was carried, are well known. A pressure in the tulip 
market was then nearly as serious a thing in Holland 
as a pressure in the money market is in this country 
at the present day. Although the taste for flowers 
no longer exists to the same degree as it once did 
in Holland, that country is still the place where they 
are most extensively cultivated, and whence they are 
sent as articles of merchandize to all parts of the 
world. The principal tulip and hyacinth gardens are at 
Haarlem. The largest that I saw there contained not 
less than three or four acres of ground, and was really 



3^ / 



<j 



a brilliant spectacle. The principal rose-gardens are 
at Nordwyck, on the German Ocean. In the tulip 
gardens every variety has its name, derived commonly 
from some great political character, and has its fixed 
price in the florist's catalogue. We have seen, dur- 
ing the present season, a specimen of one of these 
tulip gardens, laid out on a small scale by one of your 
members, in which a considerable number of the most 
curious and brilliant varieties were collected in one 
parterre. In selecting the individuals whose names 
they affix to their favorite plants, the florists display 
a very laudable impartiality, and take them alike 
from all countries and all parties. We saw, for ex- 
ample, in Mr. Walker's little collection, a Lewis the 
Fourteenth, a Bonaparte, and a Washington, bloom- 
ing very amicably, side by side, in the same enclos- 
ure. There is even room to suspect that these 
names were not bestowed with any reference to in- 
tellectual capacity or moral worth ; but rather, per- 
haps, under the influence of a slight tincture of legit- 
imacy. Lewis the Fourteenth, was, by far, the most 
brilliant flower in the collection, and commanded the 
high price of ten guineas, while Bonaparte and 
Washington mingled rather obscurely with the com- 
mon herd, and might be had for about Hve shillings a 
piece. 

Washington has been rather more fortunate in 
fruits than in flowers. His name, as I am told by 
one of your most distinguished members, has lately 
been given to a new and most delicious variety of 
Pears, which, though very recently introduced, is 



3'X^ 



8 



said to have already eclipsed the reputation of the 
St. Michael's and the St. Germain's. 

Our barren soil and wintry climate do not admit 
of a very luxuriant vegetation, and we can never 
hope to naturalize among us the magnificent products 
of the tropical climates, which either perish at once 
or dwindle into comparatively dwarfish shapes. We 
possess, however, most of the flowers and fruits 
which thrive in the corresponding temperate regions 
of the old world. The Queen of Flowers presides in 
our gardens, as in those of Greece and Persia ; and 
the King of Fruits, as the vine has sometimes been 
emphatically called, covers our rocks with a royal 
mantle of spontaneous verdure. In improving these 
natural gifts to the utmost, we have ample scope for 
the exercise of skill and taste. The culture of the 
Vine may, perhaps, be mentioned as one of the 
branches of your art, which deserves more attention 
than it has yet received. The best European wines, 
such as Champagne, Burgundy, and the various sorts 
of Rhenish and Moselle, which have recently become 
such general favorites among us, are all produced in 
latitudes considerably higher than ours. Where the 
Vine grows spontaneously with great luxuriance, 
there is reason to suppose, that, with proper care, its 
fruit may be brought to any degree of perfection. 
When the northern navigators from Iceland visited 
the coasts of this country, seven or eight hundred 
years ago, and made a settlement on a spot, probably 
not very distant from the territory we occupy, they 
were so much struck with the luxuriant growth of 



3 Sj3 



9 



the Vine, that they gave to their discovery the name 
of Wineland, which was thus, by a rather singular 
accident, appropriated to one of the few countries 
within the temperate regions of the Christian world, 
where no wine was ever made. A more general and 
careful cultivation of the Vine may, perhaps, enable 
us to justify the application of this ancient title, and 
furnish the community, at a cheap rate, with a pal- 
atable, healthy, and refreshing substitute for ardent 
spirit, which the friends of temperance among us are 
now so earnestly endeavoring to banish from general 
consumption. 

II. The disposition of grounds and gardens, 
whether for the purpose of private recreation or 
public utility and ornament, is another application of 
Horticulture, not less interesting and important than 
the immediate care of fruits and flowers. Under this 
aspect, it is justly regarded as one of the elegant 
arts, and has engaged the attention and employed the 
pens of some of the greatest men of ancient and 
modern times. Among the English writers on the 
subject, we find Horace Walpole, Sir William Tem- 
ple, and the illustrious Lord Chancellor Bacon, who 
has devoted to it one of the longest and most agreea- 
ble of his Essays. This department of the art has 
not yet been much studied among us ; but as wealth 
and population increase, it will gradually attract more 
attention, and will cover the banks of our beautiful 
streams and lakes, the southern slopes of our hills r 
and the promontories and islands along our coast, 
with ornamented grounds. Notwithstanding the com- 
parative sterility of the soil, there are few regions 

2 



g^f 



10 

better fitted for this purpose, by varieties in the sur- 
face of the landscape, the abundance of water, and 
the frequently wild and picturesque beauty of the 
scenery, than New-England. Lake Champlain, — 
Lake Winnepiseogee, with the neighboring White 
Hills, — the charming valley of the Connecticut, and 
a thousand other hills and streams of less celebrity, 
but not inferior beauty, — the islands south of the 
Cape, and in our own harbor, — all present the most 
attractive natural situations, and only require the 
magical touches of art, to be converted into scenes, 
as elegant as any that grace the most cultivated re- 
gions of Europe, or bloom perennially in the pages 
of the poets. 

In this, as in all the other arts, the progress of 
taste has been slow and gradual. It is a striking 
proof of the simple state of Horticulture in the time 
of Homer, that, in describing the gardens of Alcinous, 
King of Phoeacia, a prince to whom he has given a 
palace with brazen walls and silver columns ; — de- 
scribing them, too, with so much latitude of imagina- 
tion, that he has enriched them with the gift of per- 
petual spring ; — he can still imagine nothing more 
magnificent than an enclosure of ibur acres devoted 
exclusively to fruit. 

Four acres was the allotted space of ground, 
Fenced with a green enclosure all around ; 
Tall thriving trees confessed the fruitful mould, 
The reddening apple ripens into gold. 
Here the blue fig with luscious juice o'erflows ; 
With deeper red the full pomegranate glows; 
The branch here bends beneath the weighty pear, 
And verdant olives flourish round the year; 
Beds of all various kinds, forever green, 
In beauteous order terminate the scene. 



3*3 



n 



It is curious to compare with this simple scene, 
the superb description of Paradise by Milton, who 
found, in his own correct natural taste, a guide which 
the practice of the art was, in his time, far from 
affording. 

the crisped brooks, 



Rolling on orient pearl and sands of gold, 
With mazy error under pendent shades 
Ran nectar, visiting each plant, and fed 
Flowers worthy of Paradise, which not nice Art 
In beds and curious knots, but Nature boon 
Poured forth profuse on hill, and dale, and plain. 

It was long, however, before the art reached in 
practice the point of correct taste indicated bj this 
fine passage. Among the Romans, and in modern 
times, until a very recent period, the prevailing taste 
was for grounds ornamented in a formal and fantastic 
way. Pliny, who was one of the wealthiest and most 
distinguished, as well as most accomplished persons 
of his time, has given in his works a description of 
two of his villas, which appear to have been orna- 
mented very nearly in the same way with the Dutch 
and French gardens of the time of Lewis XIV. They 
were laid out in regular walks, adorned with artificial 
flowers and basins, statues, obelisks, and evergreens, 
cut into fantastic shapes. In the time of Lewis XIV. 
this was the taste which prevailed throughout Europe 
and extended even into England. But the better 
spirits, as we have seen from the passage in Milton, 
foresaw, by the instinctive light of their own good 
taste, the improvement that occurred shortly after. 
Pope, in one of his Moral Essays, finely ridicules the 
style of the day, and predicts that its tasteless crea- 



sa£ 



12 



tions would soon be restored to a more natural con- 
dition. 

The time shall come that sees the golden ear 
Embrown the waste or nod on the parterre ; 
Dark forests cover what jour pride has planned, 
And laughing Ceres re-assert the land. 

The most beautiful work which was produced 
under the influence of this formal style, was undoubt- 
edly Versailles, the residence of the remarkable 
sovereign who gave his name to the age when it pre- 
vailed. The palace at Versailles was constructed by 
Lewis XIV. when at the height of his power, without 
regard to expense ; and the gardens, though arranged 
in accordance with the taste of the day, correspond 
with the magnificence of the master. The principal 
ornaments were the artificial fountains. The water for 
the supply of them was brought several miles in an 
aqueduct from the Seine, where it was raised by a 
cumbrous piece of machinery, which, at the time 
when it was erected, was celebrated as a wonder of 
art, under the name of the Machine of Marly. A 
steam-engine has recently been substituted for it. 
The fountains are annually played on the festival day 
of St. Lewis, which is the 24th of August, and the 
whole population of Paris goes out to witness the 
spectacle, which is certainly very magnificent. 

During the latter part of the life of Lewis XIV. 
Versailles was his favorite abode, and its groves and 
walks were thronged by the nobles and beauties of 
the most brilliant court ever known in Europe. It 
continued to be the residence of the royal family 
until the memorable days of the 5th and 6th of Oc- 



3xj 



13 



tober, 1790, when the populace of Paris took the 
palace by storm, and, after slaughtering the guard, 
penetrated to the Queen's bed-chamber, and carried 
off the family in triumph to the capital. It was here 
that Burke had seen the same unhappy Princess, only 
a few years before, on her first appearance at court, 
as the Dauphiness, " glittering like the morning star, 
full of life, and splendor, and joy/' While the place 
was under her direction she added to the embellish- 
ments a small garden laid out in imitation of a Swiss 
dairy. Since the fatal days of October Versailles has 
been abandoned as a residence, and the gardens have 
been in some degree neglected. I saw them for the 
first time at the hour of sunrise, on a fine May morn- 
ing, in the year 1812. The palace of Lewis XIV. 
was then a ruin ; the last of his successors had per- 
ished on the scaffold ; his sceptre had passed into the 
hands of a Corsican adventurer, who was ruling the 
greater part of Europe with a rod of iron, under the 
name of the Emperor Napoleon. The very bones of 
the Bourbon family had been torn from their conse- 
crated resting-place, by the mad rage of an infuriate 
mob, and scattered to the four winds of heaven. Ten 
years after, when I saw Versailles again, the scene 
had already changed. The Bourbons again inhabited 
the palace, and possessed the power of their ances- 
tors. The Emperor Napoleon had fallen from his 
high estate, and, under the name of General Bona- 
parte, expired, in exile and misery, on a burning rock 
in a distant ocean. His remains, in turn, had been 
denied a resting-place in the land which he had so 
long governed. Ten years more have produced an- 



33i? 



14 

other change in the actors and decorations of this 
great drama. Another hand now wields the sceptre 
of Lewis, Napoleon, and Charles X., and another fam- 
ily of royal exiles are wandering in beggary through 
all the courts of Europe. In the mean time the 
gardens of Versailles have annually bloomed as freshly 
as before, and the nightingales that frequent them 
have sung as gaily as if nothing had happened. These 
violent and sudden changes in the political world, 
contrasted with the steadiness and order that distin- 
guish the course of nature, may serve, perhaps, to 
recommend to us as our chief pursuits and pleasures 
those that consist in the study of her works and the 
enjoyment of her beauties. 

When Lewis XIV. was at the height of his power, 
he made it a part of his magnificence, — as his succes- 
sor, Napoleon, afterwards did, — to place one of his 
family upon the throne of Spain. Philip V. after es- 
tablishing himself in his new kingdom, was ambitious 
to imitate the splendor of the royal residences of that 
which he had left, and undertook to create a new 
Versailles, on the summit of the Guadarrama moun- 
tain, at the distance of about sixty miles from Madrid, 
and at the height of three thousand six hundred feet 
above the level of the sea. This freak of fancy cost 
the Spanish people forty millions of dollars, and pro- 
duced, as its result, the palace and gardens of La 
Granja, or, as they are often called, from the name of 
the neighboring village, St. Ildefonso. Notwithstand- 
ing the enormous expense at which they were con- 
structed, there is little in the architecture of the build- 
ings, or the general appearance of the place, to remind 



3 zf 



15 



one of the splendid residence of the old French court ; 
bat the gardens, and especially the fountains, are con- 
sidered by many as even superior to those of Versailles. 
They are situated on the declivity of the mountain, 
and are abundantly supplied with pure and pellucid 
water from the springs above them. One of them, 
called the Fountain of Fame, throws up a stream of 
water to the height of a hundred and thirty feet, the 
upper part of which may be seen from the city of 
Segovia at six miles distance. 

Such was the state of Horticulture, as applied to 
the disposition of grounds and gardens, in the time of 
Lewis XIV. A better taste soon after grew up in 
England, and spread itself thence over all parts of 
Europe. The improvement lay in substituting a 
more free and direct imitation of nature, for the 
formal arrangements and fantastic decorations that 
were in use before. Most of the grounds and gar- 
dens that have been laid out in Europe within the 
last half century, have been disposed upon this plan, 
of which very beautiful specimens are to be found, 
not only in England, France, and Germany, but in 
Sweden,' Poland, Austria, and Russia. The Wood 
at the Hague, an enclosure of about a mile in length, 
and half a mile in width, is justly considered as one 
of the most remarkable of the number. 

Of the grounds, ornamented in the purer taste of 
the present day, that have fallen under my observa- 
tion, those of the royal residence of Aranjuez, in 
Spain, are, however, the most beautiful. This is the 
place where the Court usually repair to pass the 
months of May and June, and it seems to realize, as 



3V& 



16 



nearly as fact can be supposed to approach to romance, 
the description of the Happy Valley in Rasselas. It is 
situated about thirty miles from Madrid, at the con- 
fluence of the noble river Tagus, which is here of 
very moderate size, with one of its smaller branches, 
called the Jarama. The country in this part of 
Spain, though not barren, is destitute of wood, and 
wears, through the greater part of the year, a parch- 
ed and dry appearance. After passing over several 
miles of this monotonous landscape, you descend into 
an extensive valley of six or eight miles in length 
and two or three in breadth, covered with the most 
luxuriant vegetation, and laid out entirely in grounds 
and gardens ; in the midst of which are embosomed 
the buildings that form the royal residence and the 
neighboring village. The two divisions, of which 
ornamented grounds are naturally composed, that is, 
a flower and fruit garden, and a park tastefully 
planted and disposed, are here combined in high per- 
fection. In the immediate neighborhood of the Pal- 
ace, are two gardens devoted chiefly to flowers, and 
planted with alleys of elms, sycamores, cypresses, 
acacias, and various other sorts of ornamental trees, 
which, in this rich and well-watered soil, grow luxu- 
riantly, and rise, in some cases, to a very great 
height. The rest of the valley is laid out into open 
lawns, intersected by roads and variegated by clumps 
of trees, which occasionally thicken into a sort of 
forest, particularly at the point where the junction of 
the rivers presents a scene, similar in kind, and pro- 
bably not inferior in beauty, to the celebrated Meet- 
ing of the Waters in the Vale of Avoca, in Ireland . 



33 £ 



17 



From this point, the Tagus proceeds with an in- 
creased volume of water, and, after washing, a few 
miles below, the base of the lofty precipitous rock, 
which forms the site of the old Gothic capitol of 
Toledo, pursues its course of about four hundred 
miles to the ocean. 

During my residence in Spain, a bold adventurer 
set forth in a steam-boat from Aranjuez, for the pur- 
pose of exploring the river from that place to its 
mouth. It was the first time that a steam-boat had 
ever been seen upon its waters, at least, in the inte- 
rior of the Peninsula. The enterprise occupied about 
two months ; regular bulletins of its progress were 
published in the newspapers, and it was evidently 
regarded as a matter of some national importance. 
Compare this state of the internal communications 
in a kingdom that has been occupied ever since the 
earliest dawn of history, with the hundred and fifty 
magnificent steam-boats that are now regularly em- 
ployed upon the Ohio and Mississippi, and you have 
at least, one remarkable fact, — whatever objections 
may be urged against them, — in favor of the influ- 
ence of liberal political institutions. 

I1L The grounds and gardens, to which I have 
alluded, have been laid ■.-■opt chiefly for the private 
recreation of their owners ; but the art of Horticul- 
ture is applied to higher and more interesting objects. 
At Athens, the public gardens were employed by the 
principal philosophers, as schools,, or places of in- 
struction. One of them, called Academus, or, as it 
is modernized in English, the Academy, was frequent- 
ed by Plato ; and in consequence of the great celeb- 



S3 9^ 



18 



rity and influence which have since been acquired by 
the doctrines originally taught there, has given its 
name to a great variety of literary and scientific in- 
stitutions. The original Academy was nothing more 
than a public garden, laid out by the distinguish- 
ed Athenian General, Cymon, and planted chiefly 
with olive-trees, of which there are many still 
growing on the spot. The place was situated with- 
out the walls of Athens, and near the spot appropri- 
ated to the sepulchres of distinguished men. At the 
entrance was an altar, dedicated to Love, and within 
were altars to Minerva and the Muses. The tomb 
of Plato was in the immediate neighborhood. The 
Lyceum was another Athenian garden of the same 
description, which was celebrated as the school of 
Aristotle, and, like the Academy, has given its name, 
in modern times, to innumerable institutions for edu- 
cation and improvement. 

The art of embellishing grounds and gardens, has, 
also, been occasionally applied, both in ancient and 
modern times, to the still more solemn and interest- 
ing purpose of preparing repositories for the remains 
of the dead. The cemeteries of the Eastern nations 
are commonly situated without the walls of their 
cities, tastefully planted with trees, and frequented 
as public walks. The cemetery of Pere la Chaise at 
Paris is of the same description ; and there is a beauti- 
ful one, of a similar kind, though on a smaller scale, 
at New-Haven, in Connecticut. It is much to be 
desired, that repositories of this description may be 
multiplied among us. While they tend to promote 
the salubrity of cities, they connect agreeable images 



333 



19 

with the recollections of the past, and the antici- 
pations of the future ; and strip the idea of death 
of a part of the horrors, with which superstition 
and the weakness of our nature, have unnecessarily 
invested it. 

In connexion with this branch of the subject, I 
w 7 ould venture to remark, that it has often occurred 
to me as a desirable thing, that some public funeral 
ground of this description should be consecrated to 
the memory of the patriots and heroes of the Revolu- 
tion. The spot most suitable for this purpose would 
be Mount Vernon, a territory well adapted to it 
by its central situation in the Union, its vicinity to 
the Seat of Government, its natural picturesque 
beauties, and its noble position upon the banks of 
one of the finest rivers in the world ; but especially 
fitted for the object, above all other grounds, from 
having been the residence of Washington. It seems 
to be a sort of profanation, that the dwelling, which 
was rendered sacred to the view of the American 
people by having been the scene of his earthly pil- 
grimage, should be afterwards devoted to the ordi- 
nary purposes of life ; and without intending any 
reflection upon the conduct of the present occupant, 
whose leisure and privacy are as sacred as those of 
any other individual, it is certainly a painful thing, 
that the people should not be permitted, at all times 
and seasons, to pay their vows in perfect freedom at 
the tomb of their political father. It is evident that 
they can never enjoy this advantage in its full extent, 
while the place is held as individual property. Some 
restrictions must be imposed upon the freedom of 



3^4 



20 



access ; and the disagreeable scenes, which, from time 
to time, will necessarily occur, in consequence of 
this, without furnishing a proper occasion for censure 
upon any one, should, if possible, be avoided in re- 
gard to all matters connected in any way with the 
memory of the great genius of the spot. 

It is, therefore, desirable, on every account, that 
Mount Vernon should be purchased by the people, 
and held as a national property. The sacrifice, that 
would be necessary in order to acquire it, is too 
trifling to be mentioned ; and although the family of 
Washington must, of course, set a high value on his 
patrimonial domain, they would naturally be proud 
and happy to cede it for the honorable purpose of 
being consecrated as a perpetual monumental ground 
to the memory of the Revolutionary fathers of the 
country. The house and grounds should be kept in 
perfect order, and, as nearly as possible, in the condi- 
tion in which they were left by Washington. On 
some elevated spot should be erected an equestrian 
statue of the hero, that might catch from a distance 
the view of citizens as they ascended the river to 
visit the place, and might serve as an indication to 
them that they had reached the end of their journey. 
This imposing figure, towering majestically above 
the clumps of trees that adorn the grounds, would 
form a noble object as seen from a distance. Every 
ship that passed, would strike her top-sails in honor 
of it, as the mariners of Athens, when they entered 
the Piraeus on their return voyages, were accustomed 
to salute the tomb of Themistocles, which stood at 
the bottom of that harbor. 



JSS 



21 



Within the house might be placed the portraits 'of 
the great proprietor and of his associates in civil and 
military life. In the principal hall should stand his 
own by Stuart, with that of his aid and confidential 
friend General Hamilton on one side, and on the 
other, that of Lafayette by SchefTer, which now hangs 
in the Rotonda of the Capital. After these would 
naturally follow those of Knox, Lincoln, Greene, 
Lee, Gates, Morgan, Sumpter, and the others. 
Warren, the young martyr of Bunker-Hill, should 
hold a conspicuous place, and the hero of Benning- 
ton should not be omitted. Another principal room 
should be devoted to the commemoration of those 
who served the country in civil life. At the head of 
these, should be stationed Franklin, John Adams, 
and Jefferson, with the members of the Continental 
Congress grouped around them. In their company 
should appear the others, whose services were 
most conspicuous in the earlier scenes that preceded 
the decisive action. There should be seen the open 
face and manly person of Samuel Adams, as repre- 
sented by Copley. By the side of this, our more 
than Cato, might stand Patrick Henry, our untaught 
Demosthenes, John Dickinson, the lettered farmer, 
and Otis, — a name endeared to the citizens of Bos- 
ton by the patriotic virtues and charming eloquence 
of more than one generation. In another of the 
rooms should be collected the younger generation 
who were associated with Washington in completing 
the work of the Revolution, by reforming the govern- 
ment and introducing the present Federal constitu- 
tion. Here should be another portrait of Washing- 



33U 



ton in a civil dress as President, and another of Ham- 
ilton on account of his signal services on that occa- 
sion. Madison and Jay should accompany the latter 
on either side ; and after them should come the 
active friends and supporters of the constitution 
throughout the country ; — the cloudy care-worn coun- 
tenance of Parsons, the radiant visage of Ames, and 
the fine manly features of Rufus King. With this 
group the list should close, for it would scarcely be 
expedient to make Mount Vernon a Westminster 
Abbey, or general mausoleum of the illustrious dead, 
but rather to devote it specifically to the honor of 
the revolutionary worthies and the founders of the 
government. The merit of these, as respects the 
country, will always remain of a singular kind, 
whatever titles of honor may hereafter be won by 
others. In some more private apartment should be 
collected the portraits of the family of Washington. 
This interesting collection would at once furnish the 
house in a manner suitable to its destination, and 
concur in promoting the general object. The na- 
tional flag should be displayed above the building, to 
mark it as public property, and the estate might, for 
purposes of jurisdiction, be considered as an appen- 
dage to the District of Columbia. 

The access to Mount Vernon, under this arrange- 
ment, should be perfectly free to every one, at all 
times and seasons, — effectual measures having been 
taken to prevent disorder and injury to the property. 
Under these circumstances, the resort to the place 
would probably be much greater than it had ever 
been before ; and it would gradually come to be 



3 3 7 



regarded as a sort of sacred ground, like the plains 
of Elis in ancient Greece, where the Olympic games 
were celebrated at the end of every four years. 
Mount Vernon, too, might, perhaps, be made the 
theatre of public rejoicings on the anniversary of our 
great national festival. The citizens of the neigh- 
borhood would naturally meet there upon that occa- 
sion ; and, in proportion as the importance of the day 
shall be more and more felt, and the respect for the 
memory of our political fathers shall go on increas- 
ing, as it will, from year to year, many persons, from 
all parts of the country, would naturally avail them- 
selves of that opportunity to visit the abode and 
burial-place of their illustrious leader. The festivi- 
ties might, probably, be continued for several days, 
and might be accompanied by devotional and literary 
exercises, poems, plays, and other entertainments of 
all descriptions. The whole drama of the Greeks 
grew out of an annual religious festival, lasting four 
or five days in succession, — during which, tragedies 
and comedies, founded in the history and manners of 
their country, were acted, without intermission, from 
morning till night. We, too, might, perhaps, obtain 
in this way, a national drama more congenial to the 
state of manners and of morals among us, than that 
of modern Europe. Here, too, some new Herodotus 
might read to his assembled countrymen the yet 
unwritten history of the achievements of their 
fathers ; some modern Pindar restore the glory of 
poetry, by devoting it anew to the praise of heroism 
and virtue. A festival like this, held, perhaps, once 
in three or four years, would produce no trifling 



33i 



24 



effect in maintaining among the people a high na- 
tional spirit, and cherishing that principle of public 
virtue which we are taught to regard as the essence 
of our government. 

But, gentlemen, I am trespassing too long upon 
your patience, with a detail of plans that, perhaps, 
may never be realized. Whether such a disposition 
as 1 have now suggested, will ever be made of the 
sacred domain of Mount Vernon, will depend upon 
the wisdom of the General Government. In the 
mean time you have commenced on the smaller 
scale, corresponding with the wants and the re- 
sources of a single state, an establishment of this 
description, which promises to become one of the 
chief ornaments of the neighborhood, and of which 
the progress, thus far, does great credit to the dis- 
cernment and taste of your society. Superior in its 
natural advantages of position to the famous sepul- 
chral grounds of the ancient world, we may venture 
to hope, unless the sons of the pilgrims shall degen- 
erate from their fathers, that Mount Auburn will 
hereafter record in its funeral inscriptions, examples 
not less illustrious than theirs, of public and private 
virtue. Even now, while the enclosures that sur- 
round it are scarcely erected, — while the axe is still 
busy in disposing the walks that are to traverse its 
interior, — this consecrated spot has received the re- 
mains of more than one, whose memory a grateful 
people will not willingly permit to die. There was 
laid, by the gentle ministration of female friendship, 
as the first tenant of the place, the learned, devout, 
and simple-hearted Daughter of the Pilgrims, who 



25 

has wrought out an honorable name for herself, by 
commemorating theirs. There reposes in peace, the 
young Warrior, cut off like a fresh and blooming 
flower, in the spring of his career. There, too, rests 
beside them, the generous Stranger, who, in his 
ardent zeal for the welfare of man, had come from a 
distant continent to share the treasures of his wisdom 
with an unknown people.* Around their remains will 
gradually be gathered the best, the fairest, the brav- 
est of the present and of many future generations. 
In a few short years, we, too, gentlemen, who are 
now employed in decorating the surface of Mount 
Auburn or describing its beauties, will sleep in its 
bosom. How deep the interest that attaches itself 
to such a spot ! How salutary the effect which a 
visit to its calm and sacred shades, will produce on 
souls too much agitated by the storms of the world ! 
It was surely fitting that Art and Nature should com- 
bine their beauties, to grace a scene devoted to pur- 
poses so high and holy. 

* The persons alluded to in the text are Miss Hannah Adams, Lieut. Watson, and Dr. 
Spurzheim. 



4 



J4o 



34 1 



FIFTH 
ANNIVERSARY FESTIVAL 



OF THE 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



The fifth Anniversary of the Massachusetts Horticultural So- 
ciety was celebrated on the 13th of September. At 11 o'clock, 
an excellent Address was delivered at the Masonic Temple, by 
Hon. Alexander Everett. This contained brief but compre- 
hensive historical sketches of Horticulture, and notices of exist- 
ing improvements in gardening, as displayed in various parts of 
Europe, and noted by the personal observations of the Orator. 
A portion of the Address had reference to Cemeteries, in different 
portions of the globe, and particularly that at Mount Auburn, 
which was originated and established under the auspices of the 
Massachusetts Horticultural Society. This part of the perform- 
ance was particularly interesting, eloquent, and impressive. From 
half past 12 to 2 o'clock, the Dinner hall was open to public 
inspection, and notwithstanding the rain, which fell profusely, a 
large concourse of spectators proved that the public felt an inter- 
est in the exhibition. 

At three o'clock the Members of the Society, together with 
numbers of respectable guests, sat down to a dinner, provided by 
Mr. Eaton, which consisted of all the substantials and delicacies 
the Epicure could wish for, or the Temperate Man enjoy. The 
following are some of the donations of Fruits and Flowers, which 
were presented for the festival : — 

A fine basket of Isabella grapes, &lc. from E. P. Hartshorn, of 
Boston, — also a basket of Black Hamburgh and Sweet Water 
grapes, from the same — open culture, fine for the season. A 
basket of apples, and a basket of Seedling pears, from Joseph 
Morton, Esq. of Milton. Freestone Rare-ripe peaches, a very 
handsome specimen, from E. Cowing, of Roxbury. From John 
Prince, Esq. of Roxbury, a basket of Ruckman's Pearmain, a 
basket of Gilliflower apples, a basket of Bourasseau apples, a 



__»/ T^ £?>—* 



28 



basket of Pomme Niege apples, a basket of Summer Queen 
apples, a basket of Ribstone pippin, Fall Queening apple, 
Golden Pippin, French apple, French Bon Chretien pair, all very 
beautiful. From E. M. Richards, of Dedham, two baskets of 
natural peaches, superior, two baskets of Benoni apples, large, 
one basket of Red Juniating. From Madam Dix, Boston, a 
basket of Dix pears, very fine. From Dr. S. A. Shurtleff, Bos- 
ton, a basket of St. Michael pears, and four baskets of White 
Chasselas grapes, open culture, very beautiful. From Luther 
Allen, of Sterling, three baskets of monstrous Red apples, for 
baking. From J. Tidd, Esq. of Roxbury, four clusters of very 
fine Black Hamburgh grapes, also a large Muskmelon. From 
Charles Oakley, Esq. of the city of New- York, a basket of Heath 
Clingstone peaches, a basket of plums, name unknown, a basket 
of Orange Nectarin Clingstone seedlings, a basket of Orange 
Clingstone seedlings, a basket of seedling pears, a basket of 
pears, called Vergalieu in New-York, the St. Michael in New- 
England, a basket of peaches, name unknown, all beautiful and 
some splendid specimens. From Enoch Bartlett, Esq. Roxbury, 
a basket of Bartlett pears, a basket of Andrews pears, a basket 
of Capiaumont pears, all very superior. From John Wilson, of 
Roxbury, two baskets of Melacaton peaches. From E. Vose, 
Esq. of Dorchester, a basket of Capiaumont pears, a basket of 
Bartlett pears, very superior. From John Breed, Esq. of Belle 
Isle, two baskets of wall fruit peaches, one basket of Bartlett 
pears, one basket of pears, name unknown, a basket of long green 
pears, a basket of pears, name unknown, all very fine fruit 
From Howl and Cowing, Roxbury, a basket of large sweet apples, 
name unknown, and one basket of sour. From Dr. Webster, of 
Cambridge, a variety of Flowers, also a vegetable called Glascol 
Rabbi, a basket of almonds, open culture, a basket of white 
Chasselas and red Chasselas grapes, a Persian and one other 
variety of melon, very fine. From P. B. Hovey, and Charles M. 
Hovey, of Cambridgeport, one highly decorated basket, contain- 
ing Bartlett, Johonnot, and Andrews pears, and several varieties 
of peaches, grapes, and flowers, also, another basket of Bartlett 
and Johonnot pears, and a basket of Porter apples, very fine speci- 
mens. From Messrs. Winship, of Brighton, two baskets of Sem- 
iana plums, very superior. From E. P. Hartshorn, eight baskets, 
containing Isabella, black Hamburgh, and white Chasselas 
grapes. From Messrs. Willet and Wilson, of Boston, one large 
basket of Autumn Bergamot, also, a large basket of Gansels or 
Brocas Bergamot pears, also, a large basket of white sweet water 
grapes. From Professor Farrar, of Cambridge, a fine basket of 
Porter apples. From E. Breed, Esq. of Charlestown, two large 
decorated baskets, consisting of the white Muscat of Alexandria, 
the St. Peters, and black Hamburgh grapes, Bartlett and Rous- 
sellet de Rheims pears, and a variety of peaches, very beautiful 



3*13 



29 



specimens. From Lawson Buckminster, Esq. of Framingham, 
one large basket of Porter apples, very superb. From Mr. Mason, 
of Charlestown, a basket of green citron melons, three baskets, 
containing Malta peaches and Nectarines, four baskets of black 
Hamburgh grapes, and one of Miller's Burgundy grapes, also 
yellow Muskmelons, very fine specimens. From Joshua Childs, 
Boston, a basket of Manilla grapes, a beautiful specimen. From 
the garden of the late Red ford Webster, Boston, a basket of St. 
Michael's pears, a basket of sweet water grapes, and one of sweet 
lemons. From David Fosdick, Charlestown, a very beautiful 
ornamented pyramid basket of white Muscadine and Isabella 
grapes, and a variety of apples and peaches. From Enoch 
Bartlett, Esq. Roxbury, two baskets of beautiful peaches, and a 
splendid specimen of Porter apples. From Zebedee Cook, Jr. 
Esq. of Boston, 1st Vice-President of the Society, a basket of 
most beautiful Bartlett pears. From Dr. Fisk, of Worcester, a 
basket containing very large varieties of apples. From Wm. B. 
Roberts, Gardener to Samuel G. Perkins, Esq. of Brookline, a 
large and highly ornamented basket, containing black Hamburgh, 
Cape, St. Peters, Linfendal, white Muscat of Alexander, Golden 
Chasselas, common do. grapes, Admirable, Jaune, Bolle Chever- 
euse, Morris's white early Admirable, Pine apple, Clingstones. 
From Hon. H. A. S. Dearborn, President of the Massachusetts 
Horticultural Society, Roxbury, two baskets of red Roman Nec- 
tarines, one do. containing Drap d'Or, and late blue French 
plums, one do. Cantaleupe Melons, Trowbridge apples, Maria 
Louisa pears, Beurre Angleterre do. Sickle do. some of them very 
beautiful. From Jairus Lincoln, Esq. Hingham, a basket of Seek- 
no-further apples. From Elisha Edwards, Esq. Springfield, a 
basket of Freestone and Clingstone peaches, very fine, one do. of 
St. Michael's and brown beurre pears, large and fair. From Wm. 
Lawrence, Bulfinch-street, Boston, Seedling peaches, very beau- 
tiful. From T. B. Coolidge, Esq. Bowdoin-square, Boston, a 
basket of beautiful yellow plums. From the garden of the Hon, 
T. H. Perkins, by W. H. Cowing, white Hambro-Muscat of 
Lunel Frankendale, Royal Muscat of Alexandria, flame-colored 
Tokay, black Frontignac, Melacaton (native) white peaches from 
the wall, Bromfield Nectarine, American, all remarkably fine 
specimens, and some uncommonly splendid. 

The Floral decorations of the Hall, (which did great credit to 
the taste of the Committee, who performed that service,) were 
furnished from the Society's Garden at Mount Auburn, by Mr. 
D. Haggerston, by Messrs. Winship, Mr. Mason, Mr. Walker, 
Mr. P. B. Hovey, jr. Mr. C. M. Hovey, Messrs. Kenrick, Dr. 
Webster, Henry Sheafe, Esq. and others. Gen. Sumner, fur- 
nished some fine purple Egg Plants for the dinner. 

Eleven varieties, consisting of Apples, Pears, Peaches, Plums, 
and Lemons of Artificial Fruits, very nearly resembling natural 



4H 



30 

ones, were exhibited by Mr. Nelson D. Jones, No. 21, Joy's 
Buildings, where the Society and others can see artificial speci- 
mens of the finest fruits. 

A large Orange Tree, in full bearing, exhibited by Messrs. 
Willot and Wilson, attracted much attention. 

By order of the Committee on Fruits, &c. 

EDWARD M. RICHARDS. 

Nicholas Longioorth, Esq. of Cincinnati, Ohio, an Honorary 
Member of the Society, sent two bottles of native wine, the pure 
juice of the native grape, which was very much admired, and was 
of excellent quality. 



After dinner, the following regular Toasts were drank : — 

Cultivators and Conquerors. The former would make the whole world a 
Garden, the latter would convert the " Great Globe" to a Golgotha. 

Let the Trumpet of Fame 
Resound with the name 
And deeds of the Tiller, 
But blast the Mankiller. 

Manual Labor Schools. Success to those literary and scientific establish- 
ments, which, by mixing corporeal with intellectual exercitations, set the 
seal on that true greatness, which consists of a union of the most estimable 
qualities of Body and Mind. 

Nullification. A Passion flower, planted in a hot house, propagated by ar- 
tificial heat, and matured by fermenting substances. Let us hope that the 
process of division may not change it into a " Tremella nostor," or the 
" fallen Star.'" 

Office seekers for Office salce. Parasitic plants, Creepers into party, 
Climbers into popularity, and Twiners into power , a Tribe, sometimes very 
ornamental to the people, always useful — to themselves. 

The Veterans of '76. A few slips of the Elder, grafted on the tree of Lib- 
erty. Their upright shoots did not need much training, to produce a col- 
lection of Scarlet kunners. 

Ireland, the land of the Potato. The Root is finely formed by Nature, but 
does not thrive by being forced. If an Irishman is not allowed to eat his 
Potatoes in peace at home, is it a wonder if he is not mealy-mouthed abroad ? 

The Promotion of Patriotism- If we wish our citizens to love their coun- 
try, w r e must make our country lovely by manual, mental, and moral culti- 
vation. 

The Michael and Imperial Pear of Portugal. Both called Royal, but, as 
Good Christians, we declare that they are neither of them worth half a 
crown. 

The Gardener. His wealth will be found to lie in his bed, provided he 
does not lie there too long himself. 

Gold Mines. With a spade, a hoe, and active industry, every cultiva- 
tor will find one in his kitchen garden. 

The Tree of American Liberty. An union of twenty-four branches, sup- 
ported by one trunk. It is more than half a century old — and each suc- 
ceeding year extends its foliage and deepens its roots. 

Public Education. A tree of knowledge ; its opening and expanding 
blossoms are budding beneath the genial sunshine of popular patronage. 
Its supporters will reap the Fruits^of an approving conscience, that " blesses 
the giver more than the receiver." 

Women, sweet herbs. In the summer of our existence, aromatic as the 
Rosemary ; in the autumn, grateful as the Lavender ; in the winter, balsamic 
as the Sage — May the seasoning of domestic life never be mixed with the 
sauce. 



3fiS 



31 

VOLUNTEERS. 

By H. A. S. Dearborn, Pres. of the Mass. Hor. Society. The Orator of the 
Day — May we cultivate the fruits and flowers of our gardens with as much 
zeal and success, as he has those of literature and eloquence. 

By the Hon. A. H. Everett, Orator of the Day. The Horticultural Societies 
of Massachusetts and her sister states. We cannot wish them better fortune, 
than that their success should be equal to the excellencies of their desserts. 

By Judge Story. The Massachusetts Horticultural Society. Its native 
stock excellent, its foreign grafts full of rich fruits, and its set-off of flowers 
beautiful. 

By the Hon. Ebenezer Mosely, President of the Newburyport Horticultural 
Society; present by invitation of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society. 
Education. That moral culture which eradicates the weeds of bad princi- 
ples, swells the bud, unfolds the blossom, and ripens the fruit of science and 
good morals. 

I Sent by the Hon. T. H. Perkins, with a contribution of beautiful fruit. 
May our Domestic, as well as our Horticultural Nurseries, produce fruit 
which well deserves cultivation. 

By E. Bailey. " Office-seekers for the sake of office," — borers who would 
destroy the tree of Liberty. 

By Grant Thorburn of New York. Bachelors. Those sleepy Adams in 
the American gardens — May they awake like their grandfather — see Gene- 
sis 2d chap, from the 21st to the 25th verse. 

The Original Laurie Todd. The Veteran Horticulturist and Seedsman, 
that commenced his career, with two Geraniums, in green painted pots. 

By Charles Oakley, Esq. of New York, sent with a box of valuable Fruits. 
The Friends of Horticulture and the Practical Gardeners of the East. May 
they ever be prospered, not forgetting their associates in other climes. 

By Elisha Edwards, Esq. of Springfield, sent with a large contribution of 
valuable Fruits. Agriculture, Horticulture, and Floriculture, subject to the im- 
proving taste and industry of man — May their march be onward till the 
whole earth shall become fruitful fields and gardens, and man shall return 
to his native innocence. 

By H J. Finn. Miss Fanny Kemble — A rare and splendid specimen of 
the Star Apple. Can we wonder at the splendid success of such a scion-, 
springing from such a talented Stock. 

By the Hon. Mr. Gould sborough, of Maryland. The refined and hospitable- 
inhabitants of Boston — May they long, very long, enjoy their beautiful and 
various flowers, and their repast of delicious fruits in the lap of peace, and 
under the protection of the Federal Union. 

By Mr. G. H. Andrews. Fruits and Floioers. Grateful to the taste and 
to the sight — May their buds and blossoms never be blighted by the chill of 
ingratitude towards the Giver of them. 

By B. V. French. The Ncio- England Farmer and, Horticultural Journal. 
May its influence continue with the Agricultural and Horticultural com- 
munity of New-England, till we can boast of a Sinclair, a Davy, a Knight, 
and a Loudon of our own. 

By T. G. Fessenden. The best Antidotes to Intemperance : Domestic en- 
dearments, a taste for good Fruit, and a fondness for fine Flowers. 

By David Haggerston. America and Great- Britain. In the interchange 
of productions between the two countries, may the Olive Branch ever be 
the article most highly estimated. 

By George C. Barrett. The Fruits of this day's Exhibition. If the for- 
bidden Fruit was equal to this, Madam Eve would scarcely need an apology 
for yielding to the temptation which it presented. 

By a Guest from Nantucket. The Sea and the Land. Their products 
equally benefited by emulation, and alike augmented by encouragement : 
May those, who plough either, reap a rich harvest, and their stores abound 
in " Corn, wine, and oil." 



M^ 



32 

By E. M. Richards. The 9th Congressional District. May it be repre- 
sented with as much integrity, ability, and eloquence in the next Congress 
as in the last. 

By a Guest. Good Taste, the result of cultivation both in mind and mat- 
ter. We here taste the good fruits produced by good taste. 

By B. V. French. Judge Buel, of Albany. The Patron and Pattern of 
Agriculture and Horticulture. His Practice is Scientific, and his Science is 
Practical. 

By G. C. Barrett. Hon. J. Lowell. The Promoter and Benefactor of the 
great interests of Agriculture and Horticulture. 

The President having retired, Zebedee Cook, Jr. Esq. the 1st Vice-Presi- 
dent, after remarking on the services rendered to the Society by Gen. Dear- 
born, concluded with a sentiment, expressive of the high and grateful sense 
he entertained of the President's talents, untiring zeal and devotion to the 
interests of the association, which met with a cordial response from all 
present. 



LOVES OF BETSEY BUCKWHEAT AND SIMON SPARROW- 
GRASS. 

Written for the occasion by H. J. Finn, Esq. and sung by him. 

When Dr. Darwin ruled the taste of folks with rod despotic, 
He sung the loves of all the plants, both native and exotic ; 
I mean to say he thought he did, but he forgot, alas ! 
The loves of Betsey Buckwheat, and one Simon Sparrowgrass. 

A culinary maid was she, and he a man herbaceous. 
" O, lauk a daisy," he exclaimed, and she " my goody gracious." 
He took his bread and cheese with her, also a little shrub, 
And after killing Caterpillars, swallowed down his Grub. 

This Simon he was very thin, though thick with Bet, by gosh, 
For he was like a Parsnip long, and she a Summer Squash ; 
He called her his sweet sugar Pea — dwarf marrowfat I ween — 
For love had in his head and heart — his poll and kidney-been. 

His jacket sowed in patches, was n't worth a single shilling, 
His pantaloons were full of holes — of course were made of drilling ; 
She thought he looked like scurvy-grass, and it was most distressing, 
Said she "you know I think a Goose, is nothing without dressing.'' 

His love was deeply rooted — so he thought he'd stir his stumps, 
And as his mouth did water, why, he bought a pair of pumps; 
A reddish coat he got cut out, with turn-up collar juttings, 
And so love apples he did mean to propagate by cuttings. 

Her peepers were Black Hamburghs, and she sharpened all his sighs; 
When Cupid plants his round and grape, they're shoots from female eyes. 
While Simon was a raking, little Cupid often laughed, 
To think how Betty Buckwheat soon, would rake him fore and aft. 



■3HJ 



33 

He vowed lo pop the question, and one Sunday night they met, 
And there they shared the loaves and fish — a kitchen cabinet. 
He thought he'd like a stock of Simons, from a little tallow tree, 
And raise some little suckers, from a little nursery. 

" O, Betty Buckwheat," then said he, " if you and I don't wed, 
" I shall return from whence I came — that 's to a parsley bed ; 
" Them 'ere horse pistols what you see, shall visit these 'ere lugs;" 
Then slow as any snail he went, to choose a hrace of slugs. 

ie O Sparrowgrass ! O Sparrowgrass ! ! O Sparrowgrass ! ! !" said she, 

" I can't resist — I'm all your own — it 's my fdt-&Yity ." 

But Simon thought, the fingers of her fist were so immense, 

'T would take ten dollars to enclose one, in a gold-ring fence. 

As calms succeed a storm sometimes, so storms succeed a calm ; 
And weeks of loormioood followed Simon's honey-moon of balm ; 
For brandy blossoms soon were seen upon her bottle-nose ; 
And bulbs they budded on his head, for there she planted blows. 

The forcing system she pursued, was, from the house to scold him; 
It proved a hot house, for she made his house too hot to hold him : 
For Betsey planted lots of Box around his cranium's ledge, 
And though he did dislike the Bet, it was too late to hedge. 

His Waspish Bee he then found out, was but a mere humbug, 
For daily to her jugular, she joined another jug. 
Her hands would gather in his crop — for she would tear his hair; 
And the nature of the Crab was grafted on this kitchen pair. 

To make an end of Sparrowgrass, she swore, from the beginning ; 
She starved him, though his long lean limbs did never need m uch thinning ; 
One day she knocked him down, and ran\ in spite of all his prayer ; 
She was an Offset out of doors — he on the ground a layer. 

So he fell sick, to think no junior Sparrowgrass should be; 
A little heir he thought to feel — a Sow- flower to see. 
The Faculty could not restore his faculties to try 'em; 
It is not strange that soon he died — he physic look per diem. 

His plaguy Toad in our Frog pond, then drowned herself one night; 
But as all liquors from the Common, now are banished quite — 
Each 'lection day her ghost appears, and laughs to think — od rot her — 
That she 's the only Spirit there, allowed to mix with Water. 



34% 



PROCEEDINGS 

OF THE 

MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY, 

AT A MEETING HELD AT THE HALL OF THE INSTITUTION, 
ON SATURDAY, SEPTEMBER 8, 1832. 



The following Report was made by H. A. S. Dearborn, Presi- 
dent of the Society : — 

Last autumn orders were sent to Paris and London for such 
works as could be procured, in relation to cemeteries and funeral 
monuments. Recently the following publications have been re- 
ceived from France : — 

1st. Les Mausolees Francois, par F. C. T. Jolimont, 1 vol. 4to. 
It contains an account of some of the most remarkable monu- 
ments in the Cemetery of Pere La Chaise, illustrated with fifty 
beautiful engravings. 

2d. Recueil de Tomheaux des Quatre Cimctieres de Paris, par 
C. P. Arnaud, 2 vols. 8vo. It gives a description of the Ceme- 
teries of Pera La Chaise, Sous Montmartre, Vougirard and Sainte 
/ Catherine, embellished with eighty-two plates. 
A/ 1 " 3d. Manuel et Itineraije du Curidux Dans la Cimetiere du 
Pere La Chaise, par F. M. Marchant de Beaumont, 1 vol. 12mo. 

This little volume contains a description of Pere La Chaise 
and of three hundred and forty-two sepulchres. It is ornamented 
with a plan of the cemetery and engravings of several of the 
monuments. 

I have translated portions of the historical and descriptive 
accounts of that celebrated burial-place, from a belief it would 
be interesting to the members of the Society, and to all persons 
who have visited or patronized a similar establishment which has 
been commenced at Mount Auburn. 

In a former report I alluded to the progress which had been 
made in the work, that was begun the last season, for preparing 
that beautiful site as the garden of the dead; and I am now happy 
to announce, that the whole of the land will soon be inclosed by 
a neat and substantial picket fence, seven feet in height, and that 

i 



?f? 



35 

a magnificent Egyptian gate-way will be commenced immediately, 
as well as the construction of a Receiving Tomb. 

It is very important that measures should be taken without de- 
lay, for laying out and forming the Garden of Experiment, and 
furnishing accommodations for a gardener. There is a building 
on the ground which could be converted into a neat cottage, at a 
small expense, and the garden could be considerably advanced 
during the autumn by making the avenues and paths, planting 
out forest trees and ornamental shrubs on the external borders, 
preparing compartments for fruit trees, nurseries, esculent vegeta- 
bles, flowers, and other useful plants. To accomplish this, some 
two or three thousand dollars are required, as the funds which 
have been derived from the sale of cemetery lots have been ap- 
propriated to the purchase of land, the constuction of avenues 
and fences, and for other indispensable expenses. The funds, 
which will accrue in future, will be ample for all the purposes 
connected with the Garden and Cemetery ; but the interests of 
the former would be much advanced by an immediate erection 
of the requisite edifices, and in the preparation of the grounds for 
commencing their extensive cultivation next spring. 

Believing that there are numerous gentlemen in Boston and its 
environs, who feel a deep solicitude for the advancement of Horti- 
culture, and who would be disposed to aid the efforts of our Soci- 
ety in the establishment of an experimental garden, it has been 
suggested, by many of our most zealous colaborators, whether it 
would not be expedient to raise a committee, authorized to obtain 
funds by subscription, to enable us to precipitate our contempla- 
ted improvements, instead of delaying them, for some few years, 
until the proceeds of the Cemetery lots shall have supplied the 
means. A comparatively small sum being now placed at our dis- 
posal, would enable the Society to present an advanced and inter- 
esting garden, even during the next year, and to lay such a foun- 
dation for its gradual extension, as would warrant the speedy 
realization of all our expectations, and give great public satisfac- 
tion. As the monuments are erected in the cemetery, and the 
lots require to be embellished with trees, shrubs, and flowers, the 
latter will be in great demand, and the garden may ultimately 
furnish many of them ; the sooner therefore it is begun, the better 
for both departments of the establishment. The improvement of 
each will act as alternate cause and effect ; and we may confidently 
anticipate the most successful results, from a simultaneous culti- 
vation and embellishment of all the ground within the inclosure. 

It will be perceived, from the accompanying account of Pere 
La Chaise, that many years had passed by before that magnificent 
cemetery claimed public attention, and became a resort of the 
admirers of the arts, the opulent and enlightened, as well as the 
common place of sepulchre for the most illustrious in letters, 
science, and arms, and of the humblest citizen of Paris. A year 



3 



S* 



36 

has not yet elapsed since the consecration of Mount Auburn, and 
over one hundred and seventy lots have been purchased, which is 
more than were sold at Pere La Chaise in eight years from its 
foundation. As to the result of the undertaking there is there- 
fore no longer any doubt, and we should be encouraged in the 
most active and liberal exertions for completely developing the 
entire plan, in all its interesting and important departments. The 
citizens of our capital and country are never wanting in ardor 
and munificence, when objects of moment are presented, worthy 
of their consideration and patronage , and, indulging a sanguine 
belief that the Garden and Cemetery of Mount Auburn are 
deemed among the most valuable undertakings which have been 
projected for the benefit and gratification of the whole commu- 
nity, there can be no hesitation in appealing with confidence to 
public liberality. The affluent, the enlightened, the virtuous, the 
patriotic, and the industrious and enterprising among all classes 
of society, will cheerfully aid in the achievement of objects, which 
are sanctioned by the beneficent precepts of our religion, the dic- 
tates of an exalted morality, a holy respect for the ashes of the 
dead, the kindest sympathies of the heart, and that active spirit 
of improvement, which pervades every section of our country. 

Respectfully submitted by 

H. A. 3. DEARBORN, President 
Brinley Place, 

Roxbury, Sept. 7, 1832. 



TKE CEMETERY OF PEUE LA CHAISE. 

The celebrated Cemetery of Pere La Chaise is situated on the 
eastern side of the range of hills which extend north-east of 
Paris, from Belleville to Charonne, and commands a view of the 
Faubourg of Saint Antoine. This inclosure has been renowned 
since the fourteenth century, for the beauty of its position. 

During the early period of the monarchy, the place was called 
La Champ V Eveque, and belonged to the Bishop of Paris. In 
the fourteenth century, a rich grocer, by the name of Regnault, 
being pleased with the site, built there a magnificent country 
seat, for the Bishop, to which the people gave the name of La 
Folie Regnault. There could not be found a more pleasant and 
picturesque position, affording a more varied and fertile soil, a 
purer air, more extended and beautiful prospects, a view of a 
richer country, or from whence Paris could be so perfectly seen, 
in its universality and in its least details. This delightful retreat 
commanded the admiration of every age. 

But everything changes in this world ; no happiness is perma- 
nent ; Regnault died, and his heirs sold his estate. A pious 
female believed she should do a meritorious act in purchasing 
La Folie Regnault, as a country residence for the holy fathers of 



3s I 



37 



an establishment of Jesuits, situated in the street of Saint An- 
toine, and it became the scene of their ambitious intrigues, at 
the time that powerful religious and political association controll- 
ed the sovereigns of Europe. 

During the battle between the illustrious Turenne and the 
Great Conde, in the Faubourg of Saint Antoine, on the second of 
July, 1652, the Jesuits opened their establishment to Cardinal 
Mazarin, to enable Louis XIV. then a child ten years old, with 
the court, to behold the conflict, in which his loyal legions 
reduced to obedience the battalions of his revolted subjects. 
Anxious to change the burlesque name of their mansion, the 
Jesuits requested, as a favor, that it might be called Mont Louis, 
which was granted by the King, and who, towards the close of 
his reign, obtained the consent of the order to convert it into a 
residence for his venerated confessor, the Pere La Chaise ; but 
an inclosure of only six acres was considered too small for the 
keeper of the Jung's conscience, and it was increased to fifty-two. 
The grounds were highly embellished by various splendid addi- 
tions to the edifice, a chapel, offices of various kinds, extensive 
groves, shaded avenues, orchards, beautiful gardens, fish ponds, 
and fountains. Here were held the secret conclaves of that asso- 
ciation which decided the destinies of princes and empires. The 
Pere La Chaise was not only the confessor of the king, but a 
General of the Jesuits. He was of the noble family of Forets, 
grand nephew of Pere Cotton ; and after controlling the domestic 
establishment of his sovereign for thirty-four years, he died on 
the 20th of January, 1709, aged 85 years. 

During the reign of Louis XV. the Jesuits having been expell- 
ed from France, the magnificent seat of Pere La Chaise was 
directed to be sold, to pay the debts of that society, and was 
purchased by the guardian of the Barons des Fontaines. These 
noblemen held the estate for forty-seven years, but having been 
reduced in fortune by the disasters of the revolution, they found 
the establishment too expensive ; and being neglected, it fell into 
ruin and became the retreat of owls. Its ornamental plantations 
were gradually destroyed, and the land was then cultivated as a 
common farm. Divided into numerous lots, it no longer resem- 
bled a park, and nothing remained in 1804, to indicate its former 
magnificence. But the beauty of the position, and its innumera- 
ble natural advantages, saved it from imminent destruction. At 
that time M. Frochet, Prefect of the Department of the Seine, 
was desirous of finding an eligible site for a large public ceme- 
tery. He considered it important that the location should be 
beautiful, which was the reverse of the existing burial-ground of 
the French capitol. M. Broguiart, a celebrated artist, was 
instructed to discover an appropriate location, and he readily per- 
ceived that the ancient park of Pere La Chaise presented all the 
requisites ; and it soon became celebrated as a cemetery throughout 



3±^ 



38 

Europe. It was immediately purchased for the sum of 160,000 
francs, under the authority of the administration of Paris. It then 
contained but fifty-two acres, but has since been extended to 
seventy-two. 

The pompous denomination of Mont Louis was abolished, and 
it was called, by the administration of the department, Cimttiere 
de L' Est ; but the public, unchangeable in its old customs, 
imposed upon it the name of the Cimttiere du Pere La Chaise, 
to perpetuate the astonishing metamorphosis of the garden of a 
Jesuit, and the confessor of Louis XIV. being converted into a 
burial-place. 

Heretofore all was confusion, disorder, and irreverence towards 
the ashes of the dead, in the burial-places of Paris. Causes, ad- 
verse to the indulgence of a recollection of our predecessors, 
seemed to have combined in the accumulation of every thing 
which was capable of exciting terror and disgust ; confined, 
fetid, and horrible situations, where the rays of the sun scarcely 
appeared — broad and deep pits into which the dead bodies of the 
poor were thrown by hundreds, and generally without being even 
inclosed in the meanest coffin ; — surrounded by high walls, 
against which were piled up thousands of bones that had been 
removed from the earth before decomposition, to make room for 
the remains of other unfortunate beings ; no monuments, or 
scarcely any other indication of friendly recollection : such were 
the revolting places to which Paris gave the name of cemeteries. 
The terror of the poor, who scarcely dare to enter them, even at 
the interment of a dear relative ; hideous to the rich, who could 
not even look at them without a shudder. But order, decency, 
and respect for the ashes of the dead were induced by the perfect 
regulation, order, and management of the new cemetery, under 
the judicious and constant superintendence of Count Chabral de 
Volvic, the present prefect of the Department of the Seine. 

Having selected for the principal funeral asylum of the inhab- 
itants, an incomparable site, M. Broguiart considered it incum- 
bent upon him, to avail of those natural advantages which it pre- 
sented, to produce the most imposing effect, without giving to the 
whole a too sombre and lonely appearance. This he successfully 
accomplished, by an appropriate distribution of the grounds, to 
the various objects for which they were destined ; and in the 
judicious and tasteful arrangement of the public edifices, ave- 
nues, paths, and the infinitely various and superb monuments. 

The grounds are inclosed by a vast and elegant wall, 2,400 
toises in circuit. The principal entrance is from the Boulevard 
d'Arlnay. On each side of the great gate are lodges for the 
officers of the cemetery. On the left pilaster is the following 
sentence from St. John the Evangelist, xi. 25. 

" He that believeth in me, though he were dead, yet shall he 
liver 



3 5~3 



39 

On the front of the gate-way is this sublime profession of faith 
from Job, xix. 

" I know that my Redeemer liveth, and that he shall stand at 
the latter day upon the earth ; and though worms destroy this 
body, yet in my flesh shall I see God." 

On the right pilaster is the following sentence from the Wisdom 
of Solomon, iii. iv. 

" Yet is their hope full of immortality ." 

On the highest part of the inclosure, where there is now a 
small chapel, is to be reared a pyramid two hundred feet high, in 
the centre of which will be a temple for religious ceremonies. An 
extensive square, on the left of the main avenue, is appropriated 
as a common burial-place for the poor; and on the right, the Jews 
have a large grave-vard ; the remainder of the land has been 
divided into fifty-seven compartments, by the intersection of the 
numerous avenues, which have been formed in the style of modern 
landscape and picturesque planting. 

The poor are buried at the public expense; but that numerous 
class of persons who live comfortably, by their own continual in- 
dustry, yet, not having acquired an independency, were consider- 
ed worthy of the kind attention of the government; nevertheless 
it was not considered that they were entitled to a gratuitous in- 
terment, because the procurement of a sepulchre was a debt of 
consanguinity, of relationship, of gratitude or friendship, which 
those should discharge who inherit the property of the deceased. 
Still their humble situation prohibited an extravagant expendi- 
ture ; but their virtues, the usual companions of the middling and 
laborious portion of society, and their sentiments of affection im- 
periously prescribed that they should not forget, in the night of 
the tomb, those whom they had always loved; it was, therefore, 
necessary to enable them to discharge this debt of the heart. 
The administration, attentive to its duties, prepared for them iso- 
lated places of burial, where they could be assured of an undis- 
turbed sepulchre on the payment of fifty francs for each succes- 
sive term of five years. The third class of persons who are 
interred in the cemetery, are those who purchase a -perpetual 
possession in a site for a sepulchre ; but not less than two square 
metres are conveyed for an adult's grave, and one for that of a 
child under seven years of age. The price is 125 francs per 
square metre ; the cost, therefore, of a grave of two metres, is 
250 francs, to which are to be added the fees, amounting to lS-^g- 
francs, making the whole sum 268-^j- francs. 

The special management of the establishment is committed to 
a superintendent, who is charged with the duty of causing the 
laws and regulations to be carried into effect, under the immedi- 
ate direction of the Inspector General of Cemeteries, and to keep 
a register of the interments. 

The superintendent has under him a principal grave-digger 



3.r4 



40 



with assistants, an officer with assistants, who has the charge of 
keeping the avenues, paths, gardens, and plantations around the 
monuments in perfect order, and the direction of all excavations 
for the construction of perpetual sepulchres, and a guard of seven 
men under the command of a chief, which keeps watch, night 
and day, for the security of the monuments, the maintenance of 
the police, and the enforcement and observance of the regulations, 
which are posted up in various parts of the establishment. 

All inscriptions must be left at the office of the superintendent 
for examination, before they can be engraved on the monuments ; 
and none are allowed, which are in violation of the principles of 
religion, morality, the government, language, or orthography. 

At the time this establishment was commenced, no one had 
conceived of the high public favor which it was destined to ac- 
quire. It presented nothing peculiar for a burying-place. A 
disposition for its embellishment was evinced with a tardiness, 
then not common in the erection of public monuments. The in- 
humations commenced in the deepest and most remote part of 
the vale, which was overlooked by the old habitation of Pere La 
Chaise, then falling in ruins. The entrance was from a narrow 
street, bordered with houses — the interior edifices presented a 
hideous aspect, in consequence of their antiquity, irregularity, and 
dilapidated state. On arriving at the place of interment, it was 
found to be without any point of view. The fir trees, which grew 
along the walls, shaded a few grave-stones, or merely wooden 
crosses. A deep pit, always open, was to be seen, in which the 
remains of the poor were thrown. All was sad and cheerless in 
this confined spot ; still it was visited by a few persons, who cher- 
ished the memories of their friends ; filial piety traced upon a 
humble monument the name of a virtuous father ; a few widows 
came to shed tears over the graves of their husbands ; mothers 
formed wreaths and crowns of myrtles and roses, which they 
placed upon the tombs of their children : such tributes of the 
heart were then not uncommon. 

During eight years the temporary sepulchres were formed al- 
most exclusively in the lowest part of the grounds, and there 
were but a few perpetual monuments scattered over the top of the 
eminence. When returning from an interment, no one was 
tempted to ascend the steep acclivity of the hill, to behold more 
near a ruined mansion and a few dispersed monuments, some 
small clumps of trees, an isolated gothic chapel, and grounds 
without embellishment or cultivation. The perspective of Paris 
was very magnificent from this point ; but any other place than a 
cemetery, seemed preferable for its contemplation. 

Public opinion, which subjects every thing to its laws, had not 
yet included, in the number of essential domestic virtues, a re- 
spect for the ashes and memory of relations. A people intoxica- 
ted with glory, satiated with victories, and proud of their power, 



3*5 



41 



repulsed far from them all melancholy reflections ; every thing 
which might induce them to think of the fragility of human hap- 
piness. The dead are immediately forgotten, when our days glide 
on in the midst of prosperity ; consequently there were erected 
but three monuments in this cemetery during the year 1804 — 
their number, in 1805, was but fourteen, in 1806, nineteen, in 1807, 
twenty-six, in 1803, fifty-one, in 1809, seventy, in 1810, seventy- 
six, in 1811, ninety-six, and in 1812, one hundred and six. Pri- 
vate sepulchres were but little frequented, and purchases of per- 
petual sites for tombs very rare. Still there was nothing wanting 
in this establishment which could materially encourage a pious 
discharge of the duties of affection towards deceased^ friends. 
The location possessed the most important advantages— an able 
manufacturer of all kinds of funereal monuments, had an exten- 
sive establishment within the inclosure, which was supplied with 
marble, granite, freestone, and other appropriate materials — the 
most perfect models, and workmen of the first talents, to execute 
with promptness all orders in the best manner; the superintend- 
ent kept for sale iron palings, of various patterns, for protecting 
the tombs from outrage ; the porter prepared wreaths and crowns, 
for relatives to embellish the sepulchres of their deceased friends, 
and undertook to decorate them with fresh flowers daily ; never- 
theless, every thing languished in an inclosure destined to receive 
the ashes of mortals in their last asylum ; a few families only hon- 
ored them in secret — a generous public spirit had not yet inspired 
the whole people with the fire of an ardent zeal to venerate their 
relatives, in the night of the tomb. Its influence i began to be 
perceived in 1813, when the monuments amounted to two hun- 
dred and forty; it augmented in 1814, when five hundred and 
nine were to be seen, and it increased in 1815, when six hundred 
and thirty-five appeared. During these last two years, affluence 
had introduced marble for the construction of the monuments of 
Madame Guyot, M. Lenoir, Dufresne, and M. Lefebvre ; the pyr- 
amid of Clary was erected ; excavated in the side of the hill was 
the tomb of the family of Delespine ; the mortuary edifice of the 
family of Poreet was constructed, and the tomb of the Abbe De- 
lille consecrated his grave. Still, on the 31st of December, there 
were only one thousand eight hundred and seventy-seven tombs 
or sepulchral monuments in the cemetery of Pere La Chaise ; but 
in 1827, there was three thousand, whose erection cost between 
three and four millions of francs; and the whole number of bodies 
interred was 160,800, not including those buried in the compart- 
ment of the Jews. The average number of inhumations, annu- 
ally, from 1820 to 1824, was 745 in perpetual sepulchres, 1546 in 
temporary graves, and 7,885 in the compartment for the poor. 
The receipts during the year 1828, for the sale of sites, for tempo- 
rary and perpetual sepulchres, amounted to 247,951 francs, and 
they have annually increased since. 

6 



- 5% 



42 



It is interesting to examine the causes of this great change in 
public sentiment and manners; — they are worthy the consid- 
eration of the enlightened. 

The first reverses of France, whose armies had always been 
victorious for a period of twenty-six years, produced, in 1815, a 
universal gloom. Daring the same year, the death of the Abbe 
Delille, overwhelmed the friends of literature with grief, and the 
death of Gretry was a subject of mourning among the amateurs 
of music ; an immense concourse attended their obsequies. 
Paring periods of calamity we give ourselves up to serious reflec- 
tions, and this multitude, which had thronged the Cemetery of 
Pere La Chaise, appreciated the beauty of the position, the diver- 
sity of the grounds, and were astonished at the pleasant sensa- 
tions which were produced, even in the midst of tombs. At this 
time all sepulchres were prohibited in churches; the doors of the 
Pantheon, which had been long closed to illustrious men, were 
then immediately shut against the grand dignitaries of a govern- 
ment which no longer existed, and it became necessary to con- 
found their remains with those of the people in the dust of Pere 
La Chaise. Military chieftains, who were known to all Europe, 
from having commanded her armies, there found the term of their 
glory, but not of their renown ; the companions of their victories 
feared not to continue their homage in the night of death ; those, 
who were emulous of their fame, were deposited by their side, 
and there found there last place of rest; foreigners, looking upon 
their tombs, considered the characters of those distinguished 
warriors, whose valor had so often disturbed their repose ; French- 
men recollected those victories, the evanescent dream of which, 
still flattered their pride. At this period all perpetual sepulchres 
were forbidden in the other burial-places of Paris, and the Ceme- 
tery of Pere La Chaise, consequently became the place of rendez- 
vous for all the great and opulent in Paris ; for the illustrious in 
letters, the sciences and the arts ; for those who were successful 
in commerce, and the numerous branches of national industry ; 
for persons eminent from their public stations, and for men dis- 
tinguished in political events. The spoils of the dead were here 
collected, families were re-united, all opinions were confounded, 
and strangers mingled their ashes with those of the inhabitants 
of Paris. Each signalized his piety, by monuments proportioned 
to his pecuniary means, rather than the merit of the deceased 
relative. No one was willing to be considered wanting in grati- 
tude, but rather that he possessed an elevated soul. Universal 
admiration was the appendage of good hearts, whose sensibility 
ceased not to offer in secret a sincere homage to their friends, in 
shedding tears upon their dearly-cherished remains, by embellish- 
ing their tombs, and in crowning them with wreaths of flowers : 
the multitude attempted to imitate them, by cultivating plants on 
the graves of their relatives, and by bringing garlands from a dis- 



^sy 



43 



tance to ornament them. To devote a connexion to oblivion was 
deemed a disgrace. Strangers, who beheld this revolution in the 
customs and manners of the Parisians, were anxious to verify it, 
by visiting the Cemetery of Pere La Chaise. They were filled 
with admiration to find in a burial-place, whatever there was in 
nature which could give satisfaction to the mind, and everything 
in the arts which could gratify a refined taste, as well as lessons 
of the most exalted philosophy, and of the soundest morals. All 
extolled it as a phenomenon : it acquired, in a few years, an Eu- 
ropean celebrity, which would have been still farther extended, if 
it had been known what a picture of national manners was there 
presented, and what impressive admonitions for the human heart 
were there inculcated. 

The magnificent sites of this inclosure have induced the opu- 
lent to recall the arts for the embellishment of the final recepta- 
cles of their relatives. Gerius was no longer restrained to con- 
tract his thoughts within the narrow limits of a church, where he 
was only permitted to ornament one of its sides with a mausoleum. 
Here he could give perfection to a monument, in which all the 
parts were admirable in style, proportion, ornament, and beauty. 
Each artist could choose the most favorable position for the execu- 
tion of his design ; and happy is the architect or sculptor who is 
enabled to study well his plan before putting it in execution ; and 
not less fortunate is he, if not opposed by false taste or the parsi- 
mony of those who require his services. 

In passing over these grounds, where repose so many French- 
men in the long sleep of death, it is surprising to behold every 
form of tomb, used among all the nations of the earth, from the 
pyramid reared by Egyptian pride, to announce in reality the 
profound humility of the princes who caused them to be con- 
structed, because they could not occupy, in the immense pile, but 
a small and gloomy cell, to the basket of flowers under which the 
Turk and the Persian await the moment of being awakened to 
everlasting life. There are to be seen, near each other, the 
Egyptian sarcophagus, decorated with orillons, the stele of the 
Greeks, their cenotaphs and their monuments, — the antique bourn 
of the Romans, and their mausoleums re-produced upon the soil of 
France, — the columbariums of the ancients, in the mortuary 
chapels and tombs, — the Greek orders near the architecture of the 
Arabs, — the, leaves of the Acanthus and the Doric triglyphs, not 
far from wreaths of natural foliage,— the cinerary urn, the hide- 
ous form of the coffin, the sable wing of the Egyptians, reversed 
flambeaux, the bird of death, heads of contrition, crosses of every 
form, crowns of oak and myrtle, rose-buds, the pelican nourish- 
ing her young with her own blood, the humble grave-stone at the 
base of the superb mausoleum, roughly hammered granite near 
the best polished marble, the image of an illustrious man near the 
figure of an unknown person, marble sparkling upon more than a 



3iY 



44 



thousand sepulchres, bronze formed into funereal monuments, 
and a thatched hut, furnishes a fond mother a protection for the 
ashes of her sons ; finally, there exists such a variety in the forms 
and arrangement of the three thousand stone monuments, that 
there cannot be discovered, among one hundred and fifty-nine 
small tombs, and more than six hundred mausoleums, or mortuary 
structures, any which are exactly alike; nevertheless/ all the 
productions of art, collected in this place, are not worthy of ad- 
miration ; the fantastical, the ugly, and the deformed, are exhib- 
ited near the beautiful and elegant ; but even their defects cause 
Iriose to be more fully appreciated, which are truly splendid, per- 
fect, and admirable : thus disorder sometimes produces the sub- 
lime ; art employs shadows to produce more splendor, by their 
magical effects ; and the great Artificer of the universe often ap- 
proximates the most tremendous of the works, which are formed 
by his almighty hands. 

Persons learned in the arts are much interested in the examina- 
tion of the monuments of Abelard and Eloise, Count Monge and 
the family of Hennecart ; the sepulchral chapels of Madame de 
Bassano, the family of Marshal McDonald, M. Bazouin, and of 
the families of Vigier, Houdaille and Morainville ; the monuments 
of Duke de Decres, Count de Bourcke, Marshals Lefebvre, Mas- 
sena, and Perignon ; of General Foy ; the imposing mausoleums 
of Countess Demidoff; the marble cross which surmounts the 
sepulchre of Messrs De Saulx-Tavannes ; the bronze monument 
placed over the grave of M. Chagot, the proprietor of the foundry 
of Creusot. Their refined taste will discover many beauties of 
detail in the ornamental sculptures ; they will examine the effects 
of similar monuments placed in different positions ; under trees, 
upon inclined planes, on level surfaces, against steep declivities, 
or in receiving peculiar beauties from the neighboring foliage. 
They will be often surprised in discovering a chef d'ceuvre on the 
most simple grave-stone, and they cannot fail to admire the exquis- 
ite bas-reliefs, which decorate the sepulchre of Madame Heim, 
situated on the top of the hill, near the chapel. They will be 
pleased to discover a new career opened to artists by this estab- 
lishment — a new route to mechanical industry, and a new aliment 
to commerce. They will be persuaded that an opulent city can 
alone give this illustrious example, and that its influence should 
extend over the whole of France. 

The establishment of this funereal asylum — the last refuge of 
the most exalted in reputation, of great renown, and of vast opu- 
lence ; the final bourn of all classes of society ; the place of re- 
pose of the most miserable, after long but unfruitful labor, has 
produced an astonishing revolution in public opinion, and has 
directed the attention of all Paris towards those persons, who, in 
their presence, disappear from the world. Funerals are no longer 
a mystery, of which the mourning families alone know the secrets 



3 s 



1 



45 

> — a mere ceremony of parade, disguised under a pious veil : grief 
is no longer obliged to conceal under the shadow of the domestic 
roof a long-cherished remembrance, equally honorable to the 
memory of the virtuous man, who is no more, and to the hearts of 
those who survive him. Forgetfulness, ingratitude, and irreve- 
rence towards the dead, denote frigid, selfish, and inconstant 
friends, who are governed solely by personal interests. The hon- 
ors of which the departed are the object, are not limited to the 
gloomy moments of the silent funeral ; they are perpetuated by 
the erection of tombs, by the epitaphs engraved upon them, by 
the cares of which they become the objects, and by those pious 
duties, of which they are the never-failing termination. 

The peculiar manners of each class of society, the inclinations, 
the propensities, and the degree of sensibility of each person, is 
revealed in spite of himself, by his countenance, his looks, and 
his conversation, at the time he witnesses the obsequies ; and the 
measure of the real worth of every individual, is easily apprecia- 
ted by the sentiments which are excited in those who accompany 
him, when his remains are transported to the sepulchre. Nothing 
is more varied than the melancholy scenes which this place con- 
stantly presents ; all the virtues of the heart are displayed, and 
all the vices are perceived. The rude multitude disclose their 
feelings without restraint; they bitterly weep for those whose loss 
they regret, and remain cold and unmoved near the tomb of such 
as died without virtue and without vice, or were but little known 
to them ; they are severe in their remarks upon those who did not 
know how to estimate life ; their opinions, always strongly pro- 
nounced, truly express the convictions of their minds. 

The observer of manners and customs is not astonished at be- 
holding the spendthrift, the gamester, the debauchee, and the 
idler, interred in the common pit of the poor : during their whole 
lives they had been rushing towards that abyss; but he is in- 
structed in human calamities when he witnesses the obsequies of 
trre honest man, who had struggled in vain, during a long life, 
against misfortune ; his heart is deeply affected when he sees the 
orphan, left without support, without resources, and without 
friends, shedding tears on the grave of a kind father ; in hearing 
the lamentations of a mother, calling in vain upon her departed 
child ; in beholding the desolation of the widow, and is a spectator 
of that agony of grief, which friends evince, and in which the 
poor participate, at the decease of a truly charitable man : but 
how deep is his commiseration, on perceiving the most miserable 
of men conducted to his grave, by only a few funeral assistants ; 
he had neither relatives nor friends, — no one pities his sad desti- 
ny, — isolated in the world, his dreary days were passed without 
consolation, without the kind proffer of any kind offices, — ever 
suffering from some new cause of sorrow, some new calamity, 
some new distress, — always unhappy. How many shades of sen- 



3<.° 



46 



timent are here manifested. The heart always proportions its 
homage or its disapprobation, according to the merits of the per- 
son whose ashes are consigned to the tomb : his deeds alone de- 
termine the honor or dishonor which will be evinced at his fu- 
neral. 



REPORT OF THE GARDEN AND CEMETERY COMMITTEE. 

The Garden and Cemetery Committee made the following re- 
port, which was read and accepted : — 

The Garden and Cemetery Committee of the Massachusetts 
Horticultural Society have the satisfaction of reporting, that in 
pursuance of the authority granted them by the Society, at their 
former meeting, they have made several purchases of land adjoin- 
ing Mount Auburn, and making the whole quantity in the Gar- 
den and Cemetery one hundred and ten acres. 

The Committee have designated, as and fur the Cemetery, all 
the land lying south of the northern junction of Maple and Elm 
Avenues, of Garden Ponds, and of the junction of Primrose Path 
with Central Avenue, lying west of Central Avenue, which they 
hope will meet the approbation of the Society ; the residue of the 
land is appropriated to an experimental Garden. 

They have laid out about four hundred cemetery lots, and have 
sold two hundred and fifty-nine lots of different dimensions, 
which, with the premiums paid for choice, amount to 
the sum of - - - - - S 17,291 72 

most of which has been paid in. 
The loan that the Committee were authorized to make, 

was subscribed by individuals who are Proprietors 

of lots, and amounts to - - - 4,400 00 

Rent of a meadow, - 3 00 



Total funds, available, 821,694 72 

The Committee have paid for the land, in cash, 7,41344 

For house for the Gardener, and for implements and 

expenses relative to the garden, - - 2,420 09 

For fence, gate, avenues, tombs, and other expenses 

of various kinds, - 8,418 12 



$18,251 65 

For Gardener's salary, 3 months, - - 150 00 

Horse and cart for garden, - 120 00 

There is due to Mr, Cutter, David Stone, and the 
heirs of C. Stone, for land purchased of them, pay- 
able at future periods, - 2,600 00 
And sundry bills outstanding, for work, for the payment of which, 
however, funds are provided, as appears by the Treasurer's 
statement herewith submitted. 



3L i 



47 

The Committee have caused the whole estate to be surrounded 
by a fence, as substantial as the present means at their disposal 
would permit ; but they hope it may be replaced hereafter with 
one of more permanent materials — and have erected a gate of 
classical form, with lodges for a Porter and other purposes. They 
have erected a cottage for. the Gardener, have made about four 
miles of avenues and paths, and have constructed a receiving 
tomb at Mount Auburn, and purchased another under Park-street 
Church, and have done considerable work in and about the gar- 
den and ponds. 

The present situation and prospects of this interesting institu- 
tion are highly flattering. 

For eighteen months and upwards, free access was given to all 
who wished to visit the Garden and Cemetery, either on foot, or 
horseback, or in carriages — but it was found that great abuses 
were practised there, and the Committee deemed it essential to 
the prosperity of the institution that some check should be put to 
them; for many persons who had purchased lots, complained that 
the Cemetery was used in a manner very different from what 
they had expected, destroying the solemnity and quiet which 
ought to prevail in a place of repose for the dead ; and others 
stated that they had intended to purchase lots, but should not do 
so, if such indiscriminate admission were given to visiters, — by 
some of whom trees were mutilated, fences round the lots broken, 
and the lots themselves trampled on. The Committee then 
adopted the regulation of denying admission to persons on horse- ' 
back altogether, — of admitting the proprietors of lots in carriages, 
and of opening the gate to persons on foot freely, as before. 
With but faw exceptions, this regulation has met with approba- 
tion, and the effects have been very salutary : in a pecuniary 
view it has been useful also, (though this was no part of the de- 
sign of the Committee in establishing it,) for many persons have 
become purchasers of lots, and others are known to be ready to 
purchase, for the sake of enjoying the privilege of entering the 
grounds with a vehicle ; the Committee are of opinion that from 
$1200 to $1500 worth of lots have been disposed of in this way ; 
and as the Committee have no interest other than (in common 
with all other members of the Society) the desire of beautifying 
and improving the Garden and Cemetery, they hope that the re- 
gulation they have adopted will meet the approbation of the 
Society. The number of interments is forty. 

There are many objects of improvement for which the Com- 
mittee hope that funds may be obtained — and among the first, 
for the erection of a small edifice, in which religious services at 
funerals may be performed. This is very much wanted, and it 
is to be hoped that such a building may soon be erected there. 
All which is respectfully submitted. 

JOSEPH STORY, Chairman. 



3ic-± 



48 



The Treasurer of the Cemetery made the following report, 

which was read and accepted : — 

The Treasurer begs leave to report the following statement to 

the Committee, from his Books, to wit : 

Amount of sales of lots, including $1314 02 received for premium 
for right of selection, _ T - $17,291 72 

Amount of loan made 1 Jan. and subject to interest, 4,400 00 

Rent of meadow, - 3 00 

Notes payable, signed by the President of the Hor. Soc. 
and payable to Stone and others, for land, and sub- 
ject to interest, ... - 2,600 00 

Balance due to D. Stone, guardian, for land, 103 44 



$24,398 16 
Payments made by, and debts due to the Committee. 
For Land, in cash $7,413 44, notes $2,600, - $10,013 44 

For House for Gardener, and expenses pertaining ex- 
clusively to the Garden, - - - 2,420 09 
For Improvements in Garden and Cemetery, 8,218 12 
For Tomb under Park-street Church, - 200 00 
For Horse and Cart, - 120 00 
For amount due from sundry persons, and payable in 

labor, plants, &c. - - 300 00 



For amount due from the Hor. Soc. paid, - 21,271 65 

D. Haggerston's salary to 1 June, - - 150 00 

For amount due from sundry persons for lots, 1,330 00 

For cash on hand, - 1,646 51 



$24,398 16 

There are some bills for labor on the grounds not yet present- 
ed, which are payable in part in lots, by agreement. 

Errors excepted. GEO. BOND. 

Boston, 12th Sept. 1833. 



On motion of Z. Cook, Jr. Esq. resolved, That the thanks of 
the Society be given to Alexander H. Everett, Esq. for his 
valuable and instructive Discourse, and that he be requested to 
furnish a copy for publication, and that the Committee who 
waited on him be requested to carry the same into effect. 

Voted, That the thanks of the Society be presented to Cheever 
Newhall, and R. L. Emmons, for their past services as Treasurer 
and Secretary of this Society. 



3±3 



PROCEEDINGS 



OF THE 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY,, 



AT A MEETING HELD AT THE HALL OF THE INSTITUTION 



ON SATURDAY, SEPTEMBER 21, 1833. 



THE FOLLOWING OFFICERS WERE ELECTED FOR THE, ENSUING YEAR t, 

PRESIDENT. 

HENRY A. S. DEARBORN, Roxbury. 

VICE-PRESIDENTS. 

ZEBEDEE COOK, Jr. Boston. 
ELIJAH VOSE, Dorchester. 
ENOCH BARTLETT, Roxbury, 
S. A. SHURTLEFF, Boston. 

TREASURER. 

WILLIAM WORTHINGTON, Dorchester.. 

CORRESPONDING SECRETARY. 

JACOB BIGELOW, M. D. Boston. 

RECORDING SECRETARY. 

ROBERT TREAT PAINE, Boston. 

COUNSELLORS. 

AUGUSTUS ASPINWALL, Brooklyn. 
THOMAS BREWER, Roxbury, 
HENRY A. BREED, Lynn. 
BENJAMIN W. CROWNINSHIELD, Boston. 
J. G. COGSWELL, Northampton. 
NATHANIEL DAVENPORT, Milton. 
7 



3M 



50 



E. HERSEY DERBY. Salem. 

SAMUEL DOWNER, Dorchester. 
OLIVER FISKE, Worcester. 
B. V. FRENCH, Boston. 
J. M. GOURGAS, Weston. 
T. W. HARRIS, M. D. Cambridge. 
SAMUEL JAQUES, Jr. Charlestown. 
JOSEPH G. JOY, Boston. 
WILLIAM KEXRICK, Newton. 
JOHN LEMIST, Rozbury. 
S. A. SHURTLEFF, Boston. 
E. M. RICHARDS, Dedham. 
BENJAMIN RODMAN, New-Bedford. 
JOHN B. RUSSELL, Boston. 
CHARLES SENIOR, Roxbury. 
WILLIAM H. SUMNER, Dorchester. 
CHARLES TAPPAN, Boston. 
JACOB TIDD, Roxbury. 
JONATHAN WINSHIP, Brighton. 
WILLIAM WORTHINGTOX, Dorchester. 
AARON D. WILLIAMS, Roxbury. 
J. W. WEBSTER, Cambridge. 
GEORGE W. PRATT, Boston. 
GEORGE W. BRIMMER, Boston. 
DAVID HAGGERSTON, Cambridge. 
CHARLES LAWRENCE, Salem. 

PROFESSOR OF BOTANY AND VEGETABLE PHYSIOLOGY, 

JOHN L. RUSSELL. 

PROFESSOR OF ENTOMOLOGY. 

T. W. HARRIS, M. D. 

PROFESSOR OF HORTICULTURAL CHEMISTRY. 

J. W. WEBSTER, M. D. 



StA* 



51 



STANDING COMMITTEES APPOINTED BY THE COUNCIL. 

I. 

ON FRUIT TREES, FRUITS, &C. 

To have charge of whatever relates to the multiplication of 
fruit trees and vines, by seed, scions, buds, layers, suckers, or 
other modes; the introduction of new varieties; the various 
methods of pruning and training them, and whatever relates to 
their culture, and that of all other fruits ; the recommendation of 
objects for premiums, and the awarding of them. 

-S. A. SHURTLEFF, Chairman. 

ROBERT MANNING, 

SAMUEL DOWNER, 

OLIVER FISKE, 

CHARLES SENIOR, 

WILLIAM KENRICK, 

E. M. RICHARDS, 

B. V. FRENCH, 

SAMUEL POND, 
-E. VOSE, 

THOMAS MASON. 

II. 

ON THE CULTURE AND PRODUCTS OF THE KITCHEN GARDEN. 

To have the charge of whatever relates to the location and man- 
agement of Kitchen Gardens: the cultivation of all plants apper- 
taining thereto ; the introduction of new varieties of esculent, 
medicinal, and all such vegetables as are useful in the arts, or are 
subservient to other branches of national industry ; the structure 
and management of hot-beds; the recommendation of objects for 
premiums, and the awarding of them. 

DANIEL CHANDLER, Chairman. 
JACOB TIDD, 
-AARON D. WILLIAMS, 
JOHN B. RUSSELL, 
LEONARD STONE, 
-NATHANIEL DAVENPORT. 



jt^ 



52 
III. 

ON ORNAMENTAL TREES, SHRUBS, FLOWERS, AND GREEN-HOUSES. 

To have charge of whatever relates to the culture, multiplica- 
tion, and preservation of ornamental trees and shrubs, and flow- 
ers of all kinds ; the construction and management of green- 
houses ; the recommendation of objects for premiums, and the 
awarding of them. 

-JONATHAN WINSHIP, Chairman. 

-JOSEPH G. JOY, 

- DAVID HAGGERSTON, 
GEORGE W. PRATT, 

i SAMUEL WALKER. 

IV. 

ON THE LIBRARY. 

To have charge of all books, drawings, and engravings, and 
to recommend from time to time such as it may be deemed ex- 
pedient to procure ; to superintend the publication of such com- 
munications and papers as may be directed by the council ; to 
recommend premiums for drawings of fruits and flowers, and 
plans of country houses, and other edifices and structures con- 
nected with horticulture ; and for communications on any sub- 
ject in relation thereto. 

H. A. S. DEARBORN, Chairman, 
JACOB BIGELOW, 
^T. W. HARRIS, 
E. H. DERBY, 
ZEBEDEE COOK, Jr. 
-G. W. PRATT. 

V. 

ON THE SYNONYMS OF FRUITS. 

At a meeting *Gf the Society, June 20, the following gentlemen 
were chosen a Committee to facilitate an exchange of fruits with 
the Philadelphia, New- York, and Albany Horticultural Societies, 
and others, for the purpose of establishing their synonyms. 
JOHN LOWELL, Chairman. 
ROBERT MANNING, 
^SAMUEL DOWNER. 



3(*j 



53 
VI. 

ON THE GARDEN AND CEMETERY, 

JOSEPH STORY, Chairman. 
-H. A. S. DEARBORN, 
-JACOB BIGELOW, 

GEORGE BOND, 
-ZEBEDEE COOK, Jr. 

B. A. GOULD, 

CHARLES BROWN, 

JOSEPH P. BRADLEE, 

CHARLES P. CURTIS. 

VII. 

EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE. 

- ZEBEDEE COOK, Jr. Chairman. 

G. W. PRATT, 

CHEEVER NEWHALL, 
-CHARLES TAPPAN, 

JOSEPH P. BRADLEE. 



7 kS 



MEMBERS 



OF THE 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



Armstrong, Samuel T., Boston.^ 
Aspinvvall, Augustus, Brookline. 
Ames, John W., Dedham. 
Andrews, John H., Salem. 
Andrews, Ebenezer T., Boston. 
Anthony, James, Providence. 
Adams, Samuel, Milton. 
Andrews, Ferdinand, Lancaster. 
Atkinson, Amos, Brookline. 
Adams, Daniel, jXeicbury. 
Adams, Abel, Boston. ' 
Adams, Benjamin, Boston. 
Adams, C. Frederic, " 
Adams, Z. B., " 

Appleton, Nathan, " 
Appleton, Samuel, " 
Austin, James T., " 

Austin, William, Loioell. 
Austin, E. G., Boston. 
Adams, Charles F.. Quincy. 
Adams, G. W., Boston. 
Andrews, Henry, " 

Bartlett, Enoch, Roxbury. 
Brewer, Thomas, " 
Brimmer, George W., Boston. 
Bradlee, Joseph P., " 

Breed, Ebenezer, " 

Breed, Henry A., Lynn. 
Bigelow, Jacob, Boston. 
Baldwin, Enoch, Dorchester. 
Breed, John, Charlestown. 
Breed, Andrews, Lynn. 
Bailey, Kendall, Charlestown. 
Ballard, Joseph, Boston. 
Brewer, Gardner, " 
Brown, James, West- Cambridge. 
Bartlett, Edmund, JYewburyport. 
Buckminster, Lawson, Framingham. 
Buckminster, Edward F., " 
Breck, Joseph, Pepper ell. 
Bedlam, Stephen, Boston. 
Bradford, Samuel H., " 
Bailey, Ebenezer, " 



Bangs, Edward D., Boston. 
Bowdoin, James, ••' 

Balch, Joseph, Roxbury. 
Bond, George, Boston. 
Bacon, S. N., " 

Billings, Joseph H., Roxbury. 
Barnard, Charles, Boston. 
Brown, Charles, " 
Brown, Jonas B., " 
Bussey, Benjamin, Roxbury. 
Baker, Joseph, Boston. 
Buckingham, Joseph T., Boston 
Buckingham, Edwin, " 

Boyd, James, " 

Brown, John, " 

Brigham, Levi, " 

Blake, Joshua, " 

Brigham, Dennis, " 

Bird, Jesse, " 

Bryant, John, " 

Bullard, Silas, " 

Burridge, Martin, Medford. 
Bond, George W., Boston. 
Bartlett, Levi, " 

Bailies, Edmund, " 
Bigelow, Abraham, Cambridge. 
Barrett, George C, Boston. 
Bowen, Charles, " 

Bender, Jacob, " 

Boyd, Thomas, " 

Blanchard, W. E., " 
Binney, John, " 

Binnej, Amos, " 

Bacon, D. C, " 

Cook, Zebedee, Jr., Boston. 
Cod man. John, Dorchester. 
Clapp, Nathaniel, " 
Coolidge, Joseph, Boston. 
Cordis, Thomas, " 
Copeland, B. F., Roxbury. 
Cogswell, J. G., Northampton. 
Champney, John, Roxbury. 
Cowing, Cornelius, " 



55 



34 f 



Chandler, Daniel, Lexington. 

Callender, Joseph, Boston. 

Chase, Hezekiah, Lynn. 

Clapp, John, South -Reading. 

Caiter, Horatio, Lancaster. 

Colrnan, Henry, Salem. 

Carnes, Nathaniel G., New-York. 

Curtis, Edward, Pepperell. 

Chandler, Samuel, Lexington. 

Capen, Aaron, Dorchester. 

Crowninshield, Benjamin W., Salem 

Cotting, William, West- Cambridge. 

Cabot, Samuel, Brookline. 

Coffin, Hector, Rock Farm, Newbury. 

Curtis, Nathaniel, Roxbury. 

Clapp, Isaac, Dorchester. 

Crafts, Ebenezer, Roxbury. 

Curtis, Charles P., Boston. 

Curtis, Thomas B., " 

Coolidge, Samuel F., " 

Carey, Alpheus, " 

Coffin, George W., " 

Channing, George G., " 

Craigie, Mrs. E., Cambridge. 

Coolidge, Joshua, Waiertoxon. 

Cobb, Elijah, Boston. 

Cowing, Holland, Jr., Roxbury. 

Clark, Edward D., Boston. 

Crockett, George W. " 

Cowing, N. H., Brookline. 

Crane, Joshua, Boston. 

Coolidge, Thomas B., Boston. 

Child, Joshua, 

Churchill, P., 

Carnes, Francis, 

Carter, George D., 

Channing, W. E., 

Chase, C, 

Coburn, Anna, 

Dearborn, H. A. S., Roxbury. 
Davis, Isaac P., Boston. 
Downer, Samuel, Dorchester. 
Dowse, Thomas, Cambridge. 
Dudley, David, Roxbury. 
Doggett, John, Boston. 
Drew, Daniel, " 
Derby, John, Salem. 
Davenport, Nathaniel, Milton. 
Davis, Charles, Roxbury. 
Dorr, Nathaniel, " 
Dodge, Pickering, Salem. 
Dean, William, " 

Derby, E. H., " 

Dodge, Pickering, Jr., Salem 
Davis, John B., Boston. 
Driver, Stephen, Jr., Salem. 
Davis, John, Boston. 
Davis, Daniel, " 

Dutton, Warren, " 
Denny, Daniel, " 



Davis, James, Boston. 
Dickson, James A., Boston. 
Derby, Richard C, ' " 
Darracott, George, " 
Domett, George, " 

Doanes, Johh, " 

Davis, N. Morton, Plymouth. 
Danforth, Isaac, Boston. 

Emmons, Robert L.. Boston. 
Everett, Edward, Charlestown. 
Eustis, James, South- Reading . 
Ellis, Charles, Roxbury. 
Edwards, Elisha, Springfield. 
Eager, William, Boston. 
Endicott, William P., Danvers. 
Everett, Alexander H., Boston. 
Ecklej T , David, " 

Eastburn, John H., " 

Edwards, Henry, " 

Eldredge, Edward, " 

Eldredge, Oliver, " 

French, Benjamin V., Boston. 
Fessenden, Thomas G., " 
Frothingham, Samuel, " 
Forrester, John, Salem. 
Fiske, Oliver, Worcester. 
Fosdick, David, Charlestown. 
Fletcher, Richard, Boston. 
Field, Joseph, Weston. 
Fitch, Jeremiah, Boston. 
Francis, J. B., Warwick, R. I. 
Freeman, Russell, New-Bedford. 
Fay, Samuel P. P., Cambridge. 
Farrar, John, " 

Farley, Robert, Boston. 
Folsom, Charles, Cambridge. 
Fisk, Benjamin, Boston. 
Fuller, H. H., « 

Foster, E. B., " 

Faxon, Nathaniel, " 
Fisher, Jabez, " 

Fenno, J. W., " 

French, Arthur, " 
Fearing, A. C, " 
Francis, Nathaniel, " 
Foster, C. U., " 

Gray, John C, Boston. 
Gray, Francis C, " 
Greenleaf, Thomas, Quincy. 
Gourgas, J. M., Weston. 
Green, Charles W., Roxbury. 
Gore, Watson, u 

Gannett, T. B., Cambridge. 
Gould, Daniel, Reading. 
Gardner, W- F., Salem. 
Gardner, Joshua, Dorchester. 
Goodale, Ephraim, Bucksport, Me. 
Goodwin, Thomas J., Charlestown. 



■lo 



J* 



56 



Guild, Benjamin, Boston. 

Gibbs, Benjamin, " 

Grant, Benjamin B., " 

Gould, Benjamin A., " 

Grant, B. B., " 

Gould, James, " 

Goodwin, Ozias, " 

Grew, Henry, "■ 

Harris, Samuel D., Boston. 
Huntington, Joseph, Roxbury. 
Haskins, Ralph, " 

Huntington, Ralph, Boston. 
Heard, John, Jr., " 

Hill, Jeremiah, " 

Hollingsworth, Mark, Milton. 
Harris, William T., Cambridge. 
Holbrook, Amos, Milton. 
Howe, Rufus, Dorchester. 
Hayden, John, Brookline. 
Hyslop, David, " 
Howes, Frederick, Solem. 
Haggerston, David, Cambridge- 
Hunt, Ebenezer, Northampton. 
Howland, John, Jr., Keic- Bedford. 
Hay ward, George. Boston. 
Higginson. Henry, " 
Hall, Dudley, Medford. 
Hartshorn, Eliphalet P., Boston. 
Houghton, Abel, Jr., Lynn. 
Hovey, P. B., Jr., Cambridge. 
Hurd, William, Charlestown. 
Howe, Hall J., Boston. 
Haskell, Elisha, " 
Hickling, Charles, & 
Hicks, Zachariah, " 
Howard, Abraham, " 
Hastings, Thomas, " 
Hastings, Oliver, Cambridge. 
Hosmer, Z., " 

Henchman, D., Boston. 
Hobart, Enoch, " 
Howe, S. L., Cambridge. 
Hodges, J. L., Taunton. 
Hedge, Isaac L., Plymouth. 
Howard, Hepsy C, Boston. 
Hill, S. G., 

Hovey, Charles M., Cambridge. 
Hayward, Charles. Boston. 
Hildrith, Charles T., " 
Howe, Joseph N., Jr., E. Cambridge 
Henshaw, John, Boston. 
Hall, Henry, " 

Hall, A. T., 
Hav, Joseph, " 

Hobart, Nathaniel, " 

Ives, John M., Salem. 
Inches, Henderson, Boston. 
Ingalls, William, " 

Jaques, Samuel, Jr., Charlestown. 



Joy, Joseph G., Boston. 
Joy, Joseph B., " 
Jones, Thomas K., Roxbury. 
Johnson, Samuel R., Charlestown. 
Jackson, Patrick T., Boston. 
Jackson. James, " 

Johonnot, George S., Salem. 
Jarves, Deming, Boston. 
Jackson, C. T., " 

Johnson, Otis, Savannah, Ga. 
Jones, L, D., New- Bedford. 

Kenrick, W 7 illiam, Newton. 
Kellie, William, Boston. 
King, John, Medford. 
Kidder, Samuel, Charlestown. 
Kuhn, George H., Boston. 
Kendall, Abel, Jr., " 
Kenrick, John A., JYewton. 
Kuhn, John, Boston. 
Kenrick, Enoch B., Newton. 

Lincoln, Levi, Worcester. 
Lincoln, William, " 
Lowell, John, Roxbury. 
Lee, Thomas, Jr., " 
Lemist, John, " 

J^yinan, Theodore, Jr., Boston. 
Lowell, John A., " 

Lawrence, Abbott, " 

Lyman, George W., " 

Lawrence, Charles, Salem. 
Little, Henry, Bvcksport, Me. 
Leland, Daniel, Sherburne. 
Leland, J. P., 

Little, Samuel, Buchsport, Me. 
Leonard, Thomas, Salcin. 
Lawrence, William, Boston. 
Lawrence, Amos, " 

Livermore, Isaac, Cambridge. 
Lorinsr. Josiah, Boston. 
Lowell, Charles, " 
Lainson. John, " 
Lynde, Seth S. r " 
Lowell, Francis C, " 
Loring, Henry, " 
Lienow, Henry, " 
Loring, W. J., " 

Lana. Wm. B., " 
Lombard, N. K. " 
Lowell. John, Jr. ? " 
Lane, Josiah, " 

Lewis, S. S., " 

Manning, Robert, Salem. 
Manners, George, Boston. 
Minns, Thomas, " 
Morrell, Ambrose, Lexington. 
Munroe, Jonas, " 

Mussey, Benjamin, Boston. 



57 



31 1 



Mills, James K., Boston. 
McCarthy, Edward, Brighton. 
Mackay, John, Boston. 
Mead, Isaac W., Charlestown. 
Mead, Samuel O., West- Cambridge. 
Moffatt, J. L., Boston. 
Melville, Thomas, Boston. 
Mc Lellan, Isaac, " 

Merry, Robert D. C, " 
Marshall, William, " 
Mason, Thomas, Charlestoww. 
Motley, Thomas, Boston. 
Miller, Edward, " 

Marirjer, Joseph, " 

Meldrum, Alexander, " 
Mason, Jeremiah, " 
Mears, James, " 

Newhall, Cheever, Dorchester. 
Nichols, Otis, " 

Nattall, Thomas, Cambridge. 
Newell, Joseph R., Boston. 
Newhall, Josiah, Lynnfield. 
Newman, Henry, Roxbury. 
Nicholson, Henry, Brookline. 
Newell, Joseph W., Charlestown. 

Otis, Harrison G. , Boston. 
Oliver, Francis J., " 
Oliver, William, Dorchester. 
Oxnard, Henry, Brookline. 

Perkins, Thomas H., Boston. 
Perkins, Samuel G., " 
Parsons, Theophilus, " 
Putnam, Jesse, " 

Pratt, George W., " 

Prescott, William, " 

Penniman, Ehsha, Brookline. 
Parsons, Gorham, Brighton. 
Pettee, Otis, Newton. 
Prince, John. Roxbury. 
Phinney, Elias, Lexington. 
Prince, John, Jr., Salem. 
Peabody, Francis, " 
Pickman, Benjamin T., Boston. 
Penniman, James, Dorchester. 
Poor, Benjamin, Neio- York. 
Perry, G. B., East- Bradford. 
Perry, John, Sherburne. 
Pond, Samuel, Cambridge. / 
Payne, Edward W., Boston. 
Paine, Robert Treat, " 
Pond, Samuel M., Bucksport, Me. 
Prescott, C. H., Cornwallis, N. S. 
Parker, Daniel P., Boston. 
Pratt, William, Jr., " 
Priest, John F., " 

Philbrick, Samuel, Brookline. 

8 



Parker, Thomas, Dorchester. 
Parker, Isaac, Boston. 
Parkinson, John, Roxbury. 
Phillips, S. C, Salem. 
Pool, Ward, Danvers. 
Pierpont, John, Boston. 
Perkins, T. H. Jr., Boston. 
Parkman, Francis, " 
Pond, Samuel, Jr., " 
Payne, W. E., " 

Preston, John, " 

Palfrey, John G., Cambridge. 
Putnam, Ebenezer, Salem. 
Pomroy, W. M., Jr., " 
Paige, J. W., Boston. 
Phillips, John, New-York. 
Prichard, Mary, Boston. 
Power, Thomas, " 
Petton, Oliver, " 

Phelps, W. D., " 

Quincy, Josiah, Cambridge 

Russell, John B., Boston. 

Robbine, E. H., « 

Rollins, William,. " 

Rice, John P., " 

Rice, Henry, " 

Russell, J. W., Roxbury. 

Read, James, " 

Robbins, P. G., " 

Rollins, Ebenezer, Boston. 

Rowe, Joseph, Milton. 

Rogers, R. S., Salem. 

Rodman, Benjamin, New Bedford. 

Rotch, Francis, " 

Rotch, William, " 

Richardson, Nathan, South- Reading. 

Rand, Edward, S., Neicburyport. 

Richards, Edward M., Dedham. 

Randall, John, Boston. 

Russell, J. L.., Salem. 

Russell, James, Boston. 

Raymond, E. A., " 

Robinson, Henry, " 

Russell, George, M. D., Lincoln. 

Rogerson, Robert, Boston. 

Rich, Benjamin, " 

Reynolds, Edward, " 

Shurtleff, Benjamin, Boston. 
Sears, David, " 

Stephens, Isaac, " 

Silsby, Enoch, « 

Storer, D. Humphreys, " 
Sullivan, Richard, Brookline. 
Seaver, Nathaniel, Roxbury. 
Senior, Charles, " 

Sumner, William H., Dorchester. 



3>7x 



58 



Swett, John, Dorchester. 

Sharp, Edward, l % 

Smith, Cyrus, Sandwich. 

Sutton, William, Jr., Danvers. 

Story, F. H., Salem. 

Stedman, Josiah, JYewton. 

Strong, Joseph, Jr., South- Hadley. 

Stearns, Charles, Springfield. 

Shurtleff, Samuel A., Boston. 

Springer, John, Sterling. 

Saltonstall, Leverett, Salem. 

Storrs, Nathaniel, Boston. 

Shaw, Lemuel, " 

Smith, J. M., " 

Sisson, Freeborn, Warren, R. I. 

Swift, Henry, Nantucket. 

Smith, Stephen H., Providence, R. I. 

Swan, Daniel, Medford. 

Stone, Leonard, Watertown. 

Stone, William, " 

Stone, Isaac. " 

Story, Joseph, Cambridge. 

Shattuck, George C, Boston. 

Stan wood, William, " 

Stanwood, David, " 

Sargent, L. M., " 

Stone, Henry B., " 

Simmons, D. A., Roxbury. 

Savage, James S., Boston. 

Shaw, Robert G., " 

Sparks, Jared, " 

Savao-e. James, " 

Stone, P. R. L., " 

Stearns, Asahel. Cambridge. 

Stone, David, Boston. 

Staples. Isaac, " 

Shaw, C. B., " 

Skinner, Francis, " 

Swett, Samuel, " 

Stanwood. Lemuel " 

Stearns, Simon, " 

Sparhawk, E. C, " 

Stetson, Joseph, Waltham. 

Sturgis, William, Boston. 

Simmons, William, " 

Stone, W. W., " 

Smallwood, Thomas, Newton. 

Smith, M., Boston. 

Scudder, Charles, Boston. 

Scudder, Horace, " 

Tappan, Charles, Boston. 
Tidd, Jacob, Roxbury. 
Thompson, George, Medford. 
Train, Samuel, " 

Thorn dike, Israel, Boston. 
Thwing, Supply C, R.oxbury. 
Tucker, Richard D., Boston. 
Tilden, Joseph, " 

Toothey, Roderick, Waltham. 



Thomas, Benjamin, Hingham. 
Trull, John W., Boston. 
Taylor, Charles, Dorchester. 
Tudor, Frederick, Boston. 
Thayer, J. H., " 

Thatcher. Peter O., " 
Tremlett, Thomas B., Dorchester. 
Tuckerman, Joseph, Boston. 
Taylor, J. W., " 

Tappan, John, " 

Thorndike, J. P., " 

Vose, Elijah, Dorchester. 
Vila, James, Boston. 

"Williams, Nehemiah D., Roxbury. 
Williams, Francis J., Boston. 
Wilder, M. P., 

Williams, Aaron D., Roxbury. 
Williams, Moses, " 

Williams, G., " 

Weld, Benjamin, " 

Worthington, William, Dorchester. 
Welles, John, " 

Wales, William, " 

Webster, J. W., Cambridge. 
White, Abijah, Watertown. 
Williams, Samuel G., Boston. 
Wight, Ebenezer, " 

Wyatt, Robert, " 

Winship, Jonathan. Brighton. 
Wilkinson, Simon, Boston. 
Wilder, S. V. S., Bolton. 
Waldo, Daniel, Worcester. 
Wyeth, Nathaniel J., Cambridge. 
West, Thomas, Haverhill. 
Willard, Joseph, Boston. 
Whitmarsh, Samuel, Northampton. 
Whitmarsh, Thomas, Brookline. 
Warren, Jonathan, Jr., Weston. 
Webster, Nathan, Haverhill. 
Wilson, John, Roxbury. 
White, Stephen, Boston. 
Webster, Daniel, " 
Ward, Richard, Roxbury. 
Weld, Aaron D., Jr., Boston. 
Walker, Samuel, Roxbury. 
Wells, Charles, Boston. 
Whitwell, Samuel, " 
White, Benjamin F., " 
Wiley, Thomas, Watertown. 
Wales, Thomas B., Boston. 
Ware, Henry, Cambridge. 
Waterhouse, Benjamin, Cambridge. 
Winship, Francis, Brighton. 
Weld, James, Boston. 
Whittemore, George, Boston, 
Willet, Thomas, Charlestown. 
Wolcott, Edward, Pawtucket. 
Williams, John, Cambridge. 



3%3 



59 



Wyman, Rufus, Charlestown. 
Watson, Elizabeth, Boston. 
Waldo, Henry G., 
Wilson, Robert, " 

Ward, Thomas W., " 



Whipple, W. J., Cambridge. 
Winchester, W. P., Boston. 
Warren, J. L. L. F., " 
Ware, John, " 

Wadsworth, Alexander, Boston. 



HONORARY MEMBERS. 



ADAMS, Hon. JOHN QUINCY, late President of the United States. 

AITOIN, WILLIAM TOWNSEND. Curator of the Royal Gardens, Kew. 

ABBOT, JOHN, Esq., Brunswick, Me. 

ABBOT, BENJAMIN, LL. D., Principal of Phillips Academy, Exeter, 
New- Hampshire. 

BUEL, J. Esq., President of Ihe Albany Horticultural Society. 

BOD1N, Le Chevaltf.r, SOULANGE, Secretaire-General de la Societe 
d'Horticulture de Paris. 

BANCROFT, EDWARD NATHANIEL, M. D., President of the Horti- 
cultural and Agricultural Society of Jamaica. 

BARCLAY, ROBERT, Esq , Great-Britain. 

BEEKMAN, JAMES, New-York. 

BARBOUR, P. P.. Virginia. 

BLAPIER, LEWIS, Philadelphia. 

COXE. WILLIAM, Esq., Burlington, New-Jersey. 

COLLINS, ZACCHEUS, Esq. President of the Pennsylvania Horticul- 
tural Society, Philadelphia. 

COFFIN, Admiral Sir ISAAC, Great-Britain. 

CHAUNCY, ISAAC, United States Navy, Brooklyn, New-York. 

CLAY, HENRY, Kentucky. 

DICKSON, JAMES, Esq., Vice-President of the London Horticultural 
Societv. 

DE CANDOLLE, Mons. ANGUSTIN PYRAMUS, Professor of Botany 
in the Academy of Geneva. 

De La SAGRA, Don RAMON, Cuba. 

ELLIOTT, Hon. STEPHEN, Charleston, S. C. 

EVERETT, HORACE, Vermont. 

EVANSON, CHARLES ALLAN, Secretary of King's County Agricul- 
tural Society, St. John's, New-Brunswick. 

ELLIOT, JESSE D., United States Navy. 

FALDERMANN, F., Curator of the Imperial Botanic Garden, at St. Pe- 
tersburg. 

FISCHER, Dr., Professor of Botany, of the Imperial Botanic Garden at 
St. Petersburg. 

GALES, JOSEPH, Jr., Vice-President of the Washington Horticultural 
Society, Washington. 

GOULDSBOROUGH, ROBERT H., Maryland. 

GREIG, JOHN, Esq., Geneva, President of the Domestic Horticultural 
Society of the Western Part of the State of New- York. 

GORE, Mrs. REBECCA, Waltham. 

GRIFFITHS, Mrs. MARY, Charlies Hope, New-Jersey. 

G1RARD, STEPHEN, Philadelphia. 

GIBBS, GEORGE, Sunswick, New-York. 



37+ 



60 



HERICART DE THURY, Le Vicomte, President de la Societe d'Hor- 
ticulture de Paris. 

HOSACK, DAVID, M. D. President of the New- York Horticultural 
Society. 

HOPK1RK, THOMAS, Esq. President of {he Glasgow Horticultural 
Society. 

HUNT, LEWIS, Esq. Huntsburg, Ohio. 

HILDRETH. S. P., Marietta, Ohio. 

1NGERSOLL, JAMES R., President of the Horticultural Society of 
Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. 

JACKSON, ANDREW, President of the United States. 

JOHONNOT, Mrs. MARTHA, Salem. 

KNIGHT, THOMAS ANDREW, Esq., President of the J^ondon Horti- 
cultural Society. 

LOUDON, JOHN CLAUDIUS, Great-Britain. 

LA FAYETTE, General, La Grange, France. 

LASTEYRIE, Le Comte de, Vice-President de la Societe d'Horticulture 
de Paris. 

LITCHFIELD, FRANKLIN, Consul of the United States at Porto 
Cabello. 

LORRILLARD, JACOB, President of the New-York Horticultural So- 
ciety, New-York. 

LONGSTRETH, J-OSHUA, Philadelphia. 

LONGWORTH, NICHOLAS, Cincinnati. 

MADISON, Hon. JAMES, late President of the United States, Virginia. 

MONROE, Hon. JAMES, late President of the United States, Virginia. 

MICHAUX, Mons. F. ANDREW, Paris. 

MENTENS, LEWIS JOHN, Esq , Bruxelles. 

MITCHELL, SAMUEL L., M. D., New-York. 

MObSELLMANN, . Esq. Antwerp. 

MERCER, Hon. CHARLES F., Virginia. 

M< CAULEY, D. SMITH, Consul General United States, Tripoli. 

OTTENFELS, Baron, Austrian Minister to the Ottoman Porte. 

POITEAU, Professor of the Institut Horticole de Fromont. 

POWELL, JOHN HARE, Powellton, Pennsylvania. 

PRINCE, WILLIAM, Esq., Long Island, New-York. 

PRATT, HENRY, Philadelphia. 

PALMER, JOHN, Esq., Calcutta. 

ROSEBERRY, ARCHIBALD JOHN, Earl of, President of the Cale- 
donian Horticultural Society. 

SABINE, JOSEPH. Esq., Secretary of the London Horticultural Society. 

SHEPHERD, JOHN. Curator of the Botanic Garden, Liverpool. 

SCOTT. Sir WALTER, Scotland. 

SKINNER, JOHN S., Baltimore. 

TURNER, JOHN, Assistant Secretary of the London Horticultural So- 
ciety. 

THACHER, JAMES, M. D., Plymouth. 

THORBURN, GRANT, Esq., New-York. 

TALIAFERRO, JOHN, Virginia. 

THOURS, M. Du Petit, Paris, Professor Poiteau of the Institut Horticole 
de Fromont. 

TOWSON, NATHANIEL, President of the Washington Horticultural 
Society, Washington. 

VILMORIN, Mons. PIERRE PHILLIPPE' ANDRE, Paris. 

VAUGHAN, BENJAMIN, Esq., Hallowell, Me. 

VAN MONS, JEAN BAPT1STE, M. D. Brussels. 

VAUGHAN, PETTY, Esq., London. 

VAN RENSELLAER, STEPHEN, Albanv. 

VAN ZANDT, JOSEPH R., Albany. 

VANDERBURG, FEDERAL, M. D., New-York. 

WELLES, Hon. JOHN, Boston. 



3 J5 



61 

WILLICK, NATHANIEL, M. D., Curator of the Botanic Garden, Cal- 
cutta. 
WADSWORTH, JAMES, Geneseo, New-York. 

WARD, MALTHUS A., College, Athens, Georgia. 

"WOLCOTT, FREDERICK, Litchfield, Connecticut. 
YATES, ASHTON, Esq., Liverpool. 



CORRESPONDING MEMBERS 



ADLUM, JOHN, Georgetown, District of Columbia. 
ASPJNWALL, Col. THOMAS, United States Consul, London. 

APPLETON, THOMAS, Esq., United States Consul, Leghorn. 

ALPEY — — — . 

AQUILAR, DON FRANCISCO, of Moldonoda, in the Banda Oriental, 
Consul of the United States. 

BARNET, ISAAC COX. Esq., United States Consul, Paris. 

BURTON, ALEXANDER, United States Consul, Cadiz. 

BULL, E. W., Hartford, Connecticut. 

CARR, ROBERT, Esq., Philadelphia. 

COLVILLE, JAMES, Chelsea, England. 

CARNES, FRANCIS G., Paris. 

DEERING, JAM PS, Portland, Maine. 

EMMONS, ERENEZER, M. D., Williamstown. 

FLOY, MICHAEL, New- York. 

FOX, JOHN, Washington, District of Columbia. 

FELLOWS, NATHANIEL, Cuba. 

FOSTER, WILLIAM 'REDDING, Baltimore. 

GARDINER, ROBERT H., Esq., Gardiner, Maine. 

GIBSON, ABRAHAM P., United States Consul, St. Petersburg; 

GARDNER, BENJAMIN, United States Consul, Palermo. 

HALL, CHARLES HENRY, Esq., New-York. 

HAY, JOHN, Architect of the Caledonian Horticultural Society. 

HALSEY, ARRAHAM, Corresponding Secretary of the New- York Hor- 
ticultural Society, New-York. 

HARRIS, Rev. T. M., D. D., Dorchester. 

HUNTER, , Baltimore. 

HOGG. THOMAS, New-York. 

HENRY, BERNARD, Gibraltar. 

HITCHCOCK, I. I. Baltimore. 

LANDRETH, DAVID, Jr., Esq., Corresponding Secretary of the Penn- 
sylvania Horticultural Society. 

LEONARD, E. S. H., M. D., Providence. 

MAURY, JAMES, Esq., late United States Consul, Liverpool. 

MILLER, JOHN, M. D., Secretary of the Horticultural and Agricultural 
Society, Jamaica. 

MILLS, STEPHEN, Esq., Long-Island, New-York. 

MELVILLE, ALLAN. New-York. 

M'LEAY, WILLIAM' SHARP. 

NEWHALL, HORATIO, M. D., Galena, Illinois. 

OFFLEY, DAVID, Esq., United States Consul, Smyrna. 

OMBROSI, JAMES, United States Consul, Florence. 

PARKER, JOHN, Esq., United States Consul, Amsterdam. 



311* 



62 

PAYSON, JOHN L. Esq., Messina. 

PORTER, DAVID, Washington. 

PRINCE, WILLIAM ROBERT. Esq., Long-Island, New-York. 

PRINCE, ALFRED STRATTON, Long-Island. 

PERRY. JM. C, United States Navy, Charlestown. 

PALMER, JOHN J., New-York. 

ROGERS, WILLIAM S., United States Navy, Boston. 

REYNOLDS, M. D., Schenectady, New-York. 

ROGERS, J. S., Hartford. Connecticut. 

RICHARDS, JOHN H., Paris. 

ROTCH, THOMAS, Philadelphia. 

SHALER, WILLIAM, United States Consul-General, Cuba. 

- SMITH, DANIEL D., Esq.. Burlington, New-Jersey. 
SMITH, GIDEON B., Baltimore. 

SHAW, WILLIAM, New-York. 
STRONG, Judge, Rochester, New-York. 

STEPHENS, THOMAS HOLDUP, United States Navy, Middletown. 
Connecticut. 

- SMITH, CALEB R., Esq., New-Jersey. 
SPRAGUE, HORATIO, United States Consul, Gibraltar. 
SUMMEREST, FRANCIS. 

STRANGEWAY, WILLIAM FOX, British Secretary of Legation at 

Naples. 
THORBURN, GEORGE C. New-York. 
T1LLSON, JOHN. Jr., Illinois. 

TEN ORE, Professor, Director of the Botanical Garden at Naples, 
WILSON, WILLIAM, New-York. 
WINGATE, J. F., Bath, Maine. 
WIN GATE, JOSHUA, Portland. 
WINTHROP. JOSEPH AUGUSTUS, South-Carolina. 



377 



AN 



ADDRES 



DELIVERED BEFORE THE 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY, 



AT THEIR 



SIXTH ANNIVERSARY 



SEPTEMBER 17, 1834. 



BY JOHN C. GRAY 



BOSTON: 

PRINTED BY J. T. BUCKINGHAM. 
M DCCC XXXIV. 



At a meeting of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society, September 20th, 1834, 

Voted, That the thanks of the Society be presented to Hon. JOHN C. GRAY, for his 

able, eloquent, and instructive address delivered before them on Wednesday, the 17th inst. 

and that a copy be respectfully requested for publication. 

Attest, R. T. PAINE, Recording Secretary. 



At a meeting of the Society, held Septembei 27th, 1834, 
The following letter was read : — 

R. T. Paine, Esq. Recording Secretary of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society. 

Sir — In compliance with the request of the Horticultural Society, I have the honor of 
submitting to their disposal a copy of the Address delivered at Fanueil Hall, Wednesday, 
September 17th. Your most obedient servant, 

September, 27th, 1834. JOHN C. GRAY. 

And therefore 

Voted, That the copy of the address be committed to Elijah Vose, Cheever Newhall, and 
B. V. French, Esq's, with instructions to cause the same to be printed, for the use of the 
Society, in such a form and manner as to them may seem most expedient. 

R. T. PAINE, Recording Secretary. 



■*7 <r 



ADDRE S S 



Ladies and Gentlemen : — 

I have been requested by the Horticultural Soci- 
ety to offer you some remarks on the present inter- 
esting occasion. I am sensible of my inability to do 
justice to the subject, or to present to you any thing 
equal in merit to the elaborate, elegant, and valuable 
productions with which the public have been enter- 
tained on former anniversaries. But the respect 
which I owe to the wishes of the Society, and the 
deep interest which I feel in the great object of their 
efforts, have induced me to comply with their request, 
and I shall briefly notice some of the inducements 
which exist to the pursuit of Horticulture, more 
especially in our country. 

This art may be recommended, in the first place, 
as an innocent and salutary amusement. In bestow- 
ing upon it these titles, I have said very much in its 
favor. The topic of amusements has ever been a 
most perplexing and difficult one to the moral casuist. 
I suppose that no one would proscribe all relaxation. 
All admit that the most industrious individual must 
have his intervals either of recreation, or of idleness. 



4 

But what amusements should be recommended, or 
tolerated, is a question on which there is far less 
unanimity of sentiment. In this country, there is, I 
believe, both a small amount and a smaller variety of 
relaxation, than in most others. We are, at least in 
New-England, emphatically, a grave people. The 
simple manners and rigid morals which have de- 
scended to us from our puritan ancestors, our rigor- 
ous climate and stubborn soil, the equal distribution 
of property by descent and its necessary consequence, 
the small number of men of wealth and leisure, 
have rendered us, though certainly not a gloomy, yet 
a serious and practical community. Many amuse- 
ments, which have prevailed in other countries, never 
have, and we trust never will take root in our land. 
Of those which are fashionable among us, there are 
several, which are denounced, either as deleterious, or 
at least perilous to our morals, by a large and respect- 
able portion of our population. This is not the oc- 
casion to inquire how far such sentiments are correct. 
It is more to my purpose to observe, that there is, I 
will not say, no ground, but no pretext, for such ob- 
jections against the pursuit of Horticulture. He must 
be a stern and astute casuist indeed, who can detect 
any thing in this occupation, tending to inflame, to 
debase, or to enfeeble the mind. You are well 
aware, on the contrary, that a garden has been 
selected by all poets of all nations, as the abode of 
the virtuous in a future state ; that Horticulture has 
often been recommended by the strictest moralists, 
not only as a soothing, but as a most refining occu- 
pation ; and that the wonders of creative power, with 



c?fr/ 



which it renders us conversant, have furnished the 
natural theologian with some of his most powerful 
and impressive arguments. 

It is an additional and a most important recom- 
mendation to this art, that it does not call upon us to 
cultivate the mind, at the expense of the body. I 
have already said that we are a grave, and, I think I 
may add, a sedentary people. I do not mean to say, 
that we are not disposed to occasional locomotion, — 
such an assertion is not lightly to be made, almost 
within hearing of our rail-road cars. But I speak of 
the constant habits of our community, compared with 
those of the people of England, and of most other 
European countries. A large, and certainly not un- 
important portion of our citizens, are occupied in 
professional and literary pursuits, and among these, 
with one important qualification to be presently 
noticed, bodily inactivity seems to be a prevailing 
and an increasing habit. Besides, many of the rising 
generation, at least in our largest towns, are confined 
to study, during by far the greater part of their 
waking hours. It is not for me to determine how 
far this confinement is necessary or beneficial, in the 
degree to which it is now carried. It is for those 
more interested to decide, whether, in endeavoring 
to accelerate the march of mind, we have not forgot- 
ten, that the mind is vitally connected with an asso- 
ciate of delicate and curious structure indeed, but of 
grosser elements, whose wants and whose welfare 
are, nevertheless, not to be overlooked with impunity. 

If there be evils attendant on our present systems 
of literary discipline, perhaps the greatest is, that 



6 

they create habits of bodily indolence, and the 
scholar, when emancipated from the dominion of his 
instructers, and invested with the command of his 
own time, carries with him a fondness for sedentary 
amusements. Consequently, if his business should 
be also of a sedentary character, his whole life, while 
it lasts, is one of close confinement, At any rate, 
the debilitated health of many of our most distin- 
guished professional men, has long been a subject of 
the deepest public concern ; and to no cause does the 
evil seem to be more imputed, than to their neglect 
of habitual exercise. Why else is it that our clergy- 
men are so often driven from the desk, and our law- 
yers interrupted in the midst of their most intense 
and important labors, while our physicians, the only 
class of professional men, who are compelled to pass 
much of their time in bodily motion, are proverbially 
healthy, — and it is no rare spectacle to see them dis- 
pensing, in their own case, with the rules, which they 
feel it their duty to prescribe to others. That amuse- 
ment, then, is certainly to be highly valued, which 
calls us forth into the open air, during a large portion 
of the year, and by its double operation on the body 
and mind, contributes at once to our strength and 
spirits — two objects which it needs no physician to 
inform us are most nearly connected. 

It is, therefore, a highly gratifying fact, that the 
directors of several of our literary and theological 
institutions, have labored to inspire their students 
with a taste for gardening, and have furnished them 
with every facility for its cultivation. For, however 
incontestible the value of exercise, every one knows, 



3? 3 



that it is beneficial to a great degree in proportion as 
it is agreeable ; that of two descriptions of exercise, 
that is by far the most salutary which is taken with 
the keenest relish. Compare the resolute dyspeptic 
accomplishing his measured walk or ride, with the 
same dogged pertinacity, with which he would pre- 
pare himself for a surgical operation, with the florist, 
culling his plants, in our fine woods, or cultivat- 
ing them in his neat garden, while hour after hour 
glides by unmarked, and the sun goes down upon 
him in the midst of his interesting labors. Compare, 
I say, these individuals, and then ask, if you can, 
seriously, which is pursuing the shorter road to 
health and cheerfulness. 

It is not, however, in our brilliant though short 
spring, our blazing summer, or our glorious autumn, 
that the charms of this art are most deeply felt, but 
amid the rigors of our stern though splendid winter. 
It is then, when the whole vegetable world is hushed 
in dread repose, — when the earth is covered with a 
sheet of ice, as with a plate of burnished steel, that 
Horticulture proves herself a true friend to her faith- 
ful votaries. It is then that she goes with them to 
their dwellings, there to diffuse her soothing and 
enlivening influence, while all without is wild and 
desolate. Who would not court the visits of such 
an inmate ? Who but would delight to give her her 
appropriate and honorable place at the fireside or the 
window ? 

This art is, however, something more than a mere 
passing amusement. It well deserves to be cherished 
in our country, for the auspicious influence which it 



3W 



8 



must exert on the manners and feelings of the com- 
munity, should a taste for its splendid productions 
become a prevalent one. Mankind have found by 
experience, that the contemplation of what is grace- 
ful or beautiful, serves to correct and re line the taste, 
to expand and elevate the understanding, to soften 
and purify the heart. How these results are pro- 
duced, it is for the metaphysician to explain, if he 
can ; the results themselves are not the less real nor 
the less manifest. It is on this principle, that the 
fine arts have been so carefully cherished bv the 
ablest statesmen of older communities. No one, 
acquainted with the history or condition of those 
communities, can doubt, that those arts have done 
much to counteract the evils of defective systems of 
government, and to supply the want of general edu- 
cation. With us, their progress must be for a long 
time, for obvious and cogent reasons, extremelv lim- 
ited, — at least, this must be said of those two most 
delicate arts, painting and sculpture. 

It is, therefore, a most fortunate circumstance, that 
we can supply their place with other elegant pur- 
suits, and, among these, that of which I am now 
speaking, surely deserves a most conspicuous rank. 
If the assiduous contemplation of choice specimens 
of art is not only a pleasing but a most useful occu- 
pation, it is certainly something more than a mere 
frivolous amusement, to contemplate these lovely 
forms of vegetable life, with which Horticulture 
renders us conversant, which, to say the least, are 
neither less curious nor less splendid. If an exqui- 
site taste for the beauties of fine pictures is to be 



I 

t 



3 ks 

9 

deemed an elegant accomplishment, I know not how 
an equally exquisite taste for the beauties of fine 
flowers, should deserve any less honorable title. 
" Some people," says Cobbett, in his usual homely 
but perspicuous style, " may think that flowers are 
of no use, that they are nonsensical things. The 
same may be, perhaps with more reason, said of pic- 
tures. For my part, as a thing to keep and not to 
sell ; a thing, the possession of which is to give me 
pleasure, I hesitate not a moment to prefer the plant 
of a fine carnation, to a gold watch set with dia- 
monds." 

If, however, the productions of the gardener's 
labors are not to be placed in the same rank with 
the works of the painter or sculptor, they possess 
what, in our country, is a most important advantage 
over them, viz. that they are within the reach of the 
great mass of our community. Pictures and statues 
are, even in older nations, confined to the precincts 
of cities, or the villas of the opulent. Not so with 
fine flowers. The proprietor of the smallest farm in 
the country, or the inhabitant of the humblest tene- 
ment in the city, may decorate his house with orna- 
ments, surpassing in richness and delicacy, the most 
costly productions of the upholsterer. The furnish- 
ing of a single apartment in a style of very moderate 
splendor, involves a greater expense, than many 
florists incur at seed-stores and nurseries, during the 
whole course of their lives. Well, then, does this 
art deserve encouragement, in our republican and 
economical country. 
2 



3& 

10 |jij 

To what I have said of its intellectual and moral 
effects, I should add, that, were it generally culti- 
vated, very much would be done for the advancement 
of its kindred art, the most important, by far, of all 
arts, Agriculture. In our country, w 7 here land is 
cheap and labor high, our farmers are strongly in- 
duced to spread their efforts over a large surface, to 
cultivate a great extent of ground superficially, rather 
than a smaller portion thoroughly. This practice, if 
justified to some degree by the circumstances of the 
country, has been carried quite too far for good taste, 
or even good economy. Nothing would tend more 
to check the evils consequent on such a system, than 
the general practice of gardening. It is in a garden, 
that we should learn those principles of neatness and 
order, that thoroughness in subdividing and enrich- 
ing the soil, that war of extermination against weeds 
and insects, and, above all, that vigilance in embrac- 
ing precious and fleeting opportunities, which are the 
prominent characteristics of the thriving farmer. It 
is by this cultivation in miniature, so to speak, that 
we should be kept from despising those little things 
w T hich, in agriculture as in every thing else, must 
ever be duly regarded by all who aspire to great 
results. If every farmer among us were, also, a 
florist, — and every farmer may be one to a consider- 
able degree, — the neatness and precision of his gar- 
dening operations, would soon extend itself, — if not 
already existing there, — to his field cultivation, and 
our villages would exhibit much of that exactness 
and elegance, so conspicuous and so pleasing in our 
Shaker settlements. 



3ry 




11 



I repeat it, — every farmer, and I may almost say, 
every man in the community, may be, if not a distin- 
guished, yet a skilful florist. One would suppose 
that little else would be necessary to render us so, 
than the contemplation of the splendid example 
which nature has set us, in the profusion with which 
she has scattered over our land the choicest treasures 
of the vegetable world. America mav be denomin- 
ated the classic ground of the botanist ; and, as the 
painter or sculptor visits Italy, to study the wondrous 
works of Raphael or Angelo, so to the admirer of 
magnificent and beautiful plants, no country can pre- 
sent more interesting objects than ours. None is 
endowed with a richer variety of indigenous produc- 
tions ; from the pine 9 whose summit seems lost in 
the clouds, to the velvet carpeting of mosses which 
overspreads the margin of the rivulet. We possess 
many wild flowers, which want no other recommen- 
dation than that of rarity, to entitle them to rank 
with the most costly exotics. Witness the stately 
Rhododendrons of Medfield, and the spicy Magnolias 
of Cape-Ann. What spectacle can be more magnifi- 
cent than that presented by our woods on the banks 
of the Connecticut, when their shady recesses are 
absolutely illuminated with the brilliant and clus- 
tered blossoms of the Mountain Laurel. Above all, 
what exotic can surpass our Pond-Lily ? — a flower, 
rivaling in beauty the far-famed night-blooming 
Cereus,— possessing, too, a most delicious fragrance, 
which is altogether denied to its kindred in the 
Eastern world, and which is so delicate and ethereal, 
that all the power of Chemistry is insufficient to 






3T* 



12 



arrest and retain it. The Rose has been long 
denominated, by the consent of the civilized world, 
the queen of flowers, and far be it from me to dis- 
parage her pretensions ; but if the choice were now 
to be made, we might call upon her to divide, at 
least, her royal honors, with this splendid nymph of 
these western waters. 

In these remarks, I have confined myself to the 
culture of flowers, because this is a branch of horti- 
culture accessible to all. From the raising of trees, 
most of the inhabitants of this city are altogether 
debarred. Our few remaining gardens are rapidly 
vanishing before the spirit of improvement. In a 
short period, their places will be supplied by massive 
structures of brick or stone, and our magnificent 
Common may be the only green spot in our penin- 
sula. Those of you who enjoy facilities for the pro- 
pagation of fruit-trees, need no admonitions from me 
to improve them. Few of us can hope to render 
greater service to the community, than those who 
are thus occupied. If he, who makes two spires of 
grass grow, where one grew before, is a public bene- 
factor, what shall we say of him, who introduces, or 
who disseminates a new and delicious variety of 
fruit, and thus contributes to the innocent and salu- 
tary pleasures, not only of his cotemporaries, but of 
multitudes yet unborn ? The gratification thus min- 
istered to each individual, singly, may be deemed 
trifling ; but when we consider the number so grati- 
fied, how immense is the aggregate of human enjoy- 
ment. 

How long and how gratefully must such a gift be 







fe 13 

remembered. Of what moment to us, are the un- 
daunted valor and consummate generalship displayed 
by Lucullus, in his victories over Mithridates. They 
served only to bring one more gallant monarch into 
subjection, to that haughty and gigantic power, 
whose iron sceptre has long since been shattered, 
to add one more jewel to the diadem, which has 
been for ages trampled in the dust. But the taste 
and assiduity of the Roman general, in naturalizing 
the cherry-tree to the climate of Europe, has enti- 
tled him to the grateful commemoration of sixty 
generations. The empire, which France labored to 
establish on our continent, has long since passed 
away. The chain of fortresses, which she erected 
on our northern and western borders, with so much 
skill, and at such a cost, is rapidly vanishing from 
our soil. Her very language is fast departing from 
those regions, before the silent and peaceful progress 
of our institutions. But the orchards of magnificent 
and venerable pear-trees, planted by French colonists 
on the banks of the beautiful Detroit river, yet 
remain, a noble monument to the honor of the parent 
country of modern Horticulture. 

How few can hope for a reputatiou so extensive, 
so enduring, and so enviable, as that which will be 
awarded, both in his country and ours, to Thomas 
Andrew Knight. How long and how highly shall 
we honor this high-minded Englishman, as the disin- 
terested and unwearied benefactor of our infant Hor- 
ticulture ? How nobly has he exemplified the great 
truths, that the firmest loyalty to our own country is 
compatible with the utmost liberality towards others ; 



3> fo 

14 

and, that when the culture of the soil is in question, 
our views should know no other bounds, than those 
of the great family of man. A few years, I trust, 
will show, that there are those among us who emu- 
late his achievements, as I am sure there are many 
who partake of his spirit. I speak from high author- 
ity, when I say, that the friends of Horticulture in 
Europe are turning their eyes anxiously to our coun- 
try. They are looking to our bright skies and fresh 
soil, for new varieties of delicious fruits, to supply 
the place of those, which, after centuries of exist- 
ence, are at last passing away. Hopes so just and 
reasonable, are surely not destined to return void. 

I have thus endeavored to state some of the prin- 
cipal motives which should excite us to the pursuit 
of Horticulture. There has been much unsaid, and, 
probably, much unthought of on my part, which your 
own reflections may readily suggest to you. I have 
detained you longer than I intended ; but I should 
be obliged to make a large additional demand on your 
patience, were I to bestow even a passing notice on 
many important and appropriate topics which I have 
passed over in silence. I have said nothing, for in- 
stance, of the raising of ornamental trees, nothing of 
that most interesting spot, the Cemetery at Mount 
Auburn. These omissions are of the less conse- 
quence, as so much has been said on these topics, 
and so well said, on former occasions. And now let 
me ask those of you who are parents, one simple 
question. Is there a taste for any ornamental pursuit 
which you would behold springing up in the minds of 
your children, with more pleasure, and with less ap- 



If I 

15 

prehension, than a taste for Horticulture ? If it be 
thus, it is surely an important subject of inquiry how 
such a taste may best be created, increased, or dis- 
seminated. 

And here I may be told, that, when I speak of 
creating a taste of this description, I speak of what is 
impossible ; that it is exclusively the gift of Nature ; 
that where she has bestowed it, little culture is requi- 
site, and where she has withheld it, all effort is un- 
availing. It is not necessary to maintain that nature 
has made no difference between individuals in this 
respect, but I am warranted in saying, that, in this, as 
in many other instances, what we call nature is noth- 
ing but early habit or early association. This has 
been shown in much stronger cases, than that which 
we are now considering. Can any suppose, that if we 
were all conversant with fine flowers from our infancy, 
if every porch could boast its festoons of honeysuckle, 
every fence its clusters of roses, and every window 
its ranges of bulbs, nothing would be done towards 
rendering Horticulture a general and a favorite pursuit. 
Those who think thus must deny all that has hitherto 
been believed, respecting the spirit of improvement, 
the power of habit, and the force of example. 

It was the wish, then, to create and diffuse a taste 
for Horticulture, which led to the foundation of our 
society. To the merit of introducing this art among 
us, the society makes no pretension. It already ex- 
isted in a considerable degree, more especially in this 
city and its delightful environs, and in other large 
towns. There were men among us conspicuous for 
their talents and public spirit, as displayed in their 



3'fx 



16 



services to many of our most valuable institutions, 
but who had no where labored more zealously, more 
disinterestedly, or more successfully, both by precept 
and example, than in behalf of our Horticulture. 
There were those of retired habits, who had found 
in this art an exhaustless and a most dignified occu- 
pation, for their many intervals of leisure ; and there 
w 7 ere men deeply immersed in active business, pur- 
suing their respective callings amidst all the dust and 
bustle of the city, among scenes apparently the* most 
uncongenial to every thing rural, whose gardens and 
windows yet bore splendid testimony to their suscep- 
tibility to the charms of nature, and their skill in 
calling forth her wonder-working powers. These 
facts spoke much for the taste and refinement of our 
community, and not a little, certainly, for the charms 
of Horticulture. 

Of most of those individuals to whom I refer, I 
am forbidden to speak as I could wish, by the delica- 
cy which we owe to all within the circle of our per- 
sonal intercourse. I must be permitted, however, to 
allude particularly to one, who has lately retired from 
that circle ; I mean the gentleman who has presided 
over our society, ever since its formation, but who for 
many years previous, had devoted much of his time 
and thoughts to Agriculture and Horticulture. You 
well know, my friends, how he has labored in our 
cause. You are all aware of the aid which it has 
derived from his powerful and accomplished mind, 
his unwearied industry, and his elevated character. 
His services will long be respectfully and gratefully 
remembered, and I am sure that I speak in the name 



JJ3 
17 

not only of all who hear me, but of all who know 
him, when I express the best wishes for his health 
and happiness. Wherever he may go, though no 
longer among us, he will never eease to be of us* 

But whatever may have been the progress of 
Horticulture in Massachusetts, previous to the for- 
mation of this Society, it was still rather a solitary 
than a social pursuit. Every one pursued his own 
course, — neither acquainted, to any great degree, 
with the improvements of his neighbor, nor assisted 
by his advice, nor excited by his success. Horticul- 
ture had its own charms to recommend it, and these 
were many and various, but its cause wanted all that 
aid, which is derived from the union of numbers, 
deeply interested, in the pursuit of a common and 
favorite object. Our society was established to rem- 
edy this important disadvantage, to bring the friends 
of Horticulture into close contact, to afford induce- 
ments for that social interchange of sentiment, from 
which the mind gains new light, and the feelings 
new warmth ; to diffuse knowledge, to correct error, 
and to call into action those master-spirits of the 
human mind, the spirit of emulation, and the spirit of 
improvement. 

Of the merits of the Society, we leave the public 
to judge. Its success has surpassed the expectations 
of its most sanguine members. Those who wish to 
know the extent of that success, are referred to our % 
nurseries, our markets, and our fruit-stores. In the 
retrospect of our progress, we ought not to forget, 
how much our hands have been strengthened, and 
our spirits cheered, by the friendly encouragement 
3 



JK¥ 



18 



we have received from other horticultural societies. 
More especially should we acknowledge the courte- 
ous and flattering attentions bestowed on our society 
in its infancy, by those of London and Paris, and of 
New- York, a city which has added to its other high 
claims to distinction, that of taking the lead in 
American Horticulture. Our public authorities of 
the state and city, have not been wanting in bestow- 
ing upon us their support and favor, within their 
respective spheres of operation. We are indebted to 
the Legislature, for the enactment of most just and 
wise provisions for the protection of our gardens and 
orchards, — laws which, we trust, will be powerfully 
effective, not only as a terror to evil-doers, but in 
creating a wholesome public sentiment and diffusing 
through the community a proper respect for the rights 
of the industrious gardener to the fruits of his science 
and assiduity. It is owing to the courtesy of our 
city government, that we are now enabled to assem- 
ble in this spacious and renowned Hall. The specta- 
cle before you owes much of its splendor to the kind- 
ness and liberality of those individuals, who have 
consented to expose on this occasion, I am sure I 
ought to say to hazard, the choicest productions of 
their gardens and green-houses. That our fellow- 
citizens generally are not indifferent to our success, 
is a fact of which we need no other proof than the 
audience who have this day honored us with their 
presence, and I have only to say, that I can have no 
fears for the success of Horticulture, while I see our 
exhibitions thus supplied and thus countenanced. 



? f 6 



SIXTH ANNIVERSARY 



OF THE 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



The sixth Anniversary of the Massachusetts Horticultural So- 
ciety was celebrated on the 17th, ISth, and 19th September, by 
a public exhibition of fruits and flowers, in Fanueil Hall. The 
display surpassed the most sanguine anticipations of the friends 
of the Society, and the Amateurs of that rural improvement, in 
which nature and art combine to produce the fairest objects, 
which can decorate the splendid abodes of affluence, or the hum- 
ble retreats of rural felicity. It was a subject of delightful con- 
templation to behold the "Cradle of Liberty" converted, as it 
were, by enchantment, into the Temple of Flora and the Palace 
of Pomona. The Champions of American Independence, whose 
portraits adorn the walls of the venerated fabric, appeared to look 
with complacence on the efforts of the Society to decorate the 
theatre of their exertions, which gave Independence and National 
Liberty to our common country ; and splendid realities combined 
with pleasing reminiscences to " lend enchantment to the scene." 

At 12 o'clock on the 17th, an Address was delivered by John 
C. Gray, Esq. which was all the occasion demanded, or which 
could be anticipated by the most ardent friends of Horticulture. 

The following are some of the donations of Fruits and Flow- 
ers, which were contributed in aid of the exhibition : — 

From Col. T. H. Perkins, Brookline, (by William H. Cowing,) 
Black Hamburg, White do. White Muscat of Alexandria, Saint 
Peters, Black Prince, Muscat of Lunil, White Frontignac, Grisly 
Frontignac, Flame colored Tokay, White Chasselas or Sweet 
Water, White do. of Frontignac, Frontignac, Constantia of Byz- 
ant, and Isabella Grapes. A large basket of superb Peaches and 
Nectarines. 

Hon. John Lowell, Roxbury — White Pitmaston Cluster Grape, 
a new seedling, very hardy and early, just imported, White Ham- 
burg Grape, and a basket of ripe Figs. 

Hon. Richard Sullivan, Brookline — Bartlett Pears, Black Ham- 
burg Grapes, and fine Nutmeg Melon. 



3ft 



u 



20 



Z. Cook, Jr. Esq. Boston — Bartlett Pears. 

John Prince, Esq. Jamaica Plains — French R.ed, Hubbardston 
Nonesuch, Reinette du Canada, Court pendu gris, Mela Carla, 
Ribstone Pippin, Buckman's Pearmain, and Blue Pearmain Ap- 
ples ; Bloodgood's Yellow Winter, Fulton, Andrews, Bon Chre- 
tien, Catillac, Long Green, Beurre du Roi, and Dr. Hunt's Pears. 

Micah H. Ruggles, Fall River — Wilbur Pear, (very fine.) 

Elijah Yose, Dorchester — Capiaumont, Urbaniste, Bartlett, 
Passe Colmar, Lewis. Wilkinson, and Mouille Bouche Pears ; 
Red Callville, and Spice Apples; Rock, Persian, Pine Apple, 
and Green flesh Cantaloup Melons ; Royal Purple Chasselas, and 
White Chasselas Grapes ; Grosse Miguonne, and Morris White 
Peaches. 

Samuel Pond, Cambridgeport — Red Siberian Crab Apples ; 
Bartlett, Capiaumont, and Andrews Pears; Semiana and Yellow 
Ego; Plums : Green Catharine Peaches : Golden and White Chas- 
selas Grapes; Citron Melon, (for preserves.) Nutmeg Melons: 
three bottles of Wine, made from the Isabella Grape. 

E. M. Richards, Dedham — Red Juneating and Benoni Apples - 
Long Green, Gris Bonne, and Harvard Pears. 

Capt. John Mackay, Weston — Hawthorndean Apples ; Seckle 
Pears, (very fine ;) Yellow Melacoton Peaches; Citron Melons. 

Joseph Balch, Roxbury — Pumpkin Sweeting and Horthorndean 
Apples ; Heathcot Pears. 

James Read, Roxbury — Noblesse Peaches, (on branches:) 
Black Hamburg Grapes; Jacques, Large Rareripe or Melacoton 
Peaches, (very beautiful.) 

Marshall P. Wilder, Dorchester — Iron and Rousellet Pears ; 
Sweet Water and Isabella Grapes. 

M. R. and E. Marsh — Porter Apples : Cashing, Fall Bon 
Chretien, Seckle, and Bartlett Pears. 

N. E. Glines, Boston — Apples. 

William E. Otis 6c Co. Boston — Apples. 

John A. Kenrick, Newton — Nonesuch, Hubbardston, Newton, 
and Ribstone Pippin Apples ] Kenrick's Heath, Red and Yellow 
Rareripe, Carolina, Kennedy Clingstone Jacques, and White 
Peaches; Nectarines; Capiaumont Pears. 

George Pierce, Charlestown — Porter Apples, Philadelphia Pip- 
pins. 

C. Cowing, Roxbury — Bartlett Pears ; Red Melacoton Peaches. 

E. Breed, Esq. — Brown Beurre, Brocas Burgamotte Pears, 
(growing on dwarf trees.) 

Cheever Newhall — Bartlett, Bleekers Meadow, Bon Chretien, 
and Andrews Pears. 

Dr. S. A. Shurtleff, Pemberton's Hill. Boston— Saint Michael's 
Pears; Seckle, Rousellet de Rheims, Gansels or Broca's Burga- 
motte, White Chasselas Grapes, (open culture :) Red Rareripe 
Peaches. 



3 y 7 



21 



Samuel Sweetser, Cambridgeport — Rushmore Bon Chretien 
Pear. 

Thomas Mason, Charlestown — Royal George, Belegarde, and 
Royal Kensington Peaches ; Elruge and Brugnon Nectarines ; 
Black Hamburg, Lombardy, Black St. Peters, Red Hamburg, and 
White Sweetwater Grapes. 

Benjamin V. French, Esq. Boston — Nonesuch, Black of Cox, 
and Double Flowering Chinese Apples ; Bartlett, Tillington, and 
Beurre Von Marun Pears ; Arabian Cabbage. 

Jacob Tidd, Roxbury — two clusters Nice Grapes, one weighing 
6 1-2 lbs. and one 5 lbs.; two Long Water Melons. 

Messrs. Winships, Brighton — Jacques, Cutter's Yellow and 
Royal Peaches. 

E. Bartlett — Capiaumont, Bartlett, Fulton, Sylvanche Verte, 
Passe Colmar, and Seckle Pears ; Wax Peaches ; Pine Apple 
and Green Cantaloup Melons. 

Robert- Manning, Salem — A valuable collection of Pears, con- 
sisting of forty-four different kinds, and embracing many of the 
new varieties, which have been recently introduced into this 
country. 

Hamilton Davidson, Charlestown — Belegarde Peaches; Seckle 
Pears. 

T. Bigelow, Medford — Royal Charlotte Peaches, (superb.) 

Charles Taylor, Esq. Dorchester — a basket of fine Black Ham- 
burg Grapes. 

Messrs. Hovey-Bartlett and Johonnet Pears ; Noblesse Peaches ; 
Semiana Plums ; White Chasselas and Black Hamburg Grapes, 
(cultivated in pots.) 

J. T. Wheelwright — Solanum Melongena, Purple and White. 

D. L. Jones, gardener to James Arnold, Esq. New-Bedford — 
Black Hamburg Grapes, (a fine specimen ;) also, a Rustic Chair, 
presented to the Society ; Early Lees Anglo and Queen Anne 
Plums. 

Benjamin Gigger, Waltham — Orange Clingstone Peaches, (ex- 
cellent.) 

R. Ward, Roxbury — Bartlett and Seckle Pears : English and 
Lima Beans. 

Jonas Clarke, Waltham — Red Rareripe Peaches. 

Charles Smith, Waltham — large Water Melons, (one weighed 
forty pounds.) 

David Stone, Waltham — large Melons. 

Timothy Corey, Brookline — two Cabbages, (each weighing 
twenty pounds.) 

J. M. Ives, Salem— a new variety of Squash, from the western 
part of the state, very early, and keeps remarkably well through 
the winter, (supposed a hybrid.) 

J. Coolidge, Boston — Harvard and Andrews Pears. 

H. Davenport, Milton — Bon Chretien Pears. 



MV 



J. Hill — Bartlett Pears; Red Ripe Peaches, (excellent;) Por- 
ter Apples. 

Thomas McCarty — Peaches. 

A D. Williams — Grapes (on vines,) and Valparaiso Squashes. 

Samuel G. Perkins, Esq. — large basket, containing Black Ham- 
burg, Zinfindal, Constantia, White Muscat of Alexandria, White 
Muscat, or Frontignac, Portugal, and Purple Oval Grapes ; Yel- 
low, Admirable, Morris White, Melter, Pine Apple, and Paris 
Peaches. 

G. W. Ward, Shewsbury — Apples from a tree that never blos- 
soms ; no seed nor core : has been in bearing twenty years. 

Mr. Davis — Heathcot Pears. 

Mr. Tombs — Clingstone Peaches. 

Mr. Balfour, Charlestown — Isabella Grapes, open culture, girdled. 

Richard Dascomb, Boston — Orange Gourds. 

A. T. Penniman, Boston — White Chasselas Grapes. 

W. Oliver, Roxbury — Cornelian Cherries. 

Mrs. J. C. Jones, Somerset-place, Boston — Egg Plums, very fine. 
For the Committee, 

S. A. SHURTLEFF, Chairman. 



REPORT 

Of the Committee appointed to name and label the Plants and Flowers ex- 
hibited at Fanueil Hall on the 17th, 18th, and 19th September, 1834. 

The display of the various plants and flowers which decorated 
the Hall, was splendid beyond description ; and far exceeded 
the most sanguine expectations of the committee. Although the 
proper season to show hot-house and green-house plants to 
advantage, is during the spring months, when they are in full 
bloom and beauty, yet many varieties, especially those with ever- 
green foliage, are pleasing and interesting objects at all seasons 
of the year. Many of the species presented, were very choice 
and rare. There might be seen the Banana of the West-Indies, 
the Fig from Persia, the Coffee from Arabia, the Lemon, 
Orange, Pomegranate, and Sago»Palm, with many other inter- 
esting plants, natives of a tropical clime. Among those orna- 
mental, as well as useful, were the variegated Holly, Myrtle, 
Laurel, Magnolia, Acuba, Box-tree, Aloes, and the elegant India- 
rubber tree. Some were remarkable for either their curious 
foliage or flowers, as the Arum, Pourretia, Eucalyptus, Nandina, 
Cactus, &c. Others for their delightful and agreeable odor, as 
the Hedychium gardnerianum, Polyanthes tuberosa, Pancratium 
Funkia, Jasminum, &c. &c. Those conspicuous for the splen- 
dor of their rich and brilliant colors, were the Erythrina picta, 
near eight feet in height ; the Vallota purpurea (once Amaryllis) 



Sff 



23 

with six expanded flowers ; the Gladiolus natalensis, with three 
tall spikes, and numbering near twenty open flowers, which, for 
magnificence of bloom, can be eclipsed but by few plants at this 
season of the year. Among the various flowers and charming 
bouquets which adorned the tables, was a large collection of the 
superbly splendid Georgina, (Dahlia) amounting, from all the 
contributors, to nearly five hundred flowers. There was, also, a 
beautiful variety of the lovely China and German Asters. The 
committee cannot, however, among such a numerous assemblage 
of Flora's beauties, particularize all which deserve notice ; but 
submit the following Report : — 

From John Lowell, Esq. Roxbury. A fine specimen of the 
Erythrina picta, and Justicia picta, — rare plants ; — two fine 
plants of Citrus decumana, with eight or ten ripe fruit, some of 
which measured five inches in diameter, — being three inches 
more in circumference than a specimen of the same fruit, exhib- 
ited at the London Horticultural Society, and which received its 
premium last year. A fine plant of the Banana tree, (Musa 
sapientium) with other rare and choice plants. 

From J. P. Gushing, Esq. Watertown. Fine plants of the 
Lemon and Orange, (Citrus limonum and aurantiacea) Apollo's 
Laurel, (Laurus nobilis,) Myrtus communis, Acuba japonica, 
Buxus arborescens var. aurantiacea. Hydrangea, Polyanthus 
tuberosa, &c. &c. 

From John Lemist, Esq. Roxbury. Eugenia myrtifolia, Fuch- 
sia coccinea, Acacia armata, Ericas, &c. &c. Fine plants of 
the Aloe (Agave americana) Yucca gloriosa, Citrus myrtifolia, 
and vulgaris, var. variegata, and a splendid specimen of the 
Cycas revoluta, (Sago Palm.) 

From John Prince, Esq. Roxbury. Large plants of Lemon 
and Orange trees, Cycas revoluta (Sago Palm) and Agave Amer- 
icana, Hoya carnosa, Diosma alba, Hedychium gardnerianum, 
(very fragrant,) Acuba japonica, &c. &c. 

From J. T. Wheelwright, Esq. Solanum melongena, purpurea 
and alba (Egg plants) pseudo capsicum (Jerusalem cherry) Gom- 
phrena globosa, Aster sinensis, &c. &c. 

From Charles Senior, Roxbury. Rhododendron hybridum, 
Myrtus communis, Camellia japonica, Citrus aurantiaum, Vibur- 
num tinus, &c. A beautiful plant of the Ficus elasticus (India 
rubber tree) and Cactus melocactus. 

From William E. Payne, Esq. Waltham. Three fine large 
Orange trees, (Citrus aurantium) Citrus limonum, Begonia, 
Fuchsia coccinea, Daphne odora, &c. &c. 

From William Pratt, Esq. Watertown. Elegant plants of the 
Ilex variegata, (variegated Holly) Buxus arborescens var auran- 
tiacea, Diosma alba, Citrus vulgaris var variegata, and Viburnum 
tinus. Justicia picta, Hoya carnosa, Cassia laevigata, Aloysia 
citriodora, &c. &c. 



tjt® 



24 



From Mr. N. Davenport, Milton. Agave americana, Ver- 
bena trifolia, Cassia, &.c. &c. 

From Joseph P. Bradlee, Esq. Boston. Citrus Hmonum, Rho- 
dodendron, Cammellia japonica alba, and variegata, Myrtus com- 
munis, Erica mediterrania, Gardinia, Acuba, Pittosporum, Citrus, 
Polyanthus tuberosa, &C. &c. 

From Samuel Appleten, Esq. Boston. A magnificent plant of 
the Ficus elasticus, (India rubber, tree) about ten feet in height. 

From Thomas Dowse, Esq. Cambridgeport. A fine plant of 
Myrtus communis, in full bloom, — and Fig-tree, (Ficus carica) 
with fruit. 

From Mr. Samuel Sweetser, Cambridgeport. A fine plant of 
the Ilex variegata, Diosma alba, Phlomis fructicosa, Erica, Sem- 
pervivium, Myrtus communis, &c. &,c. 

^Gladiolus natalensis, (called psittacinus) presented by Mr. 
Sweetser, was one of the most rich and gorgeous plants which 
ornamented the Hall. It is of late introduction, never flowering 
here before this season. It will, probably, be considered as one 
of the finest varieties of bulbs w T hich decorate the flower garden. 

From Mr. Isaac Livermore, Cambridgeport. Nerium oleandar, 
and a fine large plant of Hydrangea hortensis. 

From Messrs. Hovey, Cambridgeport. Fine plants of Gom- 
phrena globosa, and Fuchsia coccinea, Maurandia semperflorens 
and Citrus limonum. A Black Hamburgh Grape-vine, growing 
in a pot, and bearing twenty fine clusters, weighing nearly half a 
pound to the bunch, — only eighteen months from the cutting, 
and remarkable for producing such a crop of fruit ; and, also, 
showing what a quantity of fine fruit can be cultivated in a small 
space of earth. 

From the Botanic Garden, Cambridge, by William Carter. 
The following very rare plants, — Astrapsea Wallichii Hakea 
saligna, Pourretia spinosa, Banksia serrulata, Ficus elasticus, 
Coffea arabica, (coffee-tree) Vallota purpurea, (splendid) Melas- 
toma, Eugenia, Nandina, Eucalyptus, Lantana, Ardisia, Mela- 
leuca, and Fuchsia Thompsonia, Protea argentea (silver-tree) 
Hoya carnosa, &c. &,c. 

From M. P. Wilder, Esq. Dorchester. A splendid plant of 
the Camellia japonica fl. pi. alba, Eugenia jambos, and Acacia 
lophanta. Strelitzia, Melianthus, Echium, Ilex variegata, Pit- 
tosporum, Agave americana, retusa and lingua, Myrtus, Acuba, 
Cycas revoluta, Arum esculentum, Citrus vulgaris, &c. &c. 

From J. W. Boot, Esq. Plumbago capensis, Begonia discolor 
and a Pancratium, very beautiful. 

From Charles Taylor, Esq. Dorchester. Acacia lophanta, 
Gardenia florida, Pelargonium argentea, Citrus vulgaris and, V. 
variegata, Cassia, &c. &c. 

From Madame Eustis, Roxbury. Fine large Orange and 
Lemon trees, (Citrus) Acuba japonica and Yucca gloriosa (beau- 

V, 



y*/ 



25 



tiful in bloom,) Agave americana, Hoy a carnosa, Myrtus com- 
munis, Hydrangea hortensis, Aloysia citriodora, dec. &c. 

From E. Breed, Esq. Charlestown. Brown Beurre and Broca's 
Bergamot Dwarf Pear trees in pots, bearing fine fruit, Diosma 
alba, Lantana, Pittosporum, Myrtus, Acuba, Portulacea, Arum, 
Rhododendron, Phlomis, Rosa, Viburnum, Agave Americana^ 
&/C. dec. China Asters and Coxcombs, in pots. 

Fom Messrs. Winship, Brighton. A fine plant of Corrsea alba, 
and Aspidium exaltalurn. Hedychium gardneriarum, Metrosi- 
deros, Acacia lophanta, a branch of the Shepardia eleagnoides 
(Buffalo berry,) dec. dec. 

From- Thomas Willott, Boston. A fine plant in full blossom 
of Lagerstraemia indica (crape myrtle,) Myrtus Agave Americana, 
Crassula, Nerium, Begonia, Cactus, Acuba, Viburnum, Roses, 
Geraniums, dec. 

From Joseph G. Joy,. Esq, Boston. Two fine large Orange 
trees. 

From William Upham, Esq. Boston. Two Orange trees, Myr- 
tus communis and Jasminum nitidum. 

From D. S. Townsend, Esq. Boston. A fine large Myrtus 
communis, Acuba japonica, and Viburnum tinus. Agave Amer- 
icana, Vinca rosea, Crassula arborea,, Orange tree and Pome- 
granate. 

From Mr. Thomas Mason, Charlestown. Acacia armata and 
lophanta, Aloysia citriodora, Daphne, Viburnum, Erica, Fuchsia,. 
Rosa, Myrtus, Gardinia, Punicea, Rhododendron maximum var* 
album and roseum and Catawbiense. A beautiful plant of the 
Magnolia grandiflora, Diosma, dec. dec. 

From Mrs. Bigelow, Medford, by M. Burrage. A very beau^ 
tiful plant of the Citrus myrtifolia (Myrtle-leaved Orange,) with- 
about twenty ripe fruit. 

From Mr. A. D. Williams, Roxbury. A pot of the Isabella 
and White Sweet Water grape, with fruit. 

Georginas (Dahlias,) China and German Asters, and Bouquets 
of Flowers, were exhibited by the following gentlemen : — 

A superb collection of about fifty varieties of the Georgina from 
Mr. E. Putnam, Salem ; twenty varieties from M. P. Wilder,. Esq. 
Dorchester ; ten varieties from Mr. Samuel Walker,, Roxbury ; 
twenty-five varieties from the Botanic garden, by William Carter ; 
ten varieties from William Kenrick, and many varieties from 
others. A charming collection of China, and German Asters, of 
about twelve distinct varieties, from Messrs. Hovey, Cambridge- 
port. A fine variety from E. Putnam, Salem. A most beautiful 
bouquet of Roses, including the yellow Tea and other rare kinds^ 
from Mr. William Wales, Dorchester. Elegant bouquets were 
also received from Messrs. S. Sweetser, Cambridgeport r William 
Worthington, John Richardson, Joshua Gardner, and Samuel 

4 



tf&3u 



26 



Phipps, Dorchester ; William Kenrick, Newton ; T. H. Perkins, 
Brookline ; J. W. Russell, Mount Auburn ; Messrs. Hovey, Cam- 
bridgeport; Thomas Mason, Charlestown ; William Leathe, Cam- 
bridgeport ; and John Kenrick, Newton. Flowers, in quantity 
for decorating the Hall, were also furnished by the above gentle- 
men. Some of the wreaths were from the Society's garden, 
Mount Auburn. 

The Committee hope they have not omitted any plants, but 
have given as accurate an account, from the haste in which the 
exhibition was got up, as possible. 

All which is respectfully submitted, 

CHARLES M. HOVEY, Chairman. 

Sept. 30, 1834. 



REPORT 

Of the Garden and Cemetery Committee of the Massachusetts Horticultural 
Society, at a meeting held on Saturday, September 17, 1834. * 

The Garden and Cemetery Committee of the Massachusetts 
Horticultural Society, beg leave to submit the following Annual 
Report, for the consideration of the Society : — 

The Committee congratulate the Society upon the continued 
improvement of the Garden and Cemetery, and the additional 
favor and encouragement, which the design has received from 
the public. Before proceeding, however, to any particulars re- 
specting this subject, they feel it their duty to make a few remarks, 
in order to correct some erroneous notions, which pervade certain 
portions of the community, relative to the nature and objects of 
the establishment. It is by no means uncommon to find persons 
impressed with the belief, that the establishment is a private spec- 
ulation for the private benefit of the members of the Society, or 
of the individuals, who originally advanced the money to purchase 
the grounds for the garden and cemetery, and that considerable 
profits have been already realized from it. This notion is utterly 
unfounded. The Cemetery is, in the truest and noblest sense, a 
public institution, that is, an institution of which the whole com- 
munity may obtain the benefit upon easy and equal terms. No 
individual has any private interest in the establishment beyond 
what he acquires as the proprietor of a lot in the Cemetery ; and 
every man in the community may become a proprietor upon pay- 
ing the usual sum fixed for the purchase of a lot. The whole 
grounds are held by the Horticultural Society in trust for the 
purposes of a Garden and Cemetery ; and no member thereof as 
such has any private interest therein, except as a corporator, or 
proprietor of a lot. The whole funds which have been already 
realized by the sale of lots have been devoted to paying the price 

, - - 



Yo3 



27 



of the original purchase, laying out the grounds, enclosing them 
with a fence, erecting an entrance gate and portal, and a cottage, 
and other structures for the accommodation of the superintendent, 
and defraying the incidental expenses. The expenditures have 
already amounted, as appears by the Treasurer's Report, to up- 
wards of twenty-five thousand dollars ; and the proceeds of the 
sales have fallen short of this amount by about two thousand 
dollars : so that as yet the expenditures have exceeded the income. 
It has always been the understanding of the Society, that all the 
funds, which should be obtained by the sales of the lots, should, 
after defraying the annual expenses of the establishment, be ap- 
plied exclusively to the preservation, repair, ornament, and per- 
manent improvement of the Garden and Cemetery ; and never to 
the private emolument of any of the members — and, indeed, this 
constituted the fundamental object of those, who have become the 
proprietors of lots. It is due also to the gentlemen, whose public 
spirit matured the design, to state, that it was their primary ob- 
ject to exclude all private speculation and interests from the un- 
dertaking, and, by a wise and fixed policy, to secure all the funds, 
which should arise from its success, to public purposes of an en- 
during and permanent character. The Society has sanctioned 
these views. It was believed that a generous community would 
foster the design, and, by a timely liberality, in the purchase of 
lots, would enable the Society to make this beautiful Retreat for 
the Dead at the same time the consolation and just pride of the 
Living. The committee have great pleasure in stating that these 
reasonable expectations have not been disappointed. Mount Au- 
burn has already become a place of general resort and interest, 
as well to strangers as to citizens ; and its shades and paths, 
ornamented with monumental structures, of various beauty and 
elegance, have already given solace and tranquilizing reflections 
to many an afflicted heart, and awakened a deep moral sensibility 
in many a pious bosom. The committee look forward, with in- 
creasing confidence, to a steady public patronage, which shall 
supply all the means necessary for the accomplishment of all the 
interesting objects of the establishment. 

Relying on this patronage, the committee indulge the hope 
that the period is not far distant, when, by the sale of lots, the 
society will be enabled to enclose all the grounds with a perma- 
nent wall ; to erect a Temple of simple and classical character, 
in which the service over the dead may be performed by clergy- 
men of every denomination ; to add extensively to the beauty and 
productiveness of the Garden ; and, above all, to lay the founda- 
tion of an accumulating fund, the income of which shall be per- 
petually devoted to the preservation, embellishment, and improve- 
ment of the grounds. This last object the committee deem of 
the highest importance to the perpetuity of the establishment ; 
and it cannot be contemplated with too much care and earnest- 



//0<f 



28 



ness in all the future arrangements of the society. In addition 
to these objects, the committee would suggest the propriety of 
making arrangements for the admission of water from Fresh Pond 
into the ponds of the Cemetery ; and, after passing through them, 
of conducting it into Charles River. Such a measure would add 
to the salubrity of the ponds, as well as improve the general aspect 
and effect of the whole scenery. It is believed that this measure 
may be accomplished at a comparatively small expense, whenever 
the Funds of the society will admit of a suitable appropriation. 
In the mean time it seems desirable to secure, by some prelim- 
inary arrangement, the ultimate success of the project. 

The committee would further state, that by the Report of the 
Treasurer it appears, that the whole number of lots in the Cem- 
etery, which have been already sold, is 351, viz : — 175 lots in 
1832, 76 lots in 1833, and 100 lots in 1834 ; and the aggregate 
sum produced by these sales is $23,225 72. The whole expendi- 
tures incurred during the same years amount to $25,211 88. 
The balance of cash and other available funds now in the hands 
of the Treasurer are $5403 32. The committee are of opinion, 
that reliance may safely be placed upon the future sales of lots to 
defray the expenses of the current year ; and that, therefore, a 
portion of the funds now on hand may be properly applied to the 
reduction of the remaining debts due by the society. 

The committee would further state, that since the month of 
August, 1833, there have been ninety-three interments at Mount 
Auburn ; eighteen tombs have been built ; sixteen monuments 
have been erected, and sixty-eight lots have been turfed and 
otherwise ornamented. It is understood that other monuments 
are in progress, and will be erected in a short time. 

The committee would further state, that finding the grounds at 
Mount Auburn were visited by unusual concourses of people on 
Sundays, and that the injuries done to the grounds and shrubbery 
were far greater on those occasions than any other, circumstances 
which it is unnecessary to mention, they deemed it their duty, as 
well in reverence for the day, as in reference to the permanent 
interests of the establishment, and a regard to the feelings of the 
community, to make a regulation prohibiting any persons except 
proprietors and their families, and the persons accompanying 
them, from entering the grounds on Sundays. The effects of 
this regulation have been highly beneficial. It has not only given 
quiet to the neighborhood, and enabled proprietors and their fam- 
ilies to visit their lots on Sundays tinder circumstances of more 
seclusion, tranquility, and solemn religious feelings ; but it has 
put a stop to many of the depredations, which thoughtless and 
mischievous persons had been too apt to indulge in, in their re- 
creations on that day. Several other regulations have been made, 
which experience had shown to be indispensable to the due secu- 
rity and uses of the Cemetery. The most important among these 



t/oS 



29 



is the closing the gates at sunset and opening them at sunrise. 
And it may be observed of all these regulations, that while they 
allow a free access to the grounds to all visiters at reasonable 
times, and in a reasonable manner, they are calculated to prevent 
any desecration of them under false pretexts, or by secret mis- 
conduct. 

The committee would further state, that in pursuance of the 
vote of the society, at their last annual meeting, they made an 
application to the Legislature of the Commonwealth, at its last 
session, for additional provisions to aid the general objects of the 
society. The Legislature accordingly passed an act, entitled "An 
act in further addition to an act to incorporate the Massachusetts 
Horticultural Society," which is entirely satisfactory to the com- 
mittee. They therefore beg leave to recommend, that the society 
should, by a formal vote, accept the same. 

All of which is respectfully submitted. 

JOSEPH STORY, Chairman. 

Sept. 20, 1834. 



Boston, Sept. 10, 1834. 

To Zebedee Cook, Jun. Esq. Vice-President of the Horticultural Society. 

My Dear Sir, As I shall soon remove to the far West, it becomes 
necessary, that I should resign the office of President of the Massachusetts 
Horticultural Society, which I now do, and will thank you to announce it, 
at the next meeting of the members, with assurances of my grateful sense 
of the obligations I am under, for the distinguished honor they have so re- 
peatedly conferred upon me. 

Wherever I may dwell, or whatever may be my condition in life, I shall 
cherish, as one of the dearest reminiscences, my very interesting, instruc- 
tive, and happy connection with an institution, which is destined to become 
orte of the most useful and important in our country. Already have many 
of the advantages which it was anticipated would be derived from it, been 
so far developed, as to leave no doubt of complete success. A foundation 
has been laid so broad, deep, and successfully, as to insure the realization 
of all our hopes, in every department of Horticulture. 

As an Experimental Garden is of indispensable consequence to your 
prosperity, nothing should be neglected, which is calculated to render that 
of Mount Auburn equal to any on the Globe ; and to make it speedily bene- 
ficial to the society and the country, and at the same time appropriately 
ornamental, as connected with the Cemetery Compartment of the establish- 
ment, allow me to recommend, as a primary measure, that Seminaries be 
formed this autumn and the next spring, of all the varieties of fruit, forest 
and ornamental trees and shrubs, which will flourish in our climate. This 
being accomplished, Nurseries can be established, for propagating every 
kind of foreign and native fruits, with such care and sureness of identity, 
as to preclude the possibility of those vexatious errors, in name and char- 
acter, to which we have hitherto been subjected, as to the several varieties 
of each species. 

With my best wishes for the triumphant advancement of the Society, and 
the happiness of all its members, I offer, my dear sir, assurances of my sin- 
cere esteem and friendship. H. A. S. DEARBORN. 



■tj-0 k 



OFFICERS 



OF THE 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 



FOR THE YEAR, 



COMMENCING ON THE FIRST SATURDAY IN DECEMBER, 1834. 



PRESIDENT. 

ZEBEDEE COOK, Jr. Boston. 

VICE-PRESIDENTS. 

ELIJAH VOSE, Dorchester. 
JONATHAN WINSHIP, Brighton. 
Two vacancies. 

TREASURER. 

WILLIAM WORTHINGTON, Dorchester. 

CORRESPONDING SECRERARY. 

JACOB BIGELOW, M. D. Boston. 

RECORDING SECRETARY. 

ROBERT TREAT PAINE, Boston. 

COUNSELLORS. 

THEODORE LYMAN, Jr. Boston. 

AUGUSTUS ASPINWALL, Brookline. 

THOxMAS BREWER, Roxbury. 

HENRY A. BREED, Lynn. 

BENJAMIN W. CROWNINSHIELD, Boston. 

NATHANIEL DAVENPORT, Milton. 

E. HERSEY DERBY, Salem. 

OLIVER FISKE, Worcester. 



¥*7 



31 

J. M. GOURGAS, Weston. 
T. W. HARRIS, M. D. Cambridge. 
SAMUEL JACQUES, Jr. Charlestown. 
JOSEPH G. JOY, Boston. 
WILLIAM KENRICK, Newton. 
JOHN LEMIST, Roxbury. 
BENJAMIN RODMAN, New-Bedford. 
WILLIAM H. SUMNER, Dorchester. 
CHARLES TAPPAN, Boston. 
JACOB TIDD, Roxbury. 
JONATHAN WINSHIP, Brighton. 
AARON D. WILLIAMS, Roxbury. 
J. W. WEBSTER, Cambridge. 
GEORGE W. BRIMMER, Boston. 
DAVID HAGGERSTON, Watertown. 
CHARLES LAWRENCE, Salem. 
Four vacancies. 

PROFESSOR OP BOTANY AND VEGETABLE PHYSIOLOGY. 

JOHN L. RUSSELL. 

PROFESSOR OF ENTOMOLOGY. 

T. W. HARRIS, M. D. 

PROFESSOR OF HORTICULTURAL CHEMISTRY. 

J. W. WEBSTER, M. D. 



STANDING COMMITTEES. 



COMMITTEE ON FRUITS. 

ELIJAH VOSE, Chairman, SAMUEL POND, 

ROBERT MANNING, THOMAS MASON, 

WILLIAM KENRICK, P. B. HOVEY, Jr. 

Four vacancies. 



COMMITTEE ON PRODUCTS OF KITCHEN GARDEN. 

GEO. C. BARRETT, Chairman, AARON D. WILLIAMS, 

DANIEL CHANDLER, LEONARD STONE, 

JACOB TIDD, NATHANIEL DAVENPORT. 



32 



COMMITTEE ON FLOWERS, SHRUBS, &C. 

JONATHAN WINSH1P, Chairman, SAMUEL WALKER, 
C. M. HOVEY, DAVID HAGGERSTON. 

JOHN A. KENRICK, One vacancy. 

COMMITTEE. ON THE LIBRARY. 

ELIJAH VOSE, Chairman, R. T. PAINE, 

JACOB BIGELOW, C. M. HOVEY, Librarian. 

T. W. HARRIS, Two vacancies. 

COMMITTEE ON SYNONYMS OF FRUIT. 

JOHN LOWELL, Chairman, WILLIAM KENRICK. 

ROBERT MANNING, One vacancy. 

COMMITTEE ON THE GARDEN AND CEMETERY. 

JOSEPH STORY, Chairman, CHARLES P. CURTIS, 

JACOB BIGELOW, SAMUEL APPLETON, 

GEORGE BOND, ELIJAH VOSE, 

B. A. GOULD, CHARLES BROWN, 
JOSEPH P. BRADLEE, 

EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE. 

ELIJAH VOSE, JOSEPH P. BRADLEE. 

Three vacancies. 

COMMITTEE OF FINANCE. 
ELIJAH VOSE, Chairman. Two vacancies. 

Q^r* The vacancies in the several offices above-mentioned will 
be filled at the stated meeting of the Society, on the first Satur- 
day in December next. 






Erratum. In Mr. Gray's Address, page 18, 8th line from bottom, after " ought" insert 
" not." 

" . 



i-of 



MEMBERS 



OF THE 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



Armstrong, Samuel T. Boston. 

Aspinwall, Augustus, Brookline. 

Andrews, John H. Salem. 

Andrews, Ebenezer T. Boston. 

Anthony, James, Providence. 

Adams, Samuel, Milton. 

Andrews, Ferdinand, Lancaster,. 

Atkinson, Amos, Brookline. 

Adams, Daniel, Newbury. 
-Adams, Abel, Boston. 
-Adams, Benjamin, Boston. 
-Adams, C. Frederic, " 
-Adams, Z. B. « 

-Appleton, Nathan, " 

Appleton, Samuel, *f 
-Austin, James T. "' 

-Austin, William, Lowell. 

Adams, Charles F. Quincy, 
-Adams, G. W. Boston. 
-Andrews, Henry, " 

Adamson, John, Roxbury. 

Anil rews, William T. Boston, 
-Adams, Edwin, " 

-Andrews, John B. " 

-Alden, J. W. " 

-Adams, William, " 

-Allenj Andrew J. « 

-Appleton, Nathan W. " 
-Adams, John, " 

Bartlett, Enoch, Roxbury. 

Brewer, Thomas, " 

Brimmer, George W. Boston.. 

Bradlee, Joseph P. " 

Breed, Ebenezer, « 

Breed, Henry A. Lynn. 

Bigelow, Jacob, Boston. 

Breed, Andrews, Lynn. 

Bailey, Kendall, Charlestown. 

Brown, James, Cambridge. 

Buckminster, Lawson, Framingham, 

Buckminster, Edward F. " 

Breck, Joseph, Lancaster. 

Bradford, Samuel D. Boston. 

Bailey, Ebenezer, « 

Bishop, N. H. Medford. 

Brewer, Eliab Stone, Boston. 

Badlam, Stephen, " 

Beal, George W. Quincy. 

Boot, William:, Boston. 

Brown, J. M. " 

-Barnard, Charles, " 
-Brown, Charles, Plymouth, 

Brimmer, Martin, Boston. 
-Bartlett, Sidney, " 

-Boot, John W. "- 

-Baldwin, Aaron, " 



-Bradlee, Josiah, Boston. 
.. Bowden, Dwight, " 
-Bagnall, Thomas, « 
-Baker, Henry F. " 

- Brooks, Peter C. jr. " 

Bangs, Edward D. " 

Bowdoin, James, " 

Balch, Joseph, Roxbury. 

Bond, George, Boston. 
-Bacon, S.N. " 

Billings, Joseph H. Roxbury. 

Brown, Charles, Boston. 

Brown, Jonas B. " 

Bussey, Benjamin, Roxbury. 

Baker, Joseph, Boston. 

Buckingham, Joseph T. Boston, 

Buckingham, Edwin, 

Boyd, James, 
•Brown, John, 

- Brigbam, Levi, 
Blake, Joshua, 

-Brigham, Dennis, 
Bird, Jesse, 

- Bryant, John, « 

- Bullard, Silas, «< 
Burridge, Martin, Medford. 
Bond, George W. Boston. 
Bartlett, Levi, "• 
Bailies, Edmund, " 

- Bigelow, Abraham, Cambridge. 
Barrett, George C. Boston. = 
Bowen, Charles, " 

- Bender, Jacob, " 
Boyd, Thomas, " 
Blanchard, W. E. " 
Binney, John, " 
Binney, Amos, « 

"Bacon, D. C. " 

Cook, Zebedee, jr. Boston. 
Codman, John, Dorchester. 
Clapp, Nathaniel, " 
Coolidge, Joseph, Boston. 
Copeland, B. F. Roxbury. 
Cogswell, J. G. Northampton. 
Champney, John, Roxbury. 
Cowing, Cornelius, " 
Cowing, Howland, jr. Boston. 
Carter, William, Cambridge. 
Curtis, William, Newton. 
Coolidge, Josiah, Cambridge. 
Cook, Josiah P. Boston. 
Crosby, Alonzo, " 
Cutler, Pliny, " 

Carey, Isaac H. " 

- Curtis, Thomas, " 
Cowan, Wm. H. Brighton, 



10 



34 



Chandler, Daniel, Lexington. 

Callender, Joseph, Boston. 

Chase, Hezekiah, Lynn. 

Clapp, John, South-Reading. 

Carter, Horatio, Lancaster. 

Carnes, Nathaniel G. New-York. 

Curtis, Edward, Peppered. 

Chandler, Samuel, Lexington. 

Capen, Aaron, Dorchester. 

Crowninshield, Benjamin W. Salem. 

Cotting, William, West- Cambridge. 

Cabot, Samuel, Brookline. 

Coffin, Hector, Rock Farm, Newbury. 

Curtis, Nathaniel, Roxbury. 

Clapp, Isaac, Dorchester. 

Crafts, Ebenezer, Roxbury. 

Curtis, Charles P. Boston. 
•Curtis, Thomas B. " 

Coolidge, Samuel F. " 
-Carev, Alpheus, " 

Coffin, George W. " 

Channing, George G. " 

Craigie, Mrs. E. Cambridge. 

Coolidge, Joshua, Watertown. 
•Cobb, Elijah, Boston. 

Clark, Edward D. Boston. 

Crockett, George W. " 

Cowing, N. H. Brookline. 

Crane, Joshua, Boston. 

Coolidge, Thomas B. Boston. 

Child, Joshua, " 

Churchill, P. " 

Carnes, Francis, " 

Carter, Georse D. " 

Channing, W. E. " 

Chase, C. " 

Coburn, Anna, " 

Dearborn, H. A. S. Roxbury. 
Davis, Isaac P. Boston. 
Downer, Samuel, Dorchester. 
Dudley, David, Roxbury. 
Doggett, John, Boston. 
Davenport, Nathaniel, Milton. 
Davis, Charles, Roxbury. 
Dorr, Nathaniel, " 
Dodge, Pickering, jr. Salem. 
Derby, E. H. " 

Davis, John, Boston. 
Davis.. Daniel, " 
Dutton, Warren, " 
Denny, Daniel, " 
Dean, Sophia, " 
Davis, Thomas, " 
Davis, Henry, " 
Daniel, Josiah, " 
Downes, John, " 
Dyer, E. D. « 

Davis, James, " 
Dickson, James A. Boston. 
Derby, Richard C. " 
Darracott, George, " 
Domett, George, " 

Davis, N. Morton, Plymouth. 
Danforth, Isaac, Boston. 

Emmons, Robert L. Boston. 
Everett, Edward, Charlestoicn. 
Eustis, James, South-Reading. 
Ellis, Charles, Roxbury. 
Edwards, Elisha, Springfield. 
Eager, William, Boston. 
Endicott, William P. Danvers. 
Everett, Alexander H. Boston. 
Eckley, David, " 

Edwards, Henry, 



- Eastburn, John H. Boston. 

Eldredge, Edward, " 
-Eldredge, Oliver, " 

French, Benjamin V. Boston. 
Fessenden, Thomas G. " 
Frothingham, Samuel, " 
Forrester, John, Salem. 
Fiske, Oliver, Worcester. 
Fosdick, David, Charlestown. 
Fletcher, Richard, Boston. 
Field, Joseph, Weston. 
Fitch, Jeremiah, Boston. 
Francis, J. B. Warwick, R. I. 
Freeman, Russell, New-Bedford. 
Fay, Samuel P. P. Cambridgeport. 
-Farrar, John, " 

-Farley, Robert, Boston. 
-Folsom, Charles, Cambridge. 
-Fisk, Benjamin, Boston. 
-Fuller, H. H. " 

-Foster, E. B. " 

Faxon, Nathaniel, " 
Fisher, Jabez, " 

-Fenno, J. W. " 

-French, Arthur, " 
.Fearing, A. C. " 

Francis, Nathaniel, " 
Foster, C. W. " 

Fisher, Jabez, Cambridgeport. 
Fisher, S. H. Brighton. 
Francis, David, " 
Fisher, Freeman, " 
Flagg, Josiah F. " 

Gray, John C. Boston. 
Gray, Francis C. " 
Greenleaf, Thomas, Quincy. 
Gourgas, J. 31. Weston. 
Green, Charles W. Roxbury. 
Gore, Watson, " 

Gannett, T. B. Cambridgeport. 
Gould, Daniel, Reading. 
Gardner, W. F. Sale?n. 
Gardner, Joshua, Dorchester. 
Goodwin, Thomas J. Charlestoicn. 
Guild, Benjamin, Boston. 
Gibbs,jjBenjamin, Cambridgeport. 
Grant, Benjamin B. Boston. 
Gould, Benjamin A. " 
Grant, B. B. " 

Gould, James, " 

Goodwin, Ozias, K 

Grew, Henry, " 

Gray, John, " 

Grosvenor, L. P. " 

Greenleaf, Samuel, " 
Greenleaf, Simon, Cambridge. 

Harris, Samuel D. Boston. 
Haskins, Ralph, Roxbury. 
Heard, John, jr. Boston. 
Hill, Jeremiah, " 
Hollingsworth, Mark, .Milton. 
Harris, William T. Cambridge. 
Holbrook, Amos, .Milton. 
Howe, Rufus, Dorchester. 
Hayden, John, Brookline. 
Howes, Frederick, Salem. 
Haggerston, David, Watertown. 
-Hunt, Ebenezer, Northampton. 
Howland, John, jr. New-Bedford. 
Hayward, George, Boston. 
Higginson, Henry, " 
Hall, Dudley, .Med ford. 
Hartshorn, Eliphalet P. Boston. 



35 



y./J 



Houghton, Abel, jr. Lynn. 

Hovey, P. B. jr. Cambridgeport. 
Hurd, William, Ckarlestown. 

Howe, Hall J. Boston. 

-Haskell, Elisha, " 

Hickling, Charles, " 
- Hicks, Zachariah, " 

Howard, Abraham, " 

■Hastings, Thomas, " 

Hastings, Oliver, East- Cambridge. 

-Hosmer, Z. '■' 

Henchman, D. Boston. 
-Hobart, Enoch, " 

Howe, S. L. Cambridge. 

Hodges, J. L. Taunton. 

Hedge, Isaac L. Plymouth. 
-Howard, Hepsy C. Boston. 
-Hill, S. G. 

Hovey, Charles M. Cambridgeport. 

Hayward, Charles, Boston. 

Hildrith, Charles, T. " 

Howe, Joseph N. jr. East- Cambridge. 
. Henshaw, John, Boston. 

Hall, Henry, " 

Hall, A. T. " 

Hay, Joseph, " 

Hobart, Nathaniel, « 

Hays, H. M. New-York. 

Hyde, Jonathan, Cambridge. 

Holbrook, Henry J. " 

Holbrook, S. W. « 

Hammond, Nathaniel, " 

Hayden, Frederick, Lincoln. 

Hyde, Samuel, jr. Newtown. 

Hammond, H. H. Lexington. 
-Harvard University, Cambridge. 

Ives, John M. Salem. 
-Inches, Henderson, Boston. 
-Ingalls, William, " 

-Inches, Elizabeth, " 

Jaques, Samuel, jr. Charlestoton. 

Johnson, Eliza, " 

Jones, Josiah M. Boston. 

Joy, Joseph B. " 

Joy, Joseph G. « 

Jackson, Patrick T. Boston. 

Jackson, James, " 

Johonnot, George S. Salem. 
-Jarves, Denring, Boston. 
-Jackson, C. T. « 
-Johnson, Otis, Lynn. 

Jones, L. D. New-Bedford. 

Josselyn, Lewis, Boston. 

Kenrick, William, Newton. 
King, John, Mcdford 
Kidder, Samuel, Ckarlestown. 
Kuhn, George H. Boston. 
Kendall, Abel, jr. " 
Kenrick, John A. Newton. 
Kuhn, John, Boston. 
Kenrick, Enoch B. Newton. 
-Kendall, Hezekiah S. Boston. 
Kendall, Hugh R. « 

Kinsley, Henry, East- Cambridge. 
^Kimball, Ebenezer, Cambridgeport. 

Lincoln, Levi, Worcester. 
Lincoln, W T illiam, " 
Lowell, John, Roxbury. 
Lee, Thomas, jr. " 
Lemist, John, " 

Lyman, Theodore, jr. Boston. 
Lowell, John A. « 



Lawrence, Abbott, Boston. 
Lyman, George W. " 
Lawrence, Charles, Salem. 
Leland, Daniel, Sherburne. 
Leland, J. P. ' « 
-Leonard, Thomas, Salem. 
-Lawrence, William, Boston. 
Lawrence, Amos, " 

Livermore, Isaac, Cambridgeport. 
"Loring, Josiah, Boston. 
Lowell, Charles, " 
Lamson, John, " 

Lynde, Seth S. " 

Lowell, Francis C. " 
Loring, Henry, " 

Lienow, Henry, " 
Loring, W. J. " 

Lang, William B. " 
-Lombard, N. K. " 
Lowell, John, jr. « 
Lane, Josiah, ** 

Lewis, S. S. « 

Loring, John F. « 
Lee, John, C. Salem. 
Leverett, F. P. Boston. 
Lamb, Reuben A. " 
Low, Francis, " 

Manning, Robert, Salem. 
Manners, George, Boston. 
Minns, Thomas, " 
Morrell, Ambrose, Lexington. 
Munroe, Jonas, " 

Mussey, Benjamin, " 
Motley, Edward, Boston. 
Mason, Lowell, " 

Montague, Wm. H. " 
Morse, S. F. « 

Means, James, « 

-Mills, James K. " 

Mackay, John, Boston. 
Mead, Isaac, Ckarlestown. 
Mead, Samuel O. West- Cambridge. 
McLellan Isaac, Boston. 
Merry, Robert D. C. « 
Marshall, William, " 

mson, Thomas, Ckarlestown. 
Motley, Thomas, Boston. 
Miller, Edward, " 

Mariner, Joseph, " 

Meldrum, Alexander, " 
Mason, Jeremiah, " 
Mears, James, « 

Mason, Thomas H. Ckarlestown. 

Newhall, Cheever, Dorchester. 
Nichols, Otis, " 

Nuttall, Thomas, Cambridge. 
Newell, Joseph R. Boston? 
Newhall, Josiah, Lynnfceld. 
Newman, Henry, Roxbury. 
1 Newell, Joseph W. Ckarlestown. 

Orrok, James L. P. Boston. 
Otis, Harrison G. " 

Oliver, Francis J. « 

Oliver, William, Dorchester. 
Oxnard, Henry, BrooMine. 
Oliver, Henry J. Boston. 

Perkins, Thomas II. Boston. 
Perkins, Samuel G. " 
Putnam, Jesse, « 

Pratt, George W. " 

Prescott, William, " 

Parsons, Gorham, Brighton* 



Hr I %s 



36 



Pettee, Otis, JVewton. 
Prince, John, Roxbury. 
Phinney, Elias, Lexington. 
Prince, John, jr. Salem. 
Peabody, Francis, " 
Perry, G. B. East-Bradford. 
Perry, John, Sherburne. 
Pond, Samuel, Cambridge-port. 
Paine, Robert Treat, Boston. 
Pond, Samuel M. Bucksport, Me. 
Prescott, C. H. Cornwallis, N. S. 
Parker, Daniel P. Boston. 
Pratt, William, jr. " 
Priest, John F. " 

Philbrick, Samuel, Brookline. 
Prouty, Lorenzo, Boston. 
Pickman, D. L. Salem. 
Phipps, Rufus T. Charlestown. 
Parker, Daniel, Boston. 
-Parkman, Daniel, " 
Patterson, Enoch, " 
Parker, Isaac, " 

Phillips, S. C. Salem. 
Pool, Ward, Danvers. 
Pierpont, John, Boston. 
Perkins, T. H. jr. " 
Parkman, Francis, " 
Pond, Samuel, jr. " 
Payne, W. E. " 

Preston, John, " 

Palfrey, John G. Cambridge. 
Putnam, Ebenezer, Salem. 
Pomroy, W. M. jr. " 
Paige, J. W. Boston. 
Phillips, John, Neio-York. 
Prichard, Mary, Boston, 
Power, Thomas, " 
Petton, Oliver, " 

Phelps, W. D. " 

Ouincy, Josiah, Cambridge. 
Quincy, Josiah, jr. Boston. 

Robbins, E. H. jr. Boston. 

Rollins, William, " 

Rice, John P. " 

Rice, Henry, " 

Read, James, Roxbury. 

Robbins, P. G. « 

Rollins, Ebenezer, Boston. 

Rowe, Joseph, Milton. 

Rogers, R. S. Salem. 

Rodman, Benjamin, New-Bedford. 

Rotch, William, jr. " 

Richardson, Nathan, South-Reading. 

Rand, Edward S. Newburyport. 

Richards, Edward M. Dedham. 

Randall, John, Boston. 

Russell, J. L. Salem. 

Russell, James, Boston. 

Raymond, E. A. " 

Robinson, Henry, " 

Russell, George, M. D. Lincoln. 

Rogerson, Robert, Boston. 

Rich, Benjamin, " 

Reynolds, Edward, " ' 

Ruggles, M. H. Troy. 

Read, George, Roxbury. 

Russell, Joseph, Boston. 

Reynolds, Edward, jr. Boston. 

Robbins, Chandler, " 

Silbsby, Enoch, Boston. 
Sullivan, Richard, Brookline. 
Senior, Charles, Roxbury. 
Sumner, William H. Dorchester. 



Sharp, Edward, Dorchester. 
Smith, Cyrus, Sandwich. 
Sutton, William, jr. Danvers. 
Story, F. H. Salem. 
Stedman, Josiah, Newton. 
Stearns, Charles, Springfield. 
Shurtleff, Samuel A. Boston. 
Springer, John, Sterling. 
Saltonstall, Leverett, Salem. 
Shaw, Lemuel, Boston. 
Smith, J. M. " 

Sisson, Freeborn, Warren, R. I. 

- Swift, Henry, Nantucket. 

Smith, Stephen H. Providence, R. L 
Swan, Daniel, Medford. 
Stone, Leonard, Watertown. 
Stone, William, " 
Stone, Isaac, " 

Story, Joseph, Cambridge. 
Shattuck, George C. Boston. 
Stanwood, William, " 
-Stanwood, David, " 
Sargent, L. M. " 

Stone, Henry B. " 

Simmons, D. A. Roxbury. 
Savage, James S. Boston. 
-Shaw, Robert G. " 
Sparks, Jared, " 

Savage, James, " 

Stone, P. R. L. " 

>Stearns, Asahel, Cambridge. 
-Stone, David, Boston. 
.Staples, Isaac, " 
-Shaw, C. B. " 

Skinner, Francis, " 
Swett, Samuel, " 
Stanwood, Lemuel " 
Stearns, Simon, " 
Sparhawk, E. C. " 

- Stetson, Joseph, Waltham. 
Sturgis, William, Boston. 
Simmons, William, " 
Stone, W. W. « 
.Smallwood, Thomas, Newton. 
Smith, M. Boston. 
Scudder, Charles, Boston. 

^Scudder, Horace, " 
-Sawyer, Amos, " 

Story, Ann D. Cambridgeport. 
Sargent, Ignatius, Boston. 
Salisbury, Samuel, " 
Smith, Thomas C. " 
Smith, Martin, " 

Smith, James A. " 

Simmons, Thomas, Roxbury. 
^Smith, Mehitable, Boston. 
Slade, John, jr. " 

Sampson, G. A. " 

Sheaf, Henry, " 

Stevens, Isaac, " 

Stearns, William, " 
Sweetser, Samuel, Cambridgeport. 
Skinner, John, Charlestown. 
*Steele, Gurdin, Boston. 

Tappan, Charles, Boston. 
Tidd, Jacob, Roxbury. 
Thompson, George, Medford. 
Train, Samuel, " 

Thorndike, Israel, Boston. 
Thwing, Supply C. Roxbury. 
Tucker, Richard D. Boston. 
Tilden, Joseph, " 

Toothey, Roderick, Waltham. 
Thomas, Benjamin, Hingham. 
Taylor, Charles, Dorchester. 



37 



V 



o^Tudor, Frederick, Boston. 
-Thayer, J. H. " 

-Thaclier, Peter O. " 

Tremlett, Thomas B. Dorchester. 
"Tuckerman, Joseph, Boston. 
-Taylor, J. W. " 

Tappan, John, " 

Thorndike, J. P. " 

Taylor, C. W. " 

Train, E. N. " 

Tufts, Joseph, jr. " 

Train, Enoch. " 

JTicknor, George, " 

Thayer, C. L. " 

-Townsend, J. P. " 

-•Tyler, John, " 

Tyler, George W. Charlestovm. 
-Toney, John T. Chelmsford. 
t-Jd -Tremont House Proprietors. 

Vose, Elijah, Dorchester. 
Vila, James, Boston. 

Williams, Nehemiah D. Roxbury. 
Wilder, M. P. Boston. 
Williams, Aaron D. Roxbury. 
Williams, Moses, " 

Williams, G. " 

Worthington, William, Dorchester. 
Webster, J. W. Cambridge. 
White, Abijah, Watertown. 
Williams, Samuel G. Boston. 
Wight, Ebenezer, " 

-Wyatt, Robert, ' " 

Winship, Jonathan, Brighton. 
Wilder, S. V. S. Bolton. 
Waldo, Daniel, Worcester. 
Wyeth, Nathaniel, jr. Cambridge. 
West, Thomas, Haverhill. 
Willard, Joseph, Lancaster. 
Whitmarsh, Samuel, Northampton. 
Whitmarsh, Thomas, Brookline. 
Warren, Jonathan, jr. Weston. 
Webster, Nathan, Haverhill. 



Wilson, John, Roxbury. 
White, Stephen, Boston. 
Webster, Daniel, " 
Ward, Richard, Roxbury. 
Weld, Aaron D. jr. Boston. 
Walker, Samuel, Roxbury, 

-Wells, Charles, Boston. 
Wbitwell, Samuel, " 
White, Benjamin F. " 
•Wiley, Thomas, Watertown. 
Wales, Thomas B. Beston. 
Ware, Henry, Cambridge. 
Waterhouse, Benjamin " 
Winship, Francis, Brighton. 
Weld, James, Boston. 

'■•Whittemore, George, Boston. 
Willett, Thomas, Charlestovm. 
Wolcott, Edward, Pawtucket. 
Williams, John, Cambridgcport. 
Ward, Malthus A. Salem. 
Winthrop, Thomas L. Boston. 
Wheelwright, Lot, jr. " 
Wheelwright, John F, Brighton. 
Weston, Ezra, jr. Boston. 

■ Wyman, Rufus, Charlestovm. 

, Watson, Elizabeth, Boston. 
Waldo, Henry S. « 

•Wilson, Robert, " 

-Ward, Thomas W. " 

,-• Whipple, W. J. Cambridge. 
Winchester, W. P. Boston. 
Warren, J. L. L. F. " 

Ware, John, " 

Wadsworth, Alexander, " 
Wait, R. G. " 

Waterson, Robert, " 

Watts, Francis, " 

Woodberry, John, " 

Whitney, Joseph, " 

Williams, Isaac, " 

Willard, Solomon, " 

/Woodman, David, " 

Warren, Jonas, Weston. 







HONORARY MEMBERS. 



ADAMS, Hon. JOHN QUINCY, late President of the United States. 

AITON, WILLIAM TOWNSEND, Curator of the Royal Gardens, Kew. 

ABBOT, JOHN, Esq. Brunswick, Me. 

ABBOT, BENJAMIN, LL. D. Principal of Phillips Academy, Exeter, N. H. 

BUEL, J. Esq. President of the Albany Horticultural Society. 

BODIN, Le Chevalier SOULANGE, Secretaire-General de la Societe 
d'Horticulture de Paris. 

BANCROFT, EDWARD NATHANIEL, M. D. President of the Horti- 
cultural and Agricultural Society of Jamaica. 

BARCLAY, ROBERT, Esq. Great-Britain. 

BEEKMAN, JAMES, New-York. 

BARBOUR, P. P. Virginia. 

BLAPIER, LEWIS, Philadelphia. 

COXE, WILLIAM, Esq. Burlino-ton, New-Jersey. 

COLLINS, ZACCHEUS, Esq. President of the Pennsylvania, Horticul- 
tural Society, Philadelphia. 

COFFIN, Admiral Sir ISAAC, Great-Britain. 



H if 



38 



CHAUNCY, ISAAC, United States Navy, Brooklyn, New-York. 

CLAY, HENRY", Kentucky. 

DICKSON, JAMES, Esq. Vice-President of the London Horticultural 
Society. 

DE CANDOLLE, Moss. ANGUSTIN PYRAMUS, Professor of Botany 
in the Academy of Geneva. 

De La SAGRA, Don RAMON. Cuba. 

ELLIOTT, Hox. STEPHEN, Charleston, S. C. 

EVERETT, HORACE, Vermont. 

EVANSON, CHARLES ALLAN, Secretary of King's County Agricul- 
tural Society, St. Johns. New-Brunswick. 

ELLIOT, JESSE D. United States Navy. 

FALDERMANN, F. Curator of the Imperial Botanic Garden, at St. Pe- 
tersburg. 

FISCHER, Dr. Professor of Botany, of the Imperial Botanic Garden, at 
St. Petersburg. 

GALES, JOSEPH, jr. Vice-President of the Washington Horticultural 
Society. Washington. 

GOULDSBOROUGH, ROBERT H. Maryland. 

GREIG, JOHN, Esq. Geneva, President of the Domestic Horticultural 
Society of the Western part of the State of New-York. 

GORE, Mrs. REBECCA, Waltham. 

GRIFFITHS. Mrs. MARY, Charlies Hope, New-Jersey. 

GIRARD, STEPHEN. Philadelphia. 

GIBBS, GEORGE. Sunswick, New-York. 

HERICART DE THURY, Le Vicomte, President de la Societe d'Hor- 
ticulture de Paris. » 

HOSACK, DAVID, M. D. President of the New-York Horticultural 
Society. 

HOPKIRK, THOMAS, Esq. President of the Glasgow Horticultural 
Society. 

HUNT, LEWIS, Esq. Huntsburo-, Ohio. 

HILDRETH, S. P. Marietta. Ohio. 

INGERSOLL, JAMES R. President of the Horticultural Society of Penn- 
sylvania, Philadelphia. 

JACKSON, ANDREW, President of the United States. 

JOHONNOT, Mrs. MARTHA. Salem. 

KNIGHT, THOMAS ANDREW, Esq. President of the London Horti- 
cultural Society. 

LOUDON, JOHN CLAUDIUS, Great-Britain. 

LAFAYETTE, General, La Grange, France. 

LASTEYRIE, Le Comte de, Vice-President de la Societe d'Horticulture 
de Paris. 

LITCHFIELD, FRANKLIN, Consul of the United States at Porto Cabello. 

LORRILLARD, JACOB, President of the New-York Horticultural Soci- 
ety, New-York. 

LONGSTRETH, JOSHUA, Philadelphia. 

LONGWORTH, NICHOLAS, Cincinnati. 

MADISON, Hon. JAMES, late President of the United States, Virginia. 

MONROE, Hon. JAMES, late President of the United States, " 

MICHAUX, Mo>-s. F. ANDREW, Paris. 

MENTENS, LEWIS JOHN, Esq. Bruxelles. 

MITCHELL. SAMUEL L., M. D. New-York. 

MOSSELLMANN, , Esq. Antwerp. 

MERCER, Hon. CHARLES F. Virginia. 

M'CAULEY, D. SMITH, Consul General United States, Tripoli. 

OTTENFELS, Baron, Austrian Minister to the Ottoman Porte. 

POITEAU, Professor of the Institut Horticole de Fromont. 

POWELL. JOHN HARE, Powellton. Pennsylvania. 

PRINCE, WILLIAM, Esq. Long-Island, New-York. 






H i6 



39 



PRATT, HENRY, Philadelphia. 

PALMER, JOHN, Esq. Calcutta. 

ROSEBERRY, ARCHIBALD JOHN, Earl of, President of the Cale- 
donian Horticultural Society. 

SABINE, JOSEPH, Esq. Secretary of the London Horticultural Society. 

SHEPHERD, JOHN, Curator of the Botanic Garden, Liverpool. 

SCOTT, SIR WALTER, Scotland. 

SKINNER, JOHN S. Baltimore. 

TURNER, JOHN, Assistant Secretary of the London Horticultural So- 
ciety. 

THACHER, JAMES, M. D. Plymouth. 

THORBURN, GRANT, Esq. New- York. 

TALIAFERRO, JOHN, Virginia. 

THOURS, M. Du Petit, Paris, Professor Poiteau of the Institut Horticole 
de Fromont. 

TOWSON, NATHANIEL, President of the Washington Horticultural 
Society, Washington. 

VILMORIN, Mons. PIERRE PHILLIPPE ANDRE, Paris. 

VAUGHAN, BENJAMIN, Esq. Hallowell, Maine. 

VAN MONS, JEAN BAPTISTE, M. D. Brussels. 

VAUGHAN, PETTY, Esq. London. 

VAN RENSELLAER, STEPHEN, Albany. 

VAN ZANDT, JOSEPH R. Albany. 

VANDERBURG, FEDERAL, M. D. New-York. 

WELLES, Hon. JOHN, Boston. 

WILLICK, NATHANIEL, M. D. Curator of the Botanic Garden, Cal- 
cutta. 

WADSWORTH, JAMES, Geneseo, New-York. 

WARD, MALTHUS, A. College, Athens, Georgia. 

WOLCOTT, FREDERICK, Litchfield, Connecticut. 

YATES, ASHTON, Esq. Liverpool. 



CORRESPONDING MEMBERS. 

ADLUM, JOHN, Georgetown, District of Columbia. 
ASPINWALL, Col. THOMAS, United States Consul, London. 
APPLETON, THOMAS, Esq. United States Consul, Leghorn. 

ALPEY 

AQUILAR, DON FRANCISCO, of Moldonoda, in the Banda Oriental, 

Consul of the United States. 
BARNET, ISAAC COX, Esq. United States Consul, Paris. 
BURTON, ALEXANDER, United States Consul, Cadiz. 
BULL, E. W. Hartford, Connecticut. 
CARR, ROBERT, Esq. Philadelphia. 
COLVILLE, JAMES, Chelsea, England. 
CARNES, FRANCIS G. Paris. 
DEERING, JAMES, Portland, Maine. 
EMMONS, EBENEZER, M. D. Williamstown. 
FLOY, MICHAEL, New-York. 
FOX, JOHN, Washington, District of Columbia. 
FELLOWS, NATHANIEL, Cuba. 
FOSTER, WILLIAM REDDING, Baltimore. 
GARDINER, ROBERT H. Esq. Gardiner, Maine. 
GIBSON, ABRAHAM P. United States Consul, St. Petersburg, 
GARDNER, BENJAMIN, United States Consul, Palermo. 



*f/0 



40 

HALL, CHARLES HENRY, Esq. New-York. 

HAY, JOHN, Architect of the Caledonian Horticultural Society. 

HALSEY, ABRAHAM, Corresponding Secretary of the New- York Hor- 
ticultural Society. New-\ork. 

HARRIS, Rev. T. M., D. D. Dorchester. 

HUNTER, , Baltimore. 

HOGG, THOMAS, New-York. 

HENRY, BERNARD, Gibraltar. 

HITCHCOCK, I. I. Baltimore. 

LANDRETH, DAVID, jr. Esq. Corresponding Secretary of the Pennsyl- 
vania Horticultural Society. 

LEONARD, E. S. H.. M. D. Providence. 

MAURY, JAMES, Esq. late United States Consul, Liverpool. 

MILLER, JOHN, M. D. Secretary of the Horticultural and Agricultural 
Society, Jamaica. 

MILLS, STEPHEN, Esq. Long-Island, New- York. 

MELVILLE, ALLAN, New-York. 

M 'LEAY, WILLIAM SHARP. 

NEWHALL, HORATIO, M. D. Galena, Illinois. 

OFFLEY, DAVID, Esq. United States Consul, Smyrna. 

OMBROSI, JAMES, United States Consul, Florence. 

PARKER, JOHN, Esq. United States Consul, Amsterdam. 

PAYSON, JOHN L. Esq. Messina. 

PORTER, DAVID. Washinoton. 

PRINCE, WILLIAM ROBERT, Esq. Long-Island, New-York - 

PRINCE, ALFRED STRATTON, Long-Island. 

PERRY, M. C. United States Navy, Charlestown. 

PALMER, JOHN J. New-York. 

ROGERS, WILLIAM S. United States Navy, Boston. 

REYNOLDS, M. D. Schenectady, New-Y r ork. 

ROGERS, J. S. Hartford, Connecticut. 

RICHARDS, JOHN H. Paris. 

ROTCH, THOMAS, Philadelphia. 

SHALER WILLIAM, United States Consul-General, Cuba. 

SMITH, DANIEL D. Esq. Burlington, New-Jersey. 

SMITH, GIDEON B. Baltimore. 

SHAW, WILLIAM, New-York. 

STRONG, Judo-e, Rochester, New-York. 

STEPHENS, THOMAS HOLDUP, United States Navy, Middletown,. 
Connecticut. 

SMITH, CALEB R. Esq. New- Jersey. 

SPRAGUE. HORATIO, United States Consul, Gibraltar. 

SUMMKREST, FRANCIS. 

STRANGE WAY, WILLIAM FOX, British Secretary of Legation at 
Naples. 

THORBURN, GEORGE C. New-York. 

TILLSON, JOHN, jr. Illinois. 

TENORE, Professor, Director of the Botanical Garden at Naples. 

WILSON, WILLIAM, New-York. 

WINGATE, J. F. Bath, Maine. 

WINGATE, JOSHUA, Portland. 

WINTHROP, JOSEPH AUGUSTUS, South-Carolina. 



H.<7 



DISCOURSE 



DELIVERED BEFORE THE 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY, 



ON THE CELEBRATION OF ITS 



SEVENTH ANNIVERSARY, 



SEPTEMBER 17, 1S35. 



BY JOHN LEWIS RUSSELL. 



BOSTON: 
PRINTED BY J. T. BUCKINGHAM. 

M DCCC XXXV. 



fti 



H.if 



DISCOURSE 



Mr. President, 

AND GkNTLEMEN OF THE 

Massachusetts Horticultural Society,-^ 

On this returning Annual Festival of Horticulture 
in Massachusetts, it falls to my lot to congratulate 
you on the progress of our favorite pursuits* I stand 
here, then, honored by the choice of this Society for 
that purpose, on an occasion, hailed with pleasure, 
by every member ; and younger in years, if not alto- 
gether in experience, than those who have preceded 
me in the same duty. In these relations, I therefore 
anticipate your sympathy and attention. 

The science of Horticulture is based on the knowl- 
edge and uses of plants, as conducive to the physical 
wants or more remote luxuries of man. It therefore 
pre-supposes the study of those living beings, and em- 
braces the science of Botany. The first rudiments 
of that science may be traced to the primeval ages? 
when the wants of men were of the most simple 
kind, confined to mere subsistence. Amid the luxu- 
riant productions of a tropical climate, and in the 
comparative infancy of the world, it must have re- 
quired little else than an almost intuitive knowledge of 
noxious or wholesome food to supply every want. 
Thus we read, that the progenitors of the human 



$5j> 



race were placed in a garden, and their occupation its 
care. The same duty has devolved, in all its fresh- 
ness and interest, on their descendants, unimpaired 
by time, or the changes of matter. It is, Gen- 
tlemen, a striking and happy argument of the value 
of your profession, that you are thus able to restore 
to a deluged and overthrown world its former beauty 
and glory. 

The progress of Botany was, for centuries, slow. 
With the increase of the human family, arose an in- 
creased want of subsistence. Such is its brief early 
history. The method of appropriating to the sus- 
tenance and support of the physical system, the va- 
rious articles of food, and in what manner delete- 
rious substances were discriminated from salutary, is 
a curious question in the history of man. Thus 
later experience has proved that some of the most 
noxious plants may become, by the process of art, 
wholesome and nutritious. The fresh juice of the 
" Jatropha Manihot " is of a highly poisonous quali- 
ty ; but, expressed from the root, renders it one of the 
most nutritive articles of food. To the Solanese we 
owe some of the most valuable vegetables, while 
many species of the family are decidedly injurious. 
The well-known qualities of the Umbelliferae are fa- 
miliar to every one, as combining both medicine and 
poison, the active agents of health and death. The 
*Parsnep and fCarrot, both valuable, in their cultivat- 
ed state, as articles of food, and in rural economy, 
are yet troublesome and noxious weeds, as natural- 
ized species in our fields : whereas the Cereal plants 

* Pastinaca sativa. t Daucus carota. 



Ui 



are, with a single exception,* all nutritious and 
wholesome, and probably attracted the attention of 
mankind at a very early period. Through the inat- 
tention of man to any thing except that which de- 
pended on his immediate physical wants, and this at 
first from imperious necessity, and then from careless 
indifference, the very native countries of many of our 
now valued plants are unknown. The potato, so 
generally cultivated over the civilized world, in its 
endless varieties, was, for a long time, lost as a spe- 
cies, until very recent discoveries have detected it in 
South-America, as an almost worthless plant.f The 
effect of soil, climate and other circumstances, on the 
vegetable kingdom, seem a wise provision of Nature, 
in favor of the industry and enterprise of man ; but, 
although thus liberal in her gifts, she retains the right 
of reducing to original forms, these very changes, 
when uncontrolled by art. 

However interesting such inquiries may be, it is 
equally vain as idle, to enter into speculations on 
these points, as conjectures and theory must necessa- 
rily supply the want of truth. 

From mere articles indispensable for food and nu- 
triment, the vegetable kingdom became subservient 
to the luxury of the human race, and rare and cu- 
rious plants, and their cultivation, were sought out, 
to add comfort and beauty to necessity. The sacred 
scriptures give us vivid descriptions of the advance of 
Horticultural taste and knowledge among the Jewish 
nation, and the relics of antiquity serve to show that 

* Lolium temulentum. 

t Journal of Science and Arts: London, No. 31, pp. 252—3. Ibid. No. 19, pp. 25— 7. 
Edinburgh Philosophical Journal, Vol. XVI. p. 192. 



fA>- 



6 



the culture of plants was carried far beyond the sim- 
ple provision against physical wants. It is presuma- 
ble, however, that these first attempts of horticultu- 
ral pursuits were necessarily rude and imperfect. 
The histories of those ancient Gardens, the pride of 
Oriental magnificence, seem to imply more the spirit 
of architectural grandeur than the cultivation of the 
soil. 

The study of Vegetables, as a science, and reduc- 
ed to methodical arrangement, did not occupy the at- 
tention of the world until a very late period. Indeed, 
any existing regard to that subject was chiefly con- 
fined to the more useful, or those of reputed medical 
virtues, even to the sixteenth century, when Botanic 
Gardens were first introduced ; and the earliest works 
may be referred to about that period. The tedious 
progress which Botany made, the repetition of an- 
cient errors, the dissensions among the fathers of that 
branch of natural science, are familiar to every stu- 
dent of Nature. A new era of light and truth com- 
menced under the labors of Linnaeus ; and since then 
there have been continued advancing developments 
of both useful and interesting facts relative to the 
history of the vegetable world. 

Horticulture, in its restricted sense, has reference 
only to the production of the garden. It is the hap- 
py combination of Art with Nature, seizing upon the 
phenomena of her laws, and producing from her ab- 
errations and occasional seeming sportiveness, new 
and curious results. Hence, it is intimately connect- 
ed with every science which can afford any assistance 
in arriving at such results, but more particularly with 



7 

Botany and the study of the physical structure of 
Plants. 

Horticulture is Art co-operating with Nature : Na- 
ture ! the perfection and excellence of whose opera- 
tions we all instinctively admire : — that admiration 
which is early implanted in every human breast, but 
which education and a thousand fortuitous circum- 
stances of the world too often serve to extinguish — 
an admiration and love for the good and beautiful, 
which was undoubtedly given for the wisest purposes, 
and which, duly improved and cultivated, is of the great- 
est benefit. A spirit of a high and pure character, 
with which every reasoning being is endowed — that 
seeks and finds exquisite pleasure in all that is exalt- 
ing in the works of Creative Power. Memory ever 
delights to revert to those joyous, early days, when, 
to all of us, every thing w r as serene around and with- 
in ; and gladly would renew its communion with that 
quiet which her operations then afforded. It is thus 
that the garden possesses such attractive charms — 
that amidst the collected beauties and rich treasures 
of the Floral kingdom which we there find, we retire 
for calm reflection or sober thought. Its very occu- 
pation is conducive to moral and intellectual refine- 
ment. In rearing some delicate and frail flower, in 
watching its gradually developing parts, the young 
and verdant leaf, the lengthening stem, the curious 
bud, the wonderful blossom, its singular economy for 
continued existence, the decaying and fading foliage, 
and the sleep of temporary death — how many pleasing 
moments are passed, how many wise thoughts excit- 
ed, lessons of duty and of deep instruction, given 



tfjvl 



8 



with a thrilling pathos to the heart, imbibed. These 
are the eloquent pleadings of Nature, speaking in a 
silent, but fervent language, to every reflecting mind. 
Beings of a delicate and less gross composition, or- 
ganized with a seemingly more exquisite design, they 
address themselves, in their lowliness or magnificence, 
to our attention with an unanswerable force. It is a 
fact, no less curious than interesting, that a passion- 
ate fondness for the Garden has been observed in very 
many great men ; and in the quiet seclusion which 
one may find there, have originated works, the aston- 
ishment of the world. That touching lesson, too, of 
confidence in a Superior Power, which the exquisite 
beauty of a small moss on the arid plains of an Afri- 
can desert, gave to an enterprising traveler, at a time 
when every circumstance seemed conspired against 
him, by imparting a new energy to his mind, and for- 
titude to his heart, saved to the world an invaluable 
life ;* and many a high resolve or virtuous decision 
has undoubtedly owed its origin and performance to 
such silent monitors of good. 

Horticulture, in its most extended sense, embraces 
the first and most simple operation of civilized life, 
and, at the same time, constitutes one of the highest 
subjects for the ingenuity of the mind. He that 
committed the first seed to the earth, with the ex- 
pectation of again receiving it many fold, employed 
his reason and faculties in the primary rudiment of 
that science : but for many long ages were the mys- 
terious, yet immutable laws which gave development 
and increase to the embryo germ, hidden from the 



* Lifex»f Mungo Park. Family Library, Vol. XL, 



YjLt 



9 

eyes, and concealed from the understanding of man ; 
and many vet are the nice and curious operations of 
those self-same laws, unknown and unexplored. So 
extensive, indeed, is the field of every science which 
holds connexion with, or is founded on, the Natural 
world, so boundless the perfections of Creative 
Power. 

Horticulture may be defined as theoretical and 
practical. Theoretical Horticulture comprises Sys- 
tematic and Physiological Botany. Practical Horti- 
culture arrives at certain ends, by former well-known 
means, or appropriates the results of the labors and 
investigations of others, without necessarily under- 
standing on what those investigations were founded. 
Theoretical Horticulture operates on the vegetable 
world as does the Animal Physiologist in his depart- 
ment of study, probes the operations of Nature, tra- 
ces the reason of this result, or that fact, becomes 
acquainted with the great moving principle of life and 
energy, can appropriate to its use, and bend to its 
service, Nature herself, by carrying out, as it were, 
her very designs with a more or less rapid progress. 
Practical Horticulture may be ignorant of every one 
such principle, treasures up truths only by results, ac- 
quires knowledge as simple facts, and is confined in 
its operations. Horticulture is practical in its infan- 
cy, becomes theoretical in its advancing and gradual 
growth. 

At the head of Systematic Botany stands the im- 
mortal Linnaeus. This remarkable man, whose name 
and works are so familiar to every naturalist, rose 
like a luminary over the dark clouds of misnomered 



"fx^ 



10 



Natural History, and was to that branch of knowl- 
edge what was Newton to Natural Philosophy, the 
regenerator of truth. Since his time, the vegetable 
kingdom has been minutely attended to and investi- 
gated, and from the important and patient labors of its 
numerous votaries have accrued immense benefits to 
the civilized world, in almost every department of 
human industry and skill. 

The necessity of a knowledge of Systematic and 
Physiological Botany to the Horticulturist, is almost 
too evident for demonstration. The Botanical Gar- 
dener, and he alone, is the Theoretical Horticulturist. 
The taste for that science but seems to strengthen 
the passion for his profession. The accuracy of its 
operations, and the necessity for the most minute 
investigation in the arrangement of plants, would 
serve to improve his own love for them. To the 
Florist, particularly, is this observation of importance. 
The simplicity of Nature is overlooked in too many 
instances for the more gaudy and dazzling productions 
of art. Among the supposed treasures of collections, 
in vain may one seek for some species, till at length, 
disappointed in his search, he finds it under the dis- 
guise of an anomalous character, in some mutilated 
hybrid, or monstrous development. Our floriculture 
needs thus a cautious but reforming hand ; a substi- 
tution of some of that zeal for new and foreign ec- 
centricities of floral skill by a closer attention to the 
rich native treasures of our own smiling fields and 
verdant meadows, of our forest-clad mountains and 
limpid streams, and an endeavor to take a deeper 
interest in Nature, as she is. She recognizes, it is 



^7 



ii 



true, none of the artificial distinctions of science ; — 
but what superfluous production of this or that organ, 
what operation of art by the curious effects of culti- 
vation, can exceed the simple beauty of a permanent 
species. What skill has imitated or excelled the 
vivid glory of the ^Cardinal Flower, mocking the 
dyes of the painter? what perfection superadded to 
the fwhite water-lily of unrivalled purity, floating 
amidst its broad protecting shield-like leaves? Does 
that little harbinger of our lingering northern springs, 
J the pale liverwort, which dares to tell us of the 
coming sunny days, appear more interesting to the 
cultivated and refined eye, because art has succeed- 
ed in producing a few more petals, by the destruc- 
tion of its tiny filaments, which otherwise contrast so 
delicately with them? The almost endless varieties 
which have sprung into existence, in the floral de- 
partment, it has been asserted, has given alarm to 
system-makers and scientific men. Whether this be 
so or not, the too prevailing taste for variety is the 
more to be lamented than deprecated ; and it becomes 
the endeavors of every learned and enterprising So- 
ciety, founded for the encouragement and pursuit of 
horticultural skill, and a taste for gardening, to form 
a new standard of merit or value for the subjects of 
its pursuits. Did Fashion, that mighty potentate 
over human society, sanction the taste for the pure 
simplicity of Nature, and were plants admired for 
their intrinsic value rather than as artificial produc- 
tions, there would be as much satisfaction, not to say 
more intellectual improvement, in that taste which 

* Lobelia Cardinalis. f Nymphrea Odorata. J Hepatica triloba. 



^fxt 



12 



dictates her study ; and our gardens and conservato- 
ries would shine conspicuously by the harmonious 
blending of true species with curious and costly va- 
rieties. The perfection of her works is lost in the 
mutilations of art. We can admire a fine column, 
or gaze with just admiration on a splendid edifice; 
but even these shrink in comparison, and cannot bear 
the test of her unrivalled skill. If we carry our op- 
erations into her precincts, we cannot improve, we 
must mar. 

But, while thus advocating a more general intro- 
duction and cultivation of species, it would be equal- 
ly wrong, as presumptous, to deny, altogether, the 
merits of horticultural skill, in the production of hy- 
brids, or varieties. For splendid ornament, a group of 
many-petalled flowers is, indeed, more gaudily attrac- 
tive, for its borrowed excellence, than the simple pro- 
totype of a genus ; and, undoubtedly, could he,* 
whose name is borne down to posterity by a single 
but universal favorite flower, witness the wonderful 
changes which have taken place in its organization, 
now bearing the envious title of some peerless beauty 
or mighty conqueror, he would scarcely recognize the 
unpretending inhabitant of a Mexican clime. The 
modest violet is still now, as ever, attractive in its 
meek humility ; and the first vernal harbinger, with 
the last lingering blossoms of a fading year, are and 
ever will be of more intense interest in their native, 
unadorned simplicity, as monitors or promisors of 
what has past or is to come. 

Botany is not, however, by any means confined to 



* Dalil. 



¥x f 



13 



nomenclature or the dry detail of species, nor yet to 
the exclusive admiration of these alone. From the 
patient research and splendid discoveries of modern 
science we have arrived at new and unexpected results. 
By these has Horticulture been materially improved, 
both in England and France. Theoretical and prac- 
tical gardening have united in their labors. The re- 
markable success, which has crowned the studies and 
pursuits of scientific men, in both these countries, by 
the introduction, and we may almost say, creation of 
new valuable fruits and culinary vegetables, is an ar- 
gument sufficiently strong in favor of such knowl- 
edge. If the names of these early introducers of 
fruits from foreign climes have been transmitted to 
posterity for such deeds, rather than for other distin- 
guished services, how much greater the debt of grat- 
itude for that industry which has converted the acerb 
and rude pericarp of many a tree, or the negative 
quality of many a seed, into delicious and nutritious 
articles of food ? Such was not the effect of accident : 
these results were the reward of minute investiga- 
tion of the secret operations of Nature. The world 
will, no doubt, be slow in appreciating their merit, 
because it is the very nature of things that the more 
dazzling commands ready homage. Fortunately, such 
truly patriotic actions need not the loud trump of 
Fame to sound their praise ; they bring an inward 
and lasting satisfaction of greater value. 

Vegetable physiology is peculiarly the subject of the 
skillful gardener's study. This, his various occupa- 
tions will show. What errors have been committed 
by the ignorant in every department of horticultural 



H3n> 

14 

employments. To deprive a fine tree or vigorous plant 
of its leaves and branches, those curious laboratories 
by which its great vital operations are effected — with 
violence to tear its no less curiously formed roots and 
delicate spongioles, and then bid it. grow in undimin- 
ished strength, for a long time obtained among us, 
and too many there are yet who lend a deaf ear to 
any other doctrine. With what absurd theories do 
we not daily meet, in regard to the functions of the 
sap, and the part it performs in the vegetable econ- 
omy ! What amazing errors are transmitted, with 
faithful care, from generation to generation, respect- 
ing the influence of this or that plant, insect or an- 
imal ! How little is known of the true theory of 
nutritious substances to the living plant, and of the 
manner of their operations ! What mistakes occur 
from some false theory originating in prejudice ! How 
many are there, w r ho can refer to first causes the 
occurrence of the insidious mildew, or the rapidly 
destructive blight, spreading like a baneful fire over 
the fairest productions of the garden ! How many 
questions, w T hich some strange development of fruit 
and flower call up, are still unanswerable ! What is 
known of the secretory and excretory functions of 
plants, and their influence on vegetation ? Nor is it 
necessary to multiply examples or adduce illustra- 
tions ; they are familiar to every scientific cultivator. 
It may, perhaps, be improper to speak of the ad- 
vantages, which have arisen from the past labors of 
this Society in the promotion of horticultural knowl- 
edge. Let rather its deeds proclaim its due praise. 
But, connected with one of its primary objects should 



¥31 



15 



be a renewed effort to institute an Experimental Gar- 
den, solely devoted to the end of horticultural skill. 
The peculiar adaptation of our climate to the increase 
and general introduction of many foreign varieties of 
fruits and plants seem to demand from our own efforts 
some adequate return. Our own resources need in- 
vestigation. That we have talent, enterprise, and 
every desired means, cannot be questioned. The 
present field of operation is too extensive. It needs 
combined effort, where the skill and science of every 
votary of the art, or amateur in the profession, can 
be united and appropriated. To the fruit-grower this 
is evident ; and a better opportunity of comparing 
the synonymy of pretended valuable varieties and the 
reduction to a perfect system of such only as are 
worthy his attention, is much needed. To the dis- 
appointment, he has often experienced and must con- 
tinually experience by the most unwarrantable errors, 
he is too familiar. With such means, our work, Gen- 
tlemen, will be effective, and the brilliant individual 
talent, now as it were almost hopelessly lost or not 
sufficiently brought into action, will be concentrated 
to its full energy. There is, perhaps, no branch of 
Horticulture which needs so much correction as does 
this. Owing to various practices, our catalogues of 
fruits are but so many lists of misnomers and long- 
standing errors. It is the duty of scientific institu- 
tions, like our own, to correct this abuse. Much has 
already been done in England, but much more re- 
mains to be accomplished. In no better place, nor 
under no more propitious circumstances, could this be 
effected than by our efforts. By critical examination. 



¥3 0. 



16 



conducted on the true principles of vegetable organ- 
ography, — by the comparison of living specimens, an 
Experimental Garden affords every assistance. The 
effect of soil, exposure, and each modifying accident, 
which influence the productions of fruit, could be 
thoroughly analyzed. A correct list, suitable for cul- 
tivation, not only of our own but other countries, 
might be formed, — a single item, worthy in itself of 
united labor and enterpriser* The promotion of that 
spirit of improvement, which elevates the standard 
of taste for the excellent and beautiful by an atten- 
tion to rural studies, is at all times highly commend- 
able ; but the promotion of the spirit of utility should 
surely be combined with it. With these views, may 
this Society take a noble stand, and the diffusion of 
correct principles in practical knowledge be one of 
its desired ends ; — a high and prevailing emulation 
among its members of conferring deep and lasting 
benefits on mankind, by the earnest search after 
Truth. 

The review of the past year is such as to encour- 
age us in our efforts. The weekly exhibitions at 
the Society's Rooms have afforded specimens of 
taste, skill, and enterprise. The establishment of 
two Magazines,* devoted to Horticulture, speaks 
highly in favor of an increasing taste in the commu- 
nity. The list of new members, the remembrance 
of those abroad in valuable donations, evince a good 
state of things, and a degree of prosperity ever to 
be desired. May the vigorous efforts, which have 



* American Gardener's Magazine, by C. M. &. P. B. Hovey, jr. Horticultural Register 
and Gardener's Magazine, by T. G. Fessenden & J. E. Teshemacher. 



4 33 

17 

crowned with success a society of seven years stand- 
ins: be still undiminished and further increased. 

History informs us that the use of fruits and flow- 
ers, as ornaments of beauty, as garlands of victory, 
for festive occasions, for the purposes of Religion, 
and for the last sad duties of sepulture, was almost 
coeval with the human race ; and some of these cus- 
toms still exist. Under the benign influences of a 
purer faith, in a place once dedicated to the dramatic 
art, but since consecrated to sacred purposes, w T e 
have decorated these walls with festive garlands, and 
spread before you the rich bounties of the seasons. 
Centuries have not broken the common bond of feel- 
ing, which prompts the taste for the beautiful and 
innocent in Nature. But in our admiration of the 
treasures of Flora and Pomona, let us not be unmind- 
ful of Nature's Great Author ! 



i 3 4 



fss 



SEVENTH ANNIVERSARY 



OF THE 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



The Annual Exhibition of Fruits and Flowers, of the Massa- 
chusetts Horticultural Society, took place on Wednesday the 
16th and Thursday the 17th September; and the place selected 
was the Odeon, situated in Federal-street, in Boston. The area 
having on this occasion been cleared, formed by a slight but new 
arrangement, a magnificent Hall, of lofty height, and spacious 
dimensions, with a'skylight in the centre. The gallery leading 
from the vestibule, being closely studded on either side with 
pines, formed like a forest, a dark but pleasing avenue of en- 
trance. 

The fruits, which were on this occasion exhibited, were al- 
together uncommonly fine, and of kinds and of qualities superior 
to those of former years. And the display of the flowers and 
the fruits, and the skillful arrangement of the whole, in all its 
parts, produced an effect confessedly surpassing any thing of the 
kind before witnessed. 

We remarked that the exhibition, and by far the most invalu- 
able specimens and varieties of flowers, and more especially of 
fruits, consisted of new kinds, in very great proportion ; — or, of 
those kinds mostly which, ten or twelve years ago, were unknown 
to our country, even in name. Thanks to those enlightened in- 
dividuals, who with untiring zeal have ransacked earth, recalling 
home to their country all that might serve to adorn, and all that 
might be eminently useful, for trial in our climate, and on our 
highly favored shores. 

The days of exhibition were unusually fine, and the concourse 
of visitors very numerous, both from the city, and from various 
and remote parts of the country. 

On the second day, a discourse was delivered at the Odeon, 
by Professor J. L. Russell of Salem. 

The following is the account of the exhibition of Fruits : — 

By E. Vose of Dorchester, President of the Society — Pears : 
Bartlett, Passe Colmar, Tillington, Urbaniste, Wilkinson, Cush- 



'*fii 



20 



ing, Capiaumont, Marie Louise, Lewis, Mouille Bouche, or 
Verte Longue. Peaches : Grosse Mignonne, Early York. Mel- 
ons : Persian Muskmelon, Green fleshed Cantaloupe. Also, a 
basket of various kinds of fine fruit. 

R. Manning of Salem — Pears: Summer Rose, Bovvdoin, Ray- 
mond, Saunders's Beurre, St. Ghislain, Autumn Superb, Ron- 
ville, Buffum, Cushing, Verte Longue, Lowrie's Bergamotte, 
Washington, Pope's Scarlet Major, Julienne. — Plums: Breevort's 
Purple Bolrner, Late Green Gage. — Apples : Rambour Franc, 
Alexander, Lyscom, New American Crab. 

Samuel Philbrick of Brookline — Pears: Bezi Vaet, Andrews, 
Capiaumont, Colmar Souverain, Verte Longue, Wilkinson, 
Washington, Seckel. — Rareripe Peaches. 

Nathaniel Davenport of Milton — Chelmsford Pears : Snow 
Peaches. 

A. D. Williams of Roxbury — Pears : Capiaumont. Apples : 
Porter, and three handsome varieties of the Red. Peaches : 
Golden, Purple Clingstone. 

Samuel Downer of Dorchester — Pears : Bezi Vaet, Napoleon, 
Beurre Diel, Fulton, Bleecker's Meadow, Capiaumont, Lewis, 
Andrews, Urbaniste, Cushing, Heathcot, D'Aremberg, which 
has sometimes been confounded with the Gloux Morceau, St. 
Ghislain, Lowell, Williams's Bon Chretien, (Bartlett,) Catillac, 
Iron Pear, Beurre Knox, and branches of the same, Seckel, and 
branches of do., Crassnne, Golden Beurre of Dr. Holbrook. Ap- 
ples : Fine Red, Old Pearmain, Pumpkin Sweet, Porter, Ram's 
Horn, (fine red,) Fall Pippin, Red Siberian Crab and Yellow Si- 
berian Crab, with branches of both varieties, Lady Apple, None- 
such, Winter Sweet. 

Joshua Gardner of Dorchester — Apples: Fall Pippin, and 
branches of Siberian Crab. Pears : Seckle. 

Marshall P. Wilder of Dorchester — Williams's Bon Chretien, 
(Bartlett,) Bergamotte. Apples : two varieties, both fine. Mel- 
ons : True Persian Housanie Muskmelon (striped, the seeds 
from the London Horticultural Society, and believed to be the 
first of the kind produced in the country,) Lord Gardner's Green 
fleshed Muskmelon. 

John A. Kenrick of Newton — Pears : Seckel, Williams's Bon 
Chretien, (Bartlett,) Chelmsford, Beurre Knox. Apples : York 
Russets, and some other kinds. Peaches : Alberge, Red Rare- 
ripe, Sweet Water, Cooledge's Favorite. 

John Mackay of Boston, for Henry Flagg of Weston — Apples : 
4 baskets of Hawthorndean, beautiful. Pears : 4 baskets of 
Seckle, 2 do. of Heathcot. 

Michael Tombs of the Faneuil Hail Market — Pears : Hannas, 
a fruit, which has never, to our knowledge, been exhibited, and 
believed to be a native, much like the St. Michaels, but, to ap- 
pearance, more oblong, and of larger size ; Cushing, from the 



Ysy 



21 



original tree, which in a dry and gravelly soil produces from six- 
teen to twenty bushels, this season. 

Madame Dix of Washington-street, Boston — Pears : Bon 
Chretien, Dix, Old St. Germain. 

Dr. S. A. Shurtleff, one of the Vice-Presidents of the Socie- 
ty, Pemberton Hill — Pears : 5 baskets of St. Michaels, raised in 
his garden, in the city, Rousselette de Rheims, Fall Bergamotte, 
Gansel's Bergamotte. Apples : High top Sweeting. Grapes : 
4 baskets of Chasselas. 

Dr. Zabdiel B. Adams of Boston — Pears : Seckel, St. Michael. 
White Imperial or Yellow Egg Plum. 

William Oliver of Dorchester — St. Ghislain, Wilkinson, Bro- 
ca's Bergamotte, Williams's Bon Chretien, (Bartlett.) Apples: 
Chataigne or Chestnut apple. Melons : Cantaloupe, Persian 
Muskmelons. 

E. Train of Weston — Apples : a specimen resembling in ex- 
terior the Alexander. 

R. & E. Marsh of Quincy — Pears: Cushing; specimens 
about as fine as those which were exhibited the Saturday previous, 
4 of which weighed 21 ounces. 

S. Phipps of Dorchester — Pears : Williams's Bon Chretien, 
(Bartlett,) Seckel. Apples : Fall Pippin, Spice apple. 

E. Bartlett of Roxbury, one of the Vice-Presidents — Pears : 
Bartlett or Williams's Bon Chretien, Capiaumont. Apples : 
Maiden's Blush, Ribston Pippin. Plums : Purple Gage, New 
Gage. Peaches : some fine specimens. 

Dana &, Norcross of the Faneuil Hall market — Pears: Will- 
iams's Bon Chretien, Cushing, Harvard. Peaches : Cooledge's 
Favorite. Other baskets of pears and fine fruit. 

William Worthington of Dorchester — Capiaumont, Monsieur 
Jean, Warden, Minot, Roussellette de Rheims, Seckel, St. Mi- 
chael, Williams's Bon Chretien or Bartlett, Native Red Cheek, 
Pound Pear, and several other kinds. Apples : Ladies' Delight, 
Carhouse. 

Richard Ward of Roxbury — Roxbury Russets, growth of 
1834, Sweet apples. Pears : Bon Chretien Williams or Bartlett, 
Seckel. Peaches : Cooledge's Favorite, Red Rareripe, Yellow 
do. 

Charles Stone of Watertown — Peaches, Yellow Rareripe, 
Stone's Favorite, in all 11 baskets. 

Amos Bemis of Waltham — Peaches : Carolina Rareripes. 

Mrs. Deuch of Derne-street, Boston — Yellow Rareripe Peach. 

E. M. Richards of Dedham — Pears: Verte Longue, Harvard, 
Chelmsford. Apples: Red Juneating, Benoni, the last always 
fine; Summer Pearmain, Orange Sweeting. 

B. V. French of Boston — Pears : William's Bon Chretien or 
Bartlett, Cushing, Wilkinson. Apples : Hawthorndean, Rug- 
gles's apple, Downton Golden Pippin, Native Sweeting, Kerry 



f'3# 



22 



Pippin, Yellow Bellflower, Dutch Codlin. Grapes : Morillon 
Noir. 

Mr. Slack of Roxbury — Pears : Bartlett, Andrews, and anoth- 
er variety. Apples : a large and handsome variety. Peaches, 2 
baskets. 

G. Pierce of Charlestown — Apples : 3 baskets of Porter. 
Pears : 3 baskets of Andrews. 

William Dean of Salem — Pears : Johonnot, 2 baskets ; and 
some fine Grapes from his Grape house. 

William Kenrick — Pears : Beurre Colmar d'Automne, a new, 
valuable, and most productive variety. 

Messrs. Hovey — Pears : Johonnot, Williams's Bon Chretien or 
Bartlett; also, peaches and nectarines, raised in pots. 

P. May of Boston — Pears : Golden Beurre. 

S. Sweetser of Cambridge — Pears : Bon Chretien. 

Cheever Newhall of Dorchester — President Peaches. 

David Hill of West-Cambridge — Peaches : Lemon Rareripe, 
Orange Peach. 

Wm. Gridley of Boston — Plums: a limb of beautiful fruit of 
the Magnum Bonum, a kind suitable only for preserving and for 
show. 

Samuel Heath of Roxbury — A basket of beautiful Andrews 
Pears. 

E. W. Hay ward of .Men don — A basket of fine Peaches. 

Mrs. King — Two baskets of fruit. 

Mrs. Timothy Bigelow of Medford — Bon Chretien Pears. 

William Wales of Dorchester — Black Hamburg Grapes. 

Thomas Mason of Charlestown Vineyard — Peaches: Royal 
George, Bellegarde. Nectarines : Elruge, Brugnon, a native, 
both kinds very beautiful. Grapes : Chasselas or Sweetwater, 
Black Hamburg, of the second crop. 

Benjamin Seaver. Sweetwater Grapes and Peaches. 

Jacob Tidd of Roxbury — Grapes : 2 bunches of Regner de 
Nice, very large, one weighing 2 3-4 lbs. and the other 3 1-2 
lbs. ; also, three bunches of Black Hamburg, one weighing 2 lb. 
6 oz., another 2 lb. 15 oz., and another 3 1-4 lbs. 

Joshua Child — Grapes : Morillon Noir. 

Benjamin Guild of Brookline — Plums : White Gage. Grapes: 
Black Hamburg, raised under glass, but without fire, Sweetwa- 
ter, raised in Brookline, in the open air, on common trellis ; all 
large and fine. 

John Arnold, No. 99, Cambridge-street — Sweetwater, raised 
in open culture in the city. 

Charles Taylor of Dorchester — A large basket of Black Ham- 
burg grapes, very fine. 

Joseph Balch — Pears : Green Catharine, and another for the 
Cushing. Apples : Benoni, and a yellow variety from England. 
Twice-bearing red raspberries. Fine specimens of peaches. 
Grapes : Black Hamburg, White Frontignac. 



¥3 ? 



T. H. Perkins, from his magnificent and spacious glass-houses 
in Brookline — Peaches : Noblesse, Early York, French Gallande, 
Grosse Gallande ; also, red Roman Nectarines, all very beauti- 
ful. Grapes : White Passe Musque, Black Lombardy, White 
Sweetwater, Black Frankendale, White Muscat of Alexandria, 
Black Hamburg, White Syrian, Black St. Peters, White Fron- 
tignac, Black Frontignac, Grizzly Frontignac, Black Cluster, or 
Meunier, Barcelona Long White. These were beautifully ar- 
ranged in clusters of different colors alternate, and with a fine 
effect. Such a variety of the superior kinds has never been dis- 
played, we believe, at any former exhibition. All were grown 
by the skill of Wm. H. Cowing. From the same source a rare 
and new variety of squash was sent for exhibition. 

Samuel Phipps of Dorchester — Specimens of Valparaiso 
squash ; also, Autumnal Marrow do., and Egg Plants. 

Dennis Murphy of Roxbury — Lima Squash ; also, fine speci- 
mens of the purple and white Egg Plants. 

The end of the centre table was graced by a large and beau- 
tiful Orange Tree, loaded with its large and golden fruit, inter- 
mixed with others unripe, and in every stage of their growth. 
This was from the green-house of the Hon. John Lowell. 

For the Committee, 

WILLIAM KENRICK, 

■ " 



REPORT 

OF THE COMMITTEE ON FLOWERS AND PLANTS7 

Col. T. H. Perkins, Brookline. A handsome frame work of 
flowers, on which grapes from his houses were suspended : also, 
a specimen of the flowers of Phaseolus caracalla, a rare green- 
house plant of singular appearance and delightful fragrance. 

Hon. John Lowell, Roxbury. A splendid Orange tree, laden 
with fruit ; the Sweet Lime tree, an exceedingly rare plant ; a 
fine specimen of the elegant Gomphocarpus ; Gloxinia maculata 
and speciosa, Plectranthus fruticosus, Justicia picta, Begonia 
argyrostigma, Ardisia solanacea, with many other ornaments of 
the greenhouse ; and amongst a variety of cut flowers were the 
stately Canna speciosa, and the rare Strelitzia regina. 

W. Pratt, Esq., Watertown. A magnificent collection of Dah- 
lias, with a very liberal donation of cut flowers. 

Thomas Lee, Esq., Brookline. Two elegant vases, contain- 
ing cut flowers, amongst which were Calandrinia grandiflora, 



*jHo 



24 



Linaria genistifolia, Lupinus mutabilis, Helenium autumnalis, 
Argemone Barclayana, Thunbergia alata, Maurandia Barclay- 
ana, and many others. 

Mrs. Norcross, of Boston. Several fine plants in pots, amongst 
which were Polianthus tuberosa (the Tuberose,) Myrtle-leaved 
Orange, Begonia Evansiana, and others. 

H. A. Breed, Esq., Lynn. A large and fine bouquet of cut 
flowers. 

Hon. E. Vose, Dorchester. A large quantity of cut flowers. 
M. P. Wilder, Esq.> Dorchester. A very fine and numerous 
collection of Dahlias, amongst which the most conspicuous for 
beauty and successful growth, were Countess of Ponza, Lord 
Chichester, Polyphemus, Richardson's Alicia, Brown's Ophelia, 
Belladonna, Countess of Liverpool, Jason, Negro boy, Agrippina; 
also, a vase of about forty varieties of beautiful autumnal roses, 
including the celebrated Palavicin and the Triomphe de Boll- 
wilier, a large donation of cut flowers, and many rare exotic 
plants in pots. 

S. Phipps, Esq., Dorchester. Celosia cristata, and several 
other beautiful plants in pots, with a fine specimen of Solanum 
melongena, the Egg plant. 

J. F. Priest, Esq., Boston. A large and magnificent plant of 
the Salvia splendens ; double-flowering Pomegranate, and several 
others. 

Mr. Thomas Dunlap, from the garden of W. G. Buckner, Esq., 
Bloomingdale, N. Y. A fine collection of Dahlias, the most 
beautiful of which were Wilmot's Superb, Granta, Paroquet ; 
Diadem, a seedling raised by him, in the style of Countess of 
Liverpool, and Roscoe, another fine seedling, also raised by him. 
E. M. Richards, Esq., Dorchester. A yellow seedling Dahlia 
of very great merit, raised by him. 

W. Worthington, Esq., Dorchester. A considerable number 
of bouquets of cut flowers, containing, with others, some remark- 
ably fine specimens of China Aster. 

J. L. L. F. Warren, Esq., Brighton. A fine collection of Dah- 
lias, with several beautiful bouquets. 

J. Crane, Esq., Boston. Two fine plants, in pots, of Helian- 
thus giganteus. 

Mr. S. Walker, Roxbury. A fine boquet of cut flowers, with 
a choice collection of Dahlias ; the most brilliant in color and 
perfect in shape were dueen of the Dahlias, Miss Pelham, Den- 
isii, Springfield Rival, Tyso's Matilda, Groomsbridge's Matchless; 
also, a small but elegant group of seedling Heartsease, (Viola.) 

Botanic Garden, Cambridge, under the direction of Mr. Carter, 
the following plants in pots : — Banksia serrata in flower, Eugenia 
jambos, Callistemon lanceolata, Eleagnus, Melaleuca, Cleroden- 
dron, Protea argentea, Acacia falcata, Aster argyrophyllus, Lau- 
rus indica, Paasifloraalba, Diosma, Gordonia lasianthus, Ballota, 



^y-/ 



25 



Fuchsia tenellaand Thomsonia, Calothamnus quadrifida, Rhodo- 
dendron, and others ; also, a very fine collection of Dahlias, the 
most prominent of which were Well's white, Amanda, Belladon- 
na, Queen of the Dahlias, and a seedling of considerable beauty, 
raised by Mr. Carter. 

Mount Auburn Garden, under the direction of Mr. Russell. 
A profusion of cut flowers. 

W. Kenrick, Newton. Several beautiful plants in pots, includ- 
ing two fine specimens of Morus multicaulis, with a large quanti- 
ty of cut flowers. 

J. A. Kenrick, Newton. A large quantity of cut flowers. 

Messrs. Winship, Brighton. A large quantity of cut flowers, 
with two magnificent plants of the Cockscomb, Celosia cristata. 

Lancaster Botanic Garden, under the direction of Mr. Joseph 
Breck. A numerous and matchless collection of Dahlias ; the 
most striking for beauty and shape were Village maid, Thorburn's 
seedling from Widnall, King of the Whites, Transcendant, Col- 
vill's Perfecta, Widnall's Jason, Queen of the Yellows, Wells's 
Royal Lilac, and Margaret's Favorite, a beautiful seedling, rais- 
ed by Mr. Breck. 

Messrs. Hovey, Boston. A very choice and brilliant collection 
of double China Asters, embracing twelve distinct kinds, with 
several very fine Dahlias, the most conspicuous for beauty both 
of shape and color were Lord Liverpool, Negro boy, Cassina, 
Prince George, Widnall's Adonis, Picta formosissima : also, sev- 
eral bouquets, remarkable for variety of flowers and elegance of 
arrangement, containing Gladiolus natalensis, Zinnia, violacea 
var. coccinea, Euphorbia variegata, Dahlias, Phlox roseum, glom- 
erata, cordata, Wheeleriana, Americana, Solidago altissima, with 
a quantity of cut flowers. 

Mr. Sweetser, Boston. A superb collection of Dahlias, amongst 
which the finest were Alba fimbriata, and the King of the Yel- 
lows ; several beautiful bouquets, and a fine specimen of Rosa 
Lamarque, one of the most delightful and fragrant of the tribe. 

Mr. D. Murphy, Roxbury. Many greenhouse plants ; amongst 
them were a lage Myrtus communis, with fruit, Cyclas revoluta, 
Viburnum tinus, Orange trees, Calla Ethiopica, many bouquets 
and cut flowers. 

John Arnold, Cambridge. A variety of plants in pots. 

J. D. Williams, Boston. A variety of plants in pots ; among 
them were the Silver-edged Holly, the Irish Yew, and the Laurel. 

W. Wales, Dorchester. A fine collection of cut flowers and 
bouquets, in one of which was the beautiful and fragrant Yellow 
Tea Rose. 

S. H. Weld, Esq., Roxbury. Dahlias and cut flowers. 

B. P. Winslow, C. Newhall, J. Richardson, N. Davenport, J. 
Gardner and Mr. Farnsworth. Cut flowers. 
For the committee, 

J. E. TESCHEMACHER 
4 



H H-* 



OFFICERS 



OF THE 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

FOR THE YEAR, 

COMMENCING ON THE FIRST SATURDAY IN DECEMBER, 1835. 



PRESIDENT. 

ELIJAH VOSE, Dorchester. 

VICE-PRESIDENTS. 

E. BARTLETT, Dorchester. 
JONATHAN WINSHIP, Brighton. 
SAMUEL A. SHURTLEFF, Boston. 
PICKERING DODGE, Salem. 

TREASURER. 

WILLIAM WORTHINGTON, Dorchester. 

CORRESPONDING SECRETARY. 

ROBERT TREAT PAINE, Boston. 

RECORDING SECRETARY. 

EZRA WESTON, Jr. Boston. 

COUNSELLORS. 

THEODORE LYMAN, Jr. Boston. 
AUGUSTUS ASPINWALL, Brookline. 
THOMAS BREWER, Roxbury. 
HENRY A. BREED, Lynn. 
M. P. SAWYER, Portland, Me. 
NATHANIEL DAVENPORT, Milton. 
E. HERSEY DERBY, Salem. 
THOMAS WHITMARSH, Brookline. 
J. M. GOURGAS, Weston. 



f"/3 



27 



WILLIAM PRATT, Jr. Boston. 
SAMUEL JAGIUES, Jr. Charlestown. 
JOSEPH G. JOY, Boston. 
WILLIAM KENRICK, Newton. 
JOHN LEMIST, Roxbury. 
BENJAMIN RODMAN, New-Bedford. 
THOMAS G. FESSENDEN, Boston. 
CHARLES TAPPAN, Boston. 
JACOB TIDD, Roxbury. 
JONATHAN WINSHIP, Brighton. 
AARON D. WILLIAMS, Roxbury. 
J. W. WEBSTER, Cambridge. 
GEORGE W. BRIMMER, Boston. 
DAVID HAGGERSTON, Watertown. 
CHARLES LAWRENCE, Salem. 

PROFESSOR OF BOTANY AND VEGETABLE PHYSIOLOGY. 

Rev. JOHN L. RUSSELL. 

PROFESSOR OF ENTOMOLOGY. 

T. W. HARRIS, M. D. 

PROFESSOR OF HORTICULTURAL CHEMISTRY. 

J. W. WEBSTER, M. D. 



4 ^ 



STANDING COMMITTEES. 



COMMITTEE ON FRUITS. 

ELIJAH VOSE, Chairman, SAMUEL A. SHURTLEFF, 

ROBERT MANNING, SAMUEL DOWNER, 

WILLIAM KENRICK, SAMUEL POND, 

BENJA. V. FRENCH, P. B. HOVEY, 

EDWARD M. RICHARDS, L. P. GROSVENOR. 

COMMITTEE ON PRODUCTS OP KITCHEN GARDEN. 

GEO. C. BARRETT, Chairman, AARON D. WILLIAMS, 
DANIEL CHANDLER, LEONARD STONE, 

JACOB TIDD, (NATHANIEL DAVENPORT. 

COMMITTEE ON FLOWERS, SHRUBS, &/C. 

J. E. TESCHEMAKER, Chairman, SAMUEL WALKER, 
CHARLES M. HOVEY, DAVID HAGGERSTON, 

JONATHAN WINSH1P, JOHN A. KENRICK. 

COMMITTEE ON THE LIBRARY. 

ELIJAH VOSE, Chairman, J. E. TESCHEMAKER, 

JACOB BIGELOW, EZRA WESTON, Jr. 

T. W. HARRIS, CHARLES M. HOVEY, Librarian, 
ROBERT T. PAINE, 

COMMITTEE ON SYNONYMS OF FRUIT. 

JOHN LOWELL, Chairman, WILLIAM KENRICK, 

ROBERT MANNING, SAMUEL DOWNER. 



EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE. 

ELIJAH VOSE, Chairman, BENJA. V. FRENCH, 

CHEEVER NEWHALL, PICKERING DODGE. 

L. P. GROSVENOR, 

COMMITTEE OF FINANCE. 

ELIJAH VOSE, Chairman, CHEEVER NEWHALL. 

BENJA. V. FRENCH, 



yy</ 



MEMBERS 



OF THE 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY, 






Armstrong, Samuel T. Boston. 

Aspinwall, Augustus, Brookline. 

Andrews, John H. Salem. 

Andrews, Ebenezer T. Boston. 

Anthony, James, Providence. 

Adams, Samuel, Milton. 
"Andrews, Ferdinand, Lancaster. 

Atkinson, Amos, Brookline. 
-Adams, Daniel, Newbury. 

Appleton, Samuel, Boston. 
- Adams, Charles F. Quincy. 

Adamson, John, Roxbury. 

Andrews, William T. Boston. 

Bartlett, Enoch, Roxbury. 
Brewer, Thomas, " 
Brimmer, George W. Boston. 
Bradlee, Joseph P. " 
Breed, Ebenezer, " 

Breed, Henry A. Lynn. 
Bigelow, Jacob, Boston. 
Breed, Andrews, Lynn. 
Bailey, Kendall, Charlestown. 
Brown, James, Cambridge. 
Buckminster, Lawson, Framingham. 
Buckminster, Edward F. u 
Breck, Joseph, Lancaster. 
Bradford, Samuel D. Boston. 
Bailey, Ehenezer, " 

Bishop, N. H. Medford. 
Brewer, Eliab Stone, Boston. 
Badlam, Stephen, " 

Beal, George W. Quincy. 
Boott, William, Boston. 
Brown, J. M. " 

Brimmer, Martin, " 
Bangs, Edward D. " 
Balch, Joseph, Roxhiry. 
Bond, George, Boston. 
Billings, Joseph H. Roxbury. 
Brown, Charles, Boston. 
Bussey, Benjamin, Roxbury. 
Buckingham, Joseph T. Cambridge. 
Bond, George W. Boston. 
Barrett, George C. " 
Bowen, Charles, " 

Cook, Zebedee, jr. Boston. 
Codman, John, Dorchester. 
Clapp, Nathaniel, " 
Coolidge, Joseph, Boston. 
Copeland, B. F. Roxbury. 
Cogswell, J. G. Northampton. 
Champney, John, Roxbury. 
Cowing, Cornelius, " 
Cowing, Howland, jr. Boston. 



Carter, William, Cambridge, 

Curtis, William, Newton. 
-Coolidge, Josiah, Cambridge. 

-Cowan, Wm. H. Brighton. 

Cruft, Edward, Boston. 

Chandler, Daniel, Lexington. 

Callender, Joseph, Boston. 

Chase, Hezekiah, Lynn. 

Clapp, John, South-Reading. 

Carter, Horatio^iancaster. 

Carnes, Nathaniel G. New-York. 

Curtis, Edward, Pepperill. 
. Chandler, Samuel, Lexington. 

Capen, Aaron, Dorchester. 

Crowningshield, Benjamin W. Boston-, 

Cotting, William, West-Cambridge. 

Cabot, Samuel, Brookline. 

Coffin, Hector, Rock Farm, Newbury. 

Curtis, Nathaniel, Roxbury. 

Clapp, Isaac, Dorchester. 

Crafts, Ebenezer, Roxbury. 

Coolidge, Samuel F. Boston. 

Cowing, N. H. Breokline.j 

Crane, Joshua,, Boston. 

Coolidge, Thomas B. Bvston. 

Child Joshua, ** 

Dearborn, H. A. S. Boston. 
Davis, Isaac P. " 

Downer, Samuel, Dorchester. 
Dudley, David, Roxbury. 
Doggett, John, Boston. 
Davenport, Nathaniel, Milton* 
Davis, Charles, Roxbury. 
Dorr, Nathaniel, " 
Dodge, Pickering, jr. Salem. 
Derby, E. H. " 

Davis, John, Boston. 
Downes, John, " 
Dyer, E. D. Boston. 
Dickson, James A. Boston. 
Davis, N. Morton, Plymouth, 

Emmons, Robert L. Boston. 
Everett, Edward, Charlestown. 
Eustis, James, South- Reading. 
Ellis, Charles, Roxbury. 
Edwards, Elisha, Springfield. 
Eager, William, Boston. 
Endicott, Wm. P. Salem. 
Eldredge, Edward, Boston. 

French, Benjamin V. Boston, 
Fessenden, Thomas G. " 
Frothinghara, Samuel, " 
Forrester, John, Salem. 



*fw 



30 



Fiske, Oliver, Worcester. 
Fosdick, David, Charlestown. 
Fletcher, Richard, Boston. 
Field, Joseph, Weston. 
Fitch, Jeremiah, Boston. 
Francis, J. B. Warwick, R. I. 
Freeman, Russell, Sandwich. 
Fay, Samuel P. P. Cambridgeport. 
Faxon, Nathaniel, Boston. ° 

Gray, John C. Boston. 
Greenleaf, Thomas, Quincy. 
Gourgas, J. M. Weston. 
Green, Charles W. Rozbury. 
Gore, Watson, " 

Gannett, T. B. Cambridgeport. 
Gould, Daniel, Reading. 
Gardner, W. F. Salem. 
Gardner, Joshua, Dorchester. 
Goodwin, Thomas J. Charlestown. 
Guild, Benjamin, Boston. 
Gibbs, Benjamin, Cambridgeport. 
Giant, Benjamin B. Boston. 
Gould, Benjamin A. " 
Gray, John, " 

Grosvenor, L. P. " 

Harris, Samuel D. Boston. 
Haskins, Ralph, Rozbury. 
Heard, John, jr. Boston. 
Hill, Jeremiah, " 

Hollingsworth, Mark, Milton. 
Harris, Wm. T. Cambridge. 
Holbrook, Amos, Milton. 
Howe, Rufus, Dorchester. 
Hayden, John, Brookline. 
Howes, Frederick, Salem. 
Haggerston, David, Watertown. 
Howland, John, jr. JVew-Bedford. 
Hayward, George, Boston. 
Higginson, Henry, " 
Hall, Dudley, Medford. 
Hartshorn, Eliphalet P. Boston. 
Houghton, Abel, jr. Lynn. 
Hovey, P. B. jr. Cambridgeport. 
Hurd, William, Charlestown. 
-Howe, Hall J. Boston. 
Hodges, J. L. Taunton. 
Hodge, Isaac L. Plymouth. 
Hovey, Charles M. Cambridgeport. 
Hayward, Charles, Boston. 
Hayden, Frederick, Lincoln. 
Hyde, Samuel, jr. Newtown. 
Hammond, H. H. Lexington. 

Jaques, Samuel, jr. Charlestown, 
Ives, John M. Salem. 

Joy, Joseph G. Boston. 
Jackson, Patrick T. Boston, 
Jackson, James, " 

Johonnot, George S. Salem. 
Jones, L. D. JVew-Bedford. 
Josselyn, Lewis, Boston. 

Kenrick, William, Newton. 
King, John, Medford. 
Kidder, Samuel, Charlestown. 
Kuhn, George H. Boston. 
Kendall, Abel, jr. " 
Kenrick, John A. Newton. 
Kenrick, Enoch B. " 

Lincoln Levi, Worcester. 
Lincoln William, " 
Lowell, John, Rozbury. 
Lee, Thomas jr. " 



Lemist John, Rozbury. 
-Lyman, Theodore, jr. Boston. 

Lowell, John A. Boston. 

Lawrence, Abbott, '* 
-Lyman, George W. " 
-Lawrence, Charles, Salem. 

Leland, Daniel, Sherburne. 

Leland, J. P. " 

-Loring, W. J. Boston. 
-Lowell, John, jr. u 

Manning, Robert, Salem. 
Manners, George, Boston. 
Minn's Thomas, " 
Morrell, Ambrose, Lezington. 
Munroe, Jonas, " 

Mussey, Benjamin, " 
Motley, Edward, Boston. 
Mason, Lowell, " 
Montague, Wm. H. " 
Morse, S. F. " 

Means, James, " 

Mackay, John, " 

Mead, Isaac, Charlestown. 
Mead, Samuel O. West- Cambridge. 
Mason, Thomas, Charlestown. 
Miller, Edward, Boston. 
-Mason, Jeremiah, " 
Mason, Thomas H. Charlestown. 

Newhall, Cheever, Dorchester. 

Newhall, George, ** 

Nichols, Otis, " 

-Nuttall, Thomas, Cambridge. 
-Newell, Joseph R. Boston. 
-Newhall, Josiah, Lynnfield. 
-Newman, Henry, Rozbury. 

Newell, Joseph W. Charlestown. 

- Otis, Harrison G. Boston. 
Oliver, Francis J. " 
Oliver, William, Dorchester. 
Oxnard, Henry, Brookline. 

-Perkins, Thomas H. Boston. 
Perkins, Samuel G. " 
Putnam Jesse, " 

Pratt, George W. " 

Prescott, William, " 

Parsons, Gorham, Brighton. 
Pettee, Otis, Neicton. 
-Prince, John, Rozbury. 
Phinney, Elias, Lezington 
Prince, John, jr. Salem. 
Peabody, Francis, " 
Perry, G. B. East-Bradford. 
Perry, John, Sherburne. 
Pond, Samuel, Cambridgeport. 
Paine, Robert Treat, Boston. 
Pond, Samuel M. Bucksport, Me. 
Prescott, C. H. Cornwallis, N. S. 
Parker, Daniel P. Boston. 
Pratt, William, jr. " 
Priest, John F. " 

Philbrick, Samuel, Brookline. 
Prouty, Lorenzo, Boston. 
Pickman, D. L. Salem. 
Phipps, Rufus T. Charleetown, 
Parker, Isaac, Boston. 
Phillips, S. C. Salem. 
Pool, Ward, Danvers. 
-Perkins, Thomas H. jr. Boston. 
Pond, Samuel, jr. " 

Payne, W. E. " 

Preston, John, " 

Putnam, Ebenezer, Salem, 



31 



f ^7 



iV 






- Quincy, Josiah, jr. Boston. 

- Robbine, E. H. jr. Boston. 
Rollins, William, " 

-Rice, John P. " 

-Rice, Henry, " 

•Read, James, Roxbury. 
Robbins, P. G. « 
-Rowe, Joseph, Milton. 
•Rogers, R. S. Salem. 
-Rodman, Benjamin, New-Bedford. 
-Rotch, William, jr. " 

-Richardson, Nathan, South- Reading. 
-Rand, Edward S. Newburyport. 

- Richards, Edward M. Dedham. 
Russell, J. L. Salem. 

-Russell, James, Boston. 
'Russell, George, M. D. Lincoln. 
-Rogerson, Robert, Boston. 
-Ruggles, M. H. Troy. 
"Read, George, Roxbury. 
•Russell, Joseph, Boston. 

-Silsby, Enoch, Boston. 
-Sullivan, Richard, Brookline. 
-Senior, Charles, Roxbury. 

Sumner, William H. Dorchester. 

Sawyer, M. P. Boston. 
'Sharp, Edward, Dorchester. 

Smith, Cyrus, Sandwich. 
-Sutton, William, jr. Danvers. 
-Story, F. H. Salem. 

Stedman, Josiah, Newton. 
-Stearns, Charles, Springfield. 
-Shurtleff, Samuel A. Boston. 

- Springer, John, Sterling. 

- Saltonstall, Leverett, Salem. 
-Shaw, Lemuel, Boston. 
.Smith, J. M. " 

Sisson, Freeborn, Warren, R. I. 
Smith, Stephen H. Providence, R. I. 
Swan, Daniel, Medford. 
Stone, Leonard, Watertown. 
Stone, William, " 
•Stone, Isaac, " 

Story, Joseph, Cambridge. 
Sparhawk, E. C. Boston. 
Sheaf, Henry, " 

Stevens, Isaac, " 

Stearns, William, " 
Sweetser, Samuel, Cambridgeport. 
-Skinner, John, Charlestown. 



■ Tappan, Charles, Boston. 

Tidd, Jacob, Roxbury. 

Thompson, George, Medford. 

Train, Samuel, " 

Thorndike, Israel, Boston. 

Thwing, Supply C. Roxbury. 
•Tucker, Richard D. Boston. 

Tilden, Joseph, " 

Toothey, Roderick, Waltham. 

Thomas, Benjamin, Hingham. 

Taylor, Charles, Dorchester. 

Tremlett, Thomas B. " 
-Tyler, George W. Charlestown. 

Vose, Elijah, Dorchester. 
Vila, James, Boston. 

Williams, Nehemiah D. Roxbury. 

Wilder, M. P. Boston. 

Williams, Aaron D. Roxbury. 

Worthington, William, Dorchester. 

Webster, J. W. Cambridge. 

White, Abijah, Watertown. 

Wight, Ebenezer, Boston. 

Winship, Jonathan, Brighton. 

Wilder, S. V. S. Bolton. 
-Waldo, Daniel, Worcester. 
-Wyeth, Nathaniel, jr. Cambridge. 

West, Thomas, Haverhill. 

Willard, Joseph, Lancaster. 

Whitmarsh, Samuel, Northampton. 

Whitmarsh, Thomas, Brookline. 

Warren, Jonathan, jr. Weston. 

Webster, Nathan, Haverhill. 

Wilson, John, Roxbury. 

White, Stephen, Boston. 

Webster, Daniel, " 
-Ward, Richard, Roxbury. 
-Weld, Aaron D. jr. Boston. 
-Walker, Samuel, Roxbury. 
^Winship, Francis, Brighton. 
■Willett, Thomas, Charlestown. 
- Wolcotl, Edward, Pawtucket. 
-Williams, John, Cambridgeport. 
•Ward, Malthus A. Salem. 
-Winthrop, Thomas L. Boston. 
-Wheelwright, Lot, jr, " 
"Wheelwright, John F. Brighton. 
-Weston, Ezra, jr. Boston. 
-Waldo, Henry S. " 
^Winchester, W. P. « 
-Warren, Jonas, Weston. 






' * f <i 



HONORARY MEMBERS. 



ADAMS, Hon. JOHN QUINCY, late President of the United States. 

AITON, WILLIAM TOWNSEND, Curator of the Royal Gardens, Kew. 

ABBOT, JOHN, Esq. Brunswick, Me. 

ABBOT, BENJAMIN, LL. D. Principal of Phillips Academy, Exeter, N. H. 

BUEL, J. Esq. President of the Albany Horticultural Society. 

BODIN, Le Chevalier SOULANGE, Secretaire- General de la Societe 
d'Horticulture de Paris. 

BANCROFT, EDWARD NATHANIEL, M. D. President of the Horti- 
cultural and Agricultural Society of Jamaica. 

BARCLAY, ROBERT, Esq. Great-Britain. 

BEEKMAN, JAMES, New- York. 

BARBOUR, P. P. Virginia. 

BLAPIER, LEWIS, Philadelphia. 

COXE, WILLIAM, Esq. Burlington, New-Jersey. 

COLLINS, ZACCHEUS, Esq. President of the Pennsylvania Horticul- 
tural Society, Philadelphia. 

COFFIN, Admiral Sir ISAAC, Great-Britain. 

CHAUNCY, ISAAC, United States Navy, Brooklyn, New-York. 

CLAY, HENRY, Kentucky. 

DICKSON, JAMES, Esq. Vice-President of the London Horticultural 
Society. 

DE CANDOLLE, Mons. ANGUSTIN PYRAMUS, Professor of Botany 
in the Academy of Geneva. 

De La SAGRA, Don RAMON, Cuba. 

ELLIOTT, Hon. STEPHEN, Charleston, S. C. 

EVERETT, HORACE, Vermont. 

EVANSON, CHARLES ALLAN, Secretary of King's County Agricul- 
tural Society, St. Johns New-Brunswick. 

FALDERMANN, F. Curator of the Imperial Botanic Garden, at St. Pe- 
tersburg. 

FISCHER, Dr. Professor of Botany, of the Imperial Botanic Garden, at 
St, Petersburg. 

GALES, JOSEPH, jr. Vice-President of the Washington Horticultural 
Society, Washington. 

GOLDSBOROUGH, ROBERT H., U. S. Senator, Maryland. 

GREIG, JOHN, Esq. Geneva, President of the Domestic Horticultural 
Society of the Western part of the State of New- York. 



Lf cf a 



6> 

<OtJ 



*GORE, Mrs. REBECCA, Waltham. 

GRIFFITHS, Mrs. MARY, Charlies Hope, New-Jersey. 

*GIRARD, STEPHEN, Philadelphia. 

GIBBS, GEORGE, Sunswick, New-York. 

HERICART DE THURY, Le Vicomte, President de la Societe d'Hor- 
ticulture de Paris. 

HOSACK, DAVID, M. D. President of the New- York Horticultural 
Society. 

HOPK1RK, THOMAS, Esq. President of the Glasgow Horticultural 
Society. 

HUNT, LEWIS, Esq. Huntsburgh, Ohio. 

H1LDRETH, S. P. Marietta, Ohio. 

INGERSOLL, JAMES R. President of the Horticultural Society of 
Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. 

JACKSON, ANDREW, President of the United States. 

JOHONNOT, Mrs. MARTHA, Salem. 

KNIGHT, THOMAS ANDREW, Esq. President of the London Horti- 
cultural Society. 

LOUDON, JOHN CLAUDIUS, Great-Britain. 

LUDWIG, BARON H. CAROL VON, Cape Town, Cape of Good Hope. 

* LAFAYETTE, General, La Grange, France. 

LASTEYRIE, Le Comte de, Vice-President de la Societe d'Horticul- 
ture de Paris. 

LITCHFIELD, FRANKLIN, Consul of the United States at Porto Ca- 
bello. 

LORRILLARD, JACOB, President of the New- York Horticultural So- 
ciety, New-York. 

LONGSTRETH, JOSHUA, Philadelphia. 

LONGWORTH, NICHOLAS, Cincinnati. 

MADISON, Hon. JAMES, late President of the United States, Virginia. 

* MONROE, Hon. JAMES, late President of the United States, " 
MICHAUX, Mons. F. ANDREW, Paris. 

MENTENS, LEWIS JOHN, Esq. Bruxelles. 
MITCHELL, SAMUEL L., M. D. New-York. 

MOSSELLMANN, , Esq. Antwerp. 

MERCER, Hon. CHARLES F. Virginia. 

M'CAULEY, D. SMITH, Consul General United States, Tripoli. 
McKIM, Hon. ISAAC, M. C. Baltimore, Maryland. 
OTTENFELS, Baron, Austrian Minister to the Ottoman Porte. 
POITEAU, Professor of the Institut Horticole de Fromont. 
POWELL, JOHN HARE, Powellton, Pennsylvania. 
PRINCE, WILLIAM, Esq. Long-Island, New-York. 
PRATT, HENRY, Philadelphia. 
PALMER, JOHN, Esq. Calcutta. 

* Deceased. 



34 



ROSEBERRY, ARCHIBALD JOHN, Earl of, President of the Cale* 

donian Horticultural Society. 

SABINE, JOSEPH, Esq. Secretary of the London Horticultural Society. 

SHEPHERD, JOHN, Curator of the Botanic Garden, Liverpool. 

* SCOTT, SIR WALTER, Scotland. 

SKINNER, JOHN S. Baltimore. 

TURNER, JOHN, Assistant Secretary of the London Horticultural So- 
ciety. 

THACHER, JAMES, M. D. Plymouth. 

THORBURN, GRANT, Esq. New-York. 

TALIAFERRO, JOHN, Virginia. 

THOURS, M. Du Petit, Paris, Professor Poiteau of the Institut Horti- 
cole de Fromont. 

TOWSON, NATHANIEL, President of the Washington Horticultural 
Society, Washington. 

VILMORIN, Mons. PIERRE PHILLIPPE ANDRE, Paris. 

VAUGHAN, BENJAMIN, Esq. Hallowell, Maine. 

VAN MONS, JEAN BAPTISTE, M. D. Brussels. 

VAUGHAN, PETTY, Esq. London. 

VAN RENSELLAER, STEPHEN, Albany. 

VAN ZANDT, JOSEPH R. Albany. 

VANDERBURG, FEDERAL, M. D. New-York. 

WELLES, Hon. JOHN, Boston. 

WILLICK, NATHANIEL, M. D. Curator of the Botanic Garden, Cal- 
cutta. 

WADSWORTH, JAMES, Geneseo, New- York. 

WARD, MALTHUS A. College, Athens, Georgia. 

WOLCOTT, FREDERICK, Litchfield, Connecticut. 

YATES, ASHTON, Esq. Liverpool. 



CORRESPONDING MEJVIBERS. 

ADLUM, JOHN, Georgetown, District of Columbia. 
ASPINWALL, Col. THOMAS, United States Consul, London. 
APPLETON, THOMAS, Esq. United States Consul, Leghorn. 

ALPEY, . 

AQUILAR, DON FRANCISCO, of Moldonoda, in the Banda Oriental, 

Consul of the United States. 
BARNET, ISAAC COX, Esq. United States Consul, Paris. 
BRUSH, Dr. NEHEMIAH, East Florida. 

* Deceased, 



SB 

BURTON, ALEXANDER, United States Consul, Cadiz. 

BULL, E. W. Hartford, Connecticut. 

CARR, ROBERT, Esq. Philadelphia. 

COLVILLE, JAMES, Chelsea, England. 

CARNES, FRANCIS G. Paris. 

DEERING, JAMES, Portland, Maine. 

EMMONS, EBENEZER, M. D. Williamstown. 

FLOY, MICHAEL, New-York. 

FOX, JOHN, Washington, District of Columbia. 

FELLOWS, NATHANIEL, Cuba. 

FOSTER, WILLIAM REDDING, Baltimore. 

GARDINER, ROBERT H. Esq. Gardiner, Maine. 

GIBSON, ABRAHAM P. United States Consul, St. Petersburg. 

GARDNER, BENJAMIN, United States Consul, Palermo. 

HALL, CHARLES HENRY, Esq. New-York. 

HAY, JOHN, Architect of the Caledonian Horticultural Society. 

HALSEY, ABRAHAM, Corresponding Secretary of the New- York Hor- 
ticultural Society, New- York. 

HARRIS, Rev. T. M., D. D. Dorchester. 

HUNTER, -, Baltimore. 

HOGG, THOMAS, New- York. 

HENRY, BERNARD, Gibraltar. 

HITCHCOCK, I. I. Baltimore. 

LANDRETH, DAVID, jr. Esq. Corresponding Secretary of the Pennsyl- 
vania Horticultural Society. 

LEONARD, E. S. H., M. D. Providence. 

MAURY, JAMES, Esq. late United States Consul, Liverpool. 

MILLER, JOHN, M. D. Secretary of the Horticultural and Agricultural 
Society, Jamaica. 

MILLS, STEPHEN, Esq. Long. Island, New-York. 

MELVILLE ALLAN, New-York. 

M'LEAY, WILLIAM SHARP. 

NEWHALL, HORATIO, M. D. Galena, Illinois. 

OFFLEY, DAVID, Esq. United States Consul, Smyrna. 

OMBROSI, JAMES, United States Consul, Florence. 

PARKER, JOHN, Esq. United States Consul, Amsterdam. 

PAYSON, JOHN L. Esq. Messina. 

PORTER, DAVID, Washington. 

PRINCE, WILLIAM ROBERT, Esq. Long-Island, New-York. 

PRINCE, ALFRED STRATTON, Long-Island. 

PERRY, M. C. United States Navy, Charlestown. 

PALMER, JOHN J. New-York. 

ROGERS, WILLIAM S. United States Navy, Boston, 
REYNOLDS, M. D. Schenectady, New-York. 
ROGERS, J. S. Hartford, Connecticut. 
RICHARDS, JOHN H. Paris. 



HS& 



36 



ROTCH, THOMAS, Philadelphia. 

SHALER WILLIAM, United States Consul-General, Cuba. 

SMITH, DANIEL D. Esq. Burlington, New- Jersey. 

SMITH, GIDEON B. Baltimore. 

SHAW, WILLIAM, New- York. 

STRONG, Judge, Rochester, New-York. 

STEPHENS, THOMAS HOLDUP, United States Navy, Middletown, 

Connecticut. 
SMITH, CALEB R. Esq. New-Jersey. 
SPRAGUE, HORATIO, United States Consul, Gibraltar. 
SUMMEREST, FRANCIS. 
STRANGEWAY, WILLIAM FOX, British Secretary of Legation at 

Naples. 
THORBURN, GEORGE C. New- York. 
TILLSON, JOHN, jr. Illinois. 

TENORE, Professor, Director of the Botanical Garden at Naples. 
THOMPSON, ROBERT, Esq. London. 
WILSON, WILLIAM, New-York. 
WINGATE, J. F. Bath, Maine. 
WINGATE, JOSHUA, Portland. 
WINTHROP, JOSEPH AUGUSTUS, South-Carolina, 



y r / 



AN 



ADDRESS 



DELIVERED BEFORE THE 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY, 



AT THEIR 



EIGHTH ANNIVERSARY, 



SEPTEMBER 17, 1836. 



BY EZRA WESTON, JR. 



BOSTON: 

PRINTED BY TUTTLE, WEEKS & DENNETT. 

1836. 



^/5X 



to 



BOSTON, SEPTEMBER 24, 1836. 

Sir, — We have the honor to transmit you a copy of a vote passed this day 
by the Massachusetts Horticultural Society, and are, 

Very respectfully, your ob't servants, 

S. WALKER, \ 
R. T. PAINE, I Committee. 
B. V. FRENCH, ) 
Ezra Weston, Jr., Esa. 

Voted — That the thanks of the Society be presented to Ezra Weston, Jr., Esq. 
for his highly interesting and instructive Address, delivered before them on the 
Eighth Anniversary, and that be be respectfully requested to furnish a copy 
thereof for publication. 

Attest, R. T. PAINE, 

Cor. Sec'y and ex officio Rec. Sec'y pro tem. 



BOSTON, OCTOBER 3, 1836. 

Gentlemen — In reply to the vote transmitted by you, I have the honor of 
placing in your hands a copy of the Address delivered on the Eighth Anniver- 
sary of the Society. 

I am, respectfully, yours, &c. 

E. WESTON, Jr. 
Messrs S. Walker, ^ 

R. T. Paine, > Committee. 
B. V. French, } 



t&H 



VS5~ 



ADDRESS. 



Mr President, 

and Gentlemen of the 

Massachusetts Horticultural Society, — 

Another recurrence of the seasons has taken 
place, — the seed has been sown, — the leaf has again 
been put forth, and the flowers and the fruits are at 
our hand, and we meet to celebrate the eighth anni- 
versary of this Society. We have many things upon 
which to congratulate ourselves — many things in 
which the sensible observer and the interested culti- 
vator may both rejoice. Our weekly exhibitions 
during the past year have been of a kind truly attrac- 
tive and worthy of the Society, — surpassing, as they 
reasonably should, those of every former year, show- 
ing a manifest extension of the science and practice 
of Horticulture, and at the same time necessarily, an 
increasing taste and refinement. 

I feel tempted to say something of these exhibi- 
tions; of their effect, not alone upon those who 
contribute, but upon those who frequent as casual 
spectators. They have a good moral effect, and 
deserve, on that account to be well supported and 
attended. There are few things more refreshing to 
the man of business, or to any man, that will so 
recruit the senses and charm the spirit as to step 



I 



HS<* 



aside a moment from the confusion and anxiety of 
the street, and look upon the beauty and bounty of 
nature, upon the splendid array of "mingled blos- 
soms." It is like the breeze that meets the wave 
tost sailor, upon the Indian Ocean, when 

" Off at sea northeast winds blow 
Sabean odors from the spicy shore 
Of Araby the blest. ,; 

To the man of leisure and taste, what more pure 
pleasure could catch his taste than a rare and choice 
exhibition of flowers — with their wonderful economy, 
texture and colors, : perhaps in the course of his search 
for amusement he may find none that shall so rouse 
and cheer his languid attention. What more graceful 
and delicate sight can meet the eyes of the young 
— in what school of the philosophers, in what gallery 
of art can they learn more of that which ameliorates 
and refines ? I should therefore wish that in all cities, 
but more especially in ours, a hall of good propor- 
tions and accommodation, not remote from the paths 
of business, might be open, where the public could 
weekly visit an exhibition of flowers and fruits. I 
believe it would have an elevating effect upon the 
public mind, and be as attractive and worthy of sup- 
port as a gallery of statuary or paintings. These 
remarks concerning our weekly exhibitions seem not 
inappropriate or beneath the dignity of the occasion, 
that those who contribute, may feel that it is not a 
selfish or narrow office they discharge, but one of 
generosity and high public service. 

It is said that in speaking of Horticulture as an 



f ^7 



innocent amusement, we have said much in its favor : 
but I think we can recommend and urge its claims 
much stronger, by saying that it is as positive a duty 
that a man should cultivate some of his powers to 
this exercise as it is to possess a knowledge of poli- 
tics. He who cultivates a garden and brings to per- 
fection flowers and fruits, cultivates and advances at 
the same time his own nature. 

Horticulture as a science applies as well to fruits 
as flowers, and it loses none of its attractions when 
contemplated or practised in regard to the former 
productions. It is a branch of the art of the highest 
use. 

During the past year, the Society has received an 
accession in the numbers of its members both subscrip- 
tion and honorary, but perhaps there is no name upon 
the catalogue that is more worthy of a place there, 
than that of the aged and eminent Dr Van Mons, of 
Belgium, and I shall occupy the few moments I may 
call mine here, in presenting some remarks upon his 
services and theory, at the risk of stating some things 
already well known and of adding but little or nothing 
to the knowledge of some present. 

The causes of the decay of fruit trees has for a 
long time occupied the attention of horticulturists, and 
it has been allowed that disease, the consequence of 
old age, has caused and does cause this decay, and 
will gradually work the extinction of some of the 
best varieties. 

Some of the variety of fruit that were formerly in 
high reputation, have now become so deteriorated as 
scarce to be worth propagation, and others are fast 



^5i 



8 



hastening to the same fate, though they stand upon 
the catalogues, and are often purchased, perhaps 
oftener purchased and cultivated by those who are 
ignorant of this characteristic, than a newer variety. 

The graft is but an extension of the parent stock, 
and therefore liable to all the diseases and defects of 
its original, and when we consider that most of our 
fruits have been propagated in this manner many 
years, we may well desire, that some certain method 
might be discovered by which new varieties, and 
those of a delicious and if possible improving stamp, 
might take the place of the old and failing. 

Practical and skilful horticulturists recommended 
that the seeds should be planted, and that then we 
would be supplied with a different variety of fruit, 
but with a healthy tree and perhaps better fruit. 

Those who thought that by sowing the seed they 
might obtain more healthy trees and more improved 
varieties were correct in their opinion, for in the seed 
is the germ of improvement, but it was necessary to 
observe other facts, and dive deeper into the laws of 
nature before it could be taken advantage of. 

It has been therefore a desirable thing to discover 
the law by which to obtain new good varieties. The 
celebrated Mr Knight, of very extensive experience 
in the propagation of fruit trees, attempted, though 
as we may believe on a very limited scale, to produce 
new varieties of the pear by introducing the pollen of 
one variety into the prepared blossom of another and 
raising trees from the seeds of the fruit thus obtained. 
But the method is complicated, and he never appears 
to have carried the experiment to much length, — 



i&t 



9 



and it is also a method somewhat uncertain. It is 
still by means of the wonderful virtue that is con- 
tained in the seed by which a new variety is to be 
produced. 

The best fruits it was well known were those rais- 
ed from the stone or the seed. At the village of Mon- 
treuil, near Paris, as it is stated by Sir J. Banks, 
where formerly the whole inhabitants were maintained 
by the raising of peaches, the best fruits were never 
budded or grafted, but always reared from the stone. 

There seems to be a very wonderful quality in the 
seed, and it is well known in the cultivation of 
annuals introduced from a warm climate, that if the 
season be of sufficient length for them to ripen their 
seeds, they (the seeds) become of such a virtue as to 
be able to resist the severest frosts with impunity. 
So speedily does nature strive to adapt herself to the 
new situations and exposures she may meet. 

It is also well known that plants and perennial 
shrubs do not grow hardier by time, when placed in 
a new exposure, that the suckers or cuttings from 
them also do not, but take with them the same qual- 
ity possessed by the stock from which they have been 
separated. But that the true method of inuring ten- 
der plants to colder climates, is by planting the seed 
perfected in such climate. In this way, many of the 
more beautiful plants of the South have been and more 
still may be made to perfect their seeds here, and 
others raised from their seed might be made to en- 
dure our winter and adorn our grounds. 

This method was pointed out by Sir Joseph Banks 
twenty years since, and he felt assured that though 



4&<? 



10 

some plants of peculiar delicacy and tenderness might 
require many generations to inure them to colder cli- 
mates, yet these wonderful though simple powers 
of the seed would produce finally the change. But 
the planting of seed is often of so prospective a ben- 
efit that few have the courage to plant. 

" Old as I am," says Sir Joseph Banks, in his com- 
munication to the London Horticultural Society,* " I 
certainly intend this year to commence experiments 
on the Myrtle and Laurel," and at the S£me time 
with great modesty but in a cheering tone, "I trust, 
therefore, it will not be thought presumptuous in me 
to invite those of my brethren who are younger than 
I am, and who of course will see the effect of more 
generations than I shall do, to take measures for 
bringing to the test the theory I have ventured to 
bring forward." Possibly by these means the Mag- 
nolia Glauca at some later time may adorn our woods 
more generally, and ornament the grounds of every 
residence in our vicinitv. 

It was known to the ancient cultivators, and per- 
haps it required no great experience to discover the 
fact that cuttings from the bearing branches did not 
afford durable trees.f 

Mr Knight recommended as a method of perpetu- 
ating a variety with vigor, to obtain plants from some 
detached part of the extremity of the roots. 

By sowing a large number of seeds at hazard, 
doubtless some good variety might be obtained, but 
the process might prove one of perplexity and disap- 
pointment instead of pleasure or profit. 

*Lon Hor. Trans, vol. I. p. 24. t Columella and Virgil. 



4l/ 



11 



These facts being known, that nature required to 
be refreshed in the seed, it was necessary that there 
should be some principle discovered concerning it. 

" In all things," says M. Poiteau, " it is necessary 
to have recourse to science, which is composed of 
reasonings deduced from particular facts and whence 
we deduce what is called a principle." 

The following remarks concerning M. Van Mons, 
are gathered from " Theorie Van Mons, ou Notice 
Historique sur a moyens qu'emploie M. Van Mons 
pour obtenir d'excellent fruit de semis ; par A. Poi- 
teau" — and from conversations with M. Emilien de 
Wael, a friend of both named distinguished gentle- 
men. The " Notice Historique" has been published 
in translation by the former President of the Society. 

M. Van Mons turned his attention to the discovery 
of the causes of variation in fruits and flowers. He 
commenced his experiments at the early age of fif- 
teen years in his father's garden at Brussels, with the 
seeds of roses and shrubs, and proceeded in the 
planting of successive generations, with a view to 
observe the changes and variations. Afterw T ards, he 
began with the seeds and stones of fruits. From his 
repeated sowings of annual flowers and perennial 
shrubs which bore fruit or perfected their seeds in a 
short time and by his accurate observations upon the 
results developed, and by his already extended know- 
ledge of the experience of others he arrived at this 
conclusion concerning varieties or variation. 

" That so long as plants remain in their natural sit- 
uations, they do not vary sensibly and their seeds 
always produce the same — but changing their cli- 



iL^ 



12 



mate and territory, they more or less vary, and that 
when they have once departed from their natural state 
(or commenced var}dng) they never return to it again, 
but are removed more and more therefrom by suc- 
cessive generations — and that finally if their varieties 
are even carried back to the territory of their ances- 
tors, they will neither represent the character of their 
parents or even return to the species from whence 
they sprung." 

He also established that so long as plants in a state 
of nature remain in their native soil they produce 
seeds which do not degenerate — but that it was dif- 
ferent with seeds of a tree in state of change — or 
as we say improvement, whether the variation be 
produced by change of climate, territory or other 
unknown causes, and that the bounds of this change 
or variation are not known, except that the last seeds 
from a tree in state of variation will produce a gen- 
eration nearer a state of nature than those from its 
first seeds. Hence, the necessity of raising from the 
first seeds of a new variety if we wish to obtain a 
tree far removed from a state of nature — as to that 
state the plant always in age by its seeds, tends, 
though never able quite to reach it. 

Upon this basis, he established his theory of pro- 
ducing new varieties of fruits, viz. that when we 
have produced a variation by removal or cultivation 
in any tree, let the first seeds be planted, and upon 
first production of fruit by the new generation, let 
its first seeds be planted, and so on without interrup- 
tion as it is expressed from parent to son, and at each 
remove it is found that the character of the tree be« 



#(>3 



13 

comes more like those of the old known and approved 
variety and the fruit advancing to perfection. 

He proceeded to verify his theory and for this pur- 
pose he collected in his nursery at Brussels eighty 
thousand plants, consisting of wild stoek and trees 
of every variety, and sowed large quantity of seeds 
and stones, and upon the fructification of these plants 
thus obtained, he sowed the first seeds, and so for- 
ward. Observing that the pear in the production 
from seeds differed most from the parent tree, he 
turned his principal attention to that fruit, though he 
failed not to carry on experiments with the several 
kinds both stone and seed. 

He was gratified to find that at each generation, 
the trees produced fruit in a shorter time, that the fruit 
nearer and nearer approached that of the several best 
known varieties. That the trees assume the appear- 
ance of the cultivated tree, that the thorns gradually 
were replaced by buds and bearing branches, and 
the process of change steady and certain, and that 
each step, variation or change seemed to be an effort 
to become more beautiful and grateful, thus repaying 
the care of man, though as we know at the cost of 
a short life. 

The disappearance of the thorn is a beautiful in- 
stance of the effect of cultivation, changing what in 
a wild state seems placed upon the tree for its defence 
into fruit-bearing branches, for now when taken under 
the protection of man, having no longer any need of 
arms, it is willing to exert its power to adorn and re- 
pay its benefactor. Mr Southey refers to this change 
in his lines upon the Holly Tree, 

" But when they grow where nothing is to fear, 
Smooth and unarmed the pointless leaves appear," 



HC'i 



14 

He has proceeded in his experiments as far as the 
ninth generation and has given to the world a large 
number of new delicious varieties of fruits. 

At the commencement of his experiments he was 
aware that it would consume much time, but having 
counted the cost he was prepared to meet it. He 
met with many difficulties, such as would naturally 
arise to one entering upon his labors with such a great 
heart and on so wide a scale. He could not obtain 
seeds from new varieties, and he was obliged to begin 
with seeds already degenerated, and the trees conse- 
quently bore fruit very tardily, though in his more 
recent attempts and as the generations increase, he 
has succeeded in obtaining fruit from the pear at the 
eighth generation as soon as four years from the 
planting. 

He may be considered as having established or 
made known some laws concerning the processes of 
nature, which will be of great service to the Horticul- 
turist of all nations, and render his name worthy per- 
petual remembrance. 

1st. That so long as plants remain in their natural 
situations they do not sensibly vary and their seeds 
always produce the same, but on changing their cli- 
mate and territory they mostly vary, some more, some 
less and that where they have departed from their 
natural state they never return to it again, but are 
removed more and more therefrom by successive 
generations and produce often distinct races, more or 
less durable — and finally, if the varieties are ever 
carried back to the territory of their ancestors, they 
will still continue in change and not return to the 
species from whence they sprang. 



^kS 



15 



2d. That there cannot be a cross fecundation be- 
tween a natural species and a variety. 

3d. That double flowers are not a variation, but a 
sign of feebleness. 

4th. That the varieties of the most delicate fruits 
are those which are the shortest lived. 

5th. That the seeds of an ancient variety, though 
of acknowledged excellence, will produce trees of 
great variety, but always with poor frnit. 

Although he has proceeded thus far, there is yet 
much to be discovered, and we are curious to know 
to what extent this amelioration can be carried, and 
what limit nature has set and the causes of it. These 
questions interest us much, and perhaps it is to be 
regretted that this Society has not a garden for the 
purpose, wherein to continue the experiments, which 
the age and misfortunes of this M. Van Mons pre- 
vents him from pursuing. I say misfortunes, for he 
is interesting to us, not only on account of his great 
learning and labors, but also on account of the many 
reverses he has met with. As I before remarked, 
he began his observations at Brussels, in his father's 
garden, at the age of fifteen years, and early became 
distinguished as a man of learning. He was for a 
short time engaged in politics, and this seems the least 
brilliant part of his life. At the age of twentytwo, 
he had established in his own mind his theory and 
proceeded to his labors in its behalf. During seven 
years, he held the office of Professor of Physic and 
Chemistry in the Central School of the Department 
of Dyle, and when Belgium became a separate sove- 
reignty was appointed as professor of those branches 



4u 



16 



ia the University of Louvain. He continued his ex- 
periments at Brussels, having at this time in his nur- 
sery nearly eighty thousand pears raised from the 
seed, some of which, being of the sixth generation, 
produced delicious fruit. A few years subsequent, 
in 1819, when in the enjoyment of success and the 
generous pleasure of dispensing the best varieties of 
fruit, which he also did without remuneration, the au- 
thorities decided that the spot occupied by him as a 
nursery was necessary for streets. With the fate of 
a martyr, though with the hope of a philosopher, he 
was obliged to relinquish the seat of his labors, and 
transport what could be saved in the nursery to Lou- 
vain, and having arduous duties to discharge in his 
capacity as professor and unable to give his personal 
attention his losses were very great. At Louvain he 
occupied a piece of land belonging to the city. Here 
he was again gratified in having his labors succeed. 
He replaced his losses, and giving the seed into the 
hand of nature waited patiently for the development. 
But in 1831, at the siege of Antwerp, though Brus- 
sels was somewhat distant, yet his nursery was the 
spot of ground selected upon which to build ovens to 
bake bread for the soldiers, and a great part of his 
nursery was consequently destroyed. But hiring 
another piece of ground he thither transported his 
trees of the seventh, eighth and ninth generations, and 
consoled himself by saving in scions, some of the 
remaining fruits. Thus the sun again shone upon 
him, till in 1834 his nursery was decided upon as the 
only proper point for the establishment of a gas house 
for lighting the city — and, says M. Poiteau with some 



7 



17 



humor as well as asperity, " Heaven grant that these 
gentlemen may be enabled to see better for the fu- 
ture" — though he intimates that they are only light- 
ing a torch to exhibit an act of ignorance and the 
grossest vandalism. 

For near half a century he has been patiently pur- 
suing his labors disseminating new and almost per- 
fect varieties of healthful fruit. He says "his sole end 
has always been to multiply those which are good 
and enable the world to enjoy them." He has per- 
severed through disappointments which would have 
broken any one not moved by high and the best mo- 
tives, and with a zeal which a genuine love of his 
labors and a desire to benefit mankind creates. Up- 
on being reminded that there were some omissions in 
his catalogues of data, which might be serviceable, he 
replies modestly "that his intention has not been to 
establish a science, but rather to do a good act, which 
would be immediately useful by the dissemination of 
good fruits." 

As poorly, gentlemen, as I may have set forth the 
theory, and spoken upon the labors and virtues of 
this our friend and correspondent, yet I thought it 
would not be proper to allow this festival of the So- 
ciety to pass without noticing them particularly, and 
being willing on our part to bear witness to the im- 
portance of his labors and discoveries — discoveries, 
showing us a process of nature directly bearing upon 
cultivation, as simple as it is beautiful. 

The success of the past year has been such as to 
encourage us to proceed in our labors with fresh zeal. 
The service of the Society to the cause of Horticul- 

3 



f^y 



18 



ture in this country, though it becomes us to speak 
of it with modesty, yet we cannot but regard with 
satisfaction, connecting us with eminent individuals 
abroad and encouraging exertions at home ; produc- 
ing in both relations an interchange of knowledge 
and friendship. 

We may therefore look upon our work with delight 
and pleasure — feeling sure that the humblest effort 
is not lost, but like the seed, though small and for a 
time hidden, may silently take root and grow to the 
exhibition of beautiful flowers and delicious fruits. 

By the exertions of the Horticulturist, the rich 
productions of the more favored climates are leaving 
their natural boundaries, and the world seems no lon- 
ger marked by zones, but wherever man is, with sci- 
ence, civilization and truth, thither all things beautiful 
and true follow. 



'ic 



? 



EIGHTH ANNIVERSARY 



OF THE 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY, 



The Annual Exhibition of the Massachusetts Horticultural 
Society took place on Saturday, September 24th, and the place / $ 
selected for the day and the occasion was the Artists' Gallery in 
Summer Street. The exhibition of Fruits and Flowers, &c, 
considering the many new and rare varieties and splendid speci- 
mens, which were this day shewn, fully sustained the character 
which it has continued to acquire during the former years. 

EXHIBITION OF FRUITS. 

Fruits were sent for the exhibition by the following gentlemen. 

By Mr Cowan, from the conservatory of Col. Perkins, in 
Brookline, beautiful specimens of Broomfield Nectarines, Mur- 
ray's do. ; Peaches, Noblesse and New Royal George ; Grapes, 
Black Hamburg, St Peters, Frankendale, Black Frontignac, 
Grizly Frontignac, White Syrian or Hamburg, White Chasselas, 
White Muscat of Alexandria, all remarkably fine and beautiful. 

By Jacob Tidd of Roxbury, Grizly Tokay, a bunch weighing 

1 pound and 5 ounces, and four clusters of Black Hamburg 
which respectively weighed 2 pounds 1 ounce, 1 pound 15 oun- 
ces, 1 pound 13 ounces, and 1 pound 10 ounces. Also one very 
extraordinary bunch of Regner de Nice grapes which weighed 
6 pounds 5 ounces, and 5 others which weighed respectively 
4 pounds 13 ounces, 3 pounds 7 ounces, 2 pounds 8 ounces, and 

2 pounds. 

By Mr Haggerston, from Belmont and the splendid conservatory 
of J. P. Cushing, Esq., some very extraordinary specimens of 
Williams' Bon Chretien and a large basket of various kinds of 



4-7° 

20 

fine grapes, of very handsome appearance and finely decorated. 
Also a large pot containing a living vine, coiled and loaded with 
fine ripe clusters of the Black Hamburg, the whole beautifully 
decorated with flowers. 

By Mr Hathorne of Salem, Pears, name unknown, large, and 
very sweet. 

By Gen. Josiah Newhall of Lynnfield, Porter Apples ; also 
fine specimens of the favorite and beautiful fruit described in the 
Pomological Magazine as the Capiaumont, and sent hither by Mr 
Knight under the same name, but now satisfactorily ascertained 
to be the Roi de Wurtemburg. Another Pear, large and very 
oblong, without name, but to appearance the Bourgmestre, or the 
kind heretofore so called with us. 

By B. V. French, from his estate in Braintree, Pears, name 
unknown ; also varieties of Apples, including Dutch Codlin, 
Monstrous Bellflower, Gravenstein, and Ruggles. A native 
fruit, large, red and handsome, austere in taste, but fine for cook- 
ing — a great bearer. Also a fruit received by him as the Mela 
Carla. 

By Jonathan Warren, of Weston, Warren's Seedling Apples, 
a fruit raised by him, small, red, of fine flavor and a great bearer. 
Another called the American Nonpareil, a new, large, red, beau- 
tiful pear, the size, shape and color of a large Baldwin, and now 
ripe — very tender, of a fine pleasant acid flavor. This fruit, 
which is highly deserving and a great bearer, originated on the 
farm of the Rev. Dr Puffer of Berlin, Mass. and the tree first 
bore fruit in 1828. Also specimens of the Porter. 

By Dennis Murphy, from his garden in Roxbury, Chelmsford 
Pears, otherwise called Mogul Summer. 

By E. Vose, President of the Society, Pears, the Bartlett or 
Williams' Bon Chretien, Roi de Wurtemberg [Capiaumont?], 
Napoleon, Lewis, Yerte Longue or Mouille Bouche, Andrews, 
and Urbaniste. Peaches, Grosse Mignonne, 

By Enoch Bartlett, Vice President of the Society, Pears, Ca- 
piaumont, as heretofore so called, Andrews, Gushing, Sylvanche 
Verte, Culotte de Suisse, Seckel, Johonnot, Marie Louise, Napo- 
leon. Apples, Hawthorndean, Porter, and a very large variety 
of a green color called the Mogul. 

By George Newhall, Esq. of Dorchester, Porter Apples, two 
.baskets. 



^ 71 



21 



By Mr Manning, about seventy varieties of Pears, as follows : 
Autumn Superb, Belle Lucrative, Belle et Bonne, Beurre Diel 
and Colmar, Souverain — the last two kinds Mr M. is confident 
are identical ; the last name name we believe is not found on the 
lists of Flanders, — Easter Beurre or Pentecote, Bezi Vaet, 
Black Pear of Worcester or Iron Pear, Bleecker's Meadow, 
Williams' Bon Chretien, Buffum, Capiaumont of Pom. Mag. or 
Wurtemberg, Catillac, Bezi de Chaumontelle, Cushing, Delices 
d'Hardenpont. Doyenne Blanc or St Michael, Eschassery, Glout 
Morceau, Sucre Verte, Sylvanche Verte, Henry IV., Jalousie, 
Louise Bonne, Marie Louise, Napoleon, Verte Longue, Naum- 
keag, Newton Virgalieu, Orange d'Hiver, Passe Colmar, Pope's 
Quaker, Princesse d' Orange, Raymond, Rousselet de Rheims, 
St Ghislain, Verte Longue Panache, Summer Thorn, Styrian, 
Washington, Wilkinson, Bowdoin, Winter Nelis or La Bonne 
Malinoise, Beurre de Bolwiller, Beurre Bosc, Fulton, Colmar 
Sabine of the French, Figue de Naples, Remsens, Green Pear 
of Yair, Thomson's (American) Beurre Von Marum, Holland 
Green, Gansel's Bergamot, Capsheaf, Coffin's Virgalieu, Saun- 
der's Beurre. Also some unnamed kinds. The above kinds of 
fruit are of the different seasons, of course but few were now in 
eating, and are therefore for re-examination at a future day. 
The apples exhibited by Mr Manning were, King of the Pippins, 
Fall Harvey, and Rambour Gros or Franc. 

By Mr Richards, Pears, Seckel, Verte Longue ; Apples, Amer- 
ican Summer Pearmain very fine, Porter. 

By William Oliver forn his estate in Dorchester, Pears, Broca's 
Bergamotte, Swan's Egg, St Ghislain, Howard and Seckel. 

By J. A. Kenrick ; Pears, Seckel, Harvard, Andrews. Apples 
Hubbardston Nonsuch, Hempstock and a large handsome fruit 
without a name. 

By Mr Sweetser from his garden at Cambridgeport. Large 
specimens of the Chelmsford Pear called the Mogul Summer. 

By Col. Wilder, Pears, Bartlett or Williams' Bon Chretien, and 
fine specimens of the Roxbury Russetting of the growth of 1835. 

By Joshua Gardner of Dorchester, Seckel Pears, Gravenstein 
Apples, very fine, monstrous Pippin, and a native sweet apple. 

By Gardner Brewer, Roi de Wurtemburg, tree transplanted 
from the Nursery last spring. 



4 7 3- 



22 



By William Kenrick, Beurre de Bol wilier Pears. &c. 

By John Woodbury, Golden Chasselas Grapes. 

By J. L. L. F. Warren of Brighton, Porter Apples, Sweetwater 
Grapes or Chasselas from out of door culture. A winter Squash 
the growth of 1835. 

By E. Breed of Charlestown, a very large Valparaiso Squash 
of the oval form, also another variety very large, flat and ribbed 
at its sides. 

By Mr McLellan, a green fleshed Persian Muskmelon. Also 
a Minorca Muskmelon, both from Oak Wood, the Mansion of 
William Pratt, Esq. of Watertown. 

By Thomas Mason of the Charlestown Vineyard, Sweetwater 
Grapes, Black Hamburg, and St Peters. 

By S. R. Johnson of Charlestown, Sweetwater Grapes, the 
produce of out of door culture, Black Hamburg and White Fron- 
tignac or Muscat. 

During the present unusually cold summer, the trees of the 
peach and the cherry have not borne their wonted and abundant 
supplies of fruit ; the blossoms having been destroyed by the last 
uncommon winter, yet though thus cut off from our usual sup- 
plies, we have the less reason to complaio, insomuch that but few 
of the trees which produced these fruits have been destroyed, and 
compared with many other sections of our country, even in more 
southern parallels of latitude, the climate of the country around 
Boston seems indeed highly favored. The climate of the exten- 
sive plains and valleys bordering on the great northern arteries or 
rivers of our country, seems in some degree very unfavorable. 
The cold aqueous vapor whch is so copiously exhaled from these 
rivers by day, descending by night on the hills, rolls downward 
by its superior density and gravity, resting and condensing on all 
the low plains and valleys, thus rendering them doubly exposed 
to the destructive frosts of winter and of summer. Moreover the 
winds, which unobstructed, follow almost invariably the longitud- 
inal course of the valleys of those rivers bring down alternately 
from higher regions and from high northern latitudes, and from 
other climes, a degree of cold during winter the most intense and 
destructive. On the best authority we are assured, that the Pears 
and particularly the Peach, and the Cherry, have during the last 
winter suffered partial destruction in the valley of the Connecti- 



¥l$ 



23 



cut as far south as the country around the city of Hartford, and 
even still further downwards and towards the sea. Even far 
below the city of Albany on the Hudson or North River, the 
Cherry particularly, and many other trees which are equally as 
hardy, and especially during all the period of their younger years, 
are, we are credibly assured, extremely liable to suffer death 
during winter from the same destructive climate and causes. 
The fine exhibition of fruits and the splendid varieties of flowers 
and other productions which was witnessed this day affords new 
evidence that we have abundant cause of gratitude. 

For the Committee, 

WILLIAM KENRICK. 

EXHIBITION OF FLOWERS. 

This day the Massachusetts Horticultural Society held their 
Annual meeting, at the Artists' Gallery, Summer-street, and not- 
withstanding the season has been unusually cold and unprosperous 
for the cultivation of flowers, yet, by the generous contributions 
of our friends, and the aid and assistance given by many of our 
members, the committee were enabled to decorate their exhibition 
rooms with much that was choice and rare. The flowers gener- 
ally, particularly the Dahlias, were in the highest state of perfec- 
tion ; and what was lacking in quantity, compared with former 
seasons, was in a great measure, made up in quality. The con- 
tribution of J. P. Cushing, Esq. of Watertbwn, by his gardener 
Mr David Haggerston, was magnificent. The pot of Black 
Hamburg Grapes richly decorated with Dahlias and other flow- 
ers, thus blending and uniting the handmaids of Flora and Pom- 
ona, was happily conceived and finely executed by Mr Haggerston. 
The specimens of Combretum purpureum, Crinurn amabella, 
Phaseolus corocolla, Nerium splendens, and Amaryllis belladona 
were very splendid. 

Thomas Lee, Esq. presented three vases of cut flowers, some 
of which were fine specimens. 

A fine bouquet from William Pratt, Esq. of Watertown. 

Handsome bouquets of cut flowers from the garden of the 
President of the Society, and from the garden of the Orator of 
the day. 



H1H 



24 



By Col. Marshal P. Wilder of Dorchester, twentysix specimens 
of seedling Pansies of great beauty. Also, Gloxinia maculata 
and other green house plants, and eightysix specimens of the 
Dahlia, among which we noticed a plant of Angelina transferred 
into a pot with sixteen fine flowers growing thereon ; this speci- 
men made a very imposing appearance. We also noticed in Mr 
Wilder's collection Widnall's Rising Sun, Bride of Abydos, 
Jupiter, Young's Black Ajax, Cross's yellow Hermione, Inwood's 
Ariel, Douglass's Glory, Erecta, Wells' Paragon, Young's fine 
Crimson and Dennissi. 

By Mr Samuel R. Johnson of Charlestown, a fine collection of 
Dahlias, including extra fine flowers of Cedi Nulli, Guido, and 
Lady Fordwich. 

From the garden of Mr S. Sweetser of Cambridgeport, bou- 
quets and one hundred and three specimens of the Dahlia, con- 
taining most of the choice varieties. We were much pleased 
with his specimens of Granta, Springfield Rival, Queen of 
Dahlias, Duke of Devonshire and Exeter. 

Messrs Hovey and Co. presented several splendid bouquets 
and sixtyeight fine specimens of Dahlias. In their collection we 
noticed Hermione, Zarah, Bride of Abydos, Urania, Widnall's 
Venus, do. Paris, and Beauty of Cambenvell. 

By Mr William E. Carter, of the Botanic Garden, Cambridge, 
several bouquets and one hundred and five specimens of the 
Dahlia. Mr Carter shew his Dahlias on a new plan — they met 
the eye at once and with great force. We noticed fine specimens 
of Satropa, Granta, Miss Pelham, Ophelia and the Duchess of 
Bedford. 

By Mr Mason of Charlestown, eightysix specimens of Dah- 
lias and several fine bouquets. Mr Mason shew two seedling 
Dahlias, together with some fine specimens of Granta, Village 
Maid, Dennissi, and Transcendent. 

Messrs John Richardson of Dorchester, William and John A. 
Kenrick of Newton, William Wales of Dorchester and S. Walker 
of Roxbury, each presented cut flowers, bouquets, &c. 

For the Committee, S. WALKER, Chairman. 



¥,7s 



25 



Note. — A box containing some fine Seedling Dahlias, among 
which the Beauty of Portland and Miss Neil appeared most 
'beautiful, China Asters, double, from single ones last year, and 
Pansies were received from Robert Milne, Gardener to M. 
P. Sawyer, Esq. of Portland, Me. but too late for exhibition. 
We regret that our Portland friend could not have forwarded his 
flowers in season to have taken a stand with some of Boston 
(cultivation ; they might not have suffered in comparison. 



4-1^ 



¥71 



OFFICERS 



OF *HE 

MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

FOR THE YEAR, 
COMMENCING ON THE FIRST SATURDAY OV OCTOBER, 1838. 



PRESIDENT. 

ELIJAH VOSE, Dorchester. 

VICE-PRESIDENTS. 

E. BARTLETT, Roxbury. 
JONATHAN WINSHIP, Brighton. 
SAMUEL A. SHURTLEFF, Boston. 
JOHN PRINCE, Roxbury. 

TREASURER. 

WILLIAM WORTHINGTON, Dorchester 

CORRESPONDING SECRETARY. 

ROBERT TREAT PAINE, Boston. 

RECORDING SECRETARY. 

EZRA WESTON, Jr., Boston. 

COUNSELLORS. 

THEODORE LYMAN, Jr., Boston. 
AUGUSTUS ASPINWALL, Brookline. 
THOMAS BREWER, Roxbury. 
HENRY A. BREED, Lynn. 
M. P. SAWYER, Boston. 
NATHANIEL DAVENPORT, Milton. 



^% 



29 



E. HERSY DERBY, Salem. 
THOMAS WHITMARSH, Brookline. 
J. M. GOURGAS, Weston. 
OLIVER FISK, Worcester. 
WILLIAM PRATT, Jr. Boston. 
SAMUEL JAQUES, Jr. Charlestown. 
JOSEPH G. JOY, Boston. 
WILLIAM KENRICK, Newton. 
JOHN LEMIST, Roxbury. 
BENJAMIN RODMAN, New-Bedford. 
THOMAS G. FESSENDEN, Boston. 
CHARLES TAPPAN, Boston. 
JACOB TIDD, Roxbury. 
JONATHAN WINSHIP, Brighton. 
AARON D. WILLIAMS, Roxbury. 
J. W. WEBSTER, Cambridge. 
GEORGE W. BRIMMER, Boston. 
DAVID HAGGERSTON, Watertown. 
CHARLES LAWRENCE, Salem. 

PROFESSOR OF BOTANY AND VEGETABLE PHYSIOLOGY, 

Rev. JOHN L. RUSSELL. 

PROFESSOR OF ENTOMOLOGY. 

T. W. HARRIS, M. D. 

PROFESSOR OF HORTICULTURAL CHEMISTRY. 

J. W. WEBSTER, M. Ik 



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J'aP.&ESrSDaSff® ©©ESSSSSS'srei^ 



COMMITTEE ON FRUITS. 



WILLIAM KENRICK, Chairman. 
ROBERT MANNING, 
BENJA. V. FRENCH, 
EDWARD M. RICHARDS, 
JOHN A. KENRICK, 
JOHN M. IVES, Salem, 



SAMUEL A. SHURTLEFF, 

SAMUEL DOWNER, 

SAMUEL POND, 

P. B. HOVEY, 

L. P. GROSVENOR. 



COMMITTEE ON PRODUCTS OF KITCHEN GARDEN. 



D. CHANDLER; Chairman. 
JACOB TIDD, 
NATHANIEL DAVENPORT, 



AARON D. WILLIAMS, 
LEONARD STONE, 
RUFUS HOWE. 



COMMITTEE ON FLOWERS, SHRUBS, ETC. 



SAMUEL WALKER, Chairman. 
G. M. HOVEY, 
JOSEPH BRECK, 
S. SWEETSER, 



D. HAGGERSTON, 
SAMUEL R JOHNSON, 
M. P. WILDER. 



COMMITTEE ON THE LIBRARY. 



ELIJAH VOSE, Chairman. 
JACOB B1GELOW, 
T. W. HARRIS, 
ROBERT T. PAINE, 



J. E. TESCHEMACHER, 
EZRA WESTON, Jr. 
CHARLES M. HOVEY. 



COMMITTEE ON SYNONYMS OF FRUIT. 



JOHN LOWELL, Chairman 
ROBERT MANNING, 



WILLIAM KENRICK, 
SAMUEL DOWNER. 



EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE. 



ELIJAH VOSE, Chairman 
CHEEVER NEWHALL, 
BENJA. V. FRENCH, 



JOSEPH T. BUCKINGHAM, 
L. P. GROSVENOR. 



COMMITTEE OF FINANCE. 

ELIJAH VOSE, Chairman. JNeNJA. V. FRENCH. 

CHEEVER NEWHALL, - 



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us a as suss 



OF THE 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



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Armstrong, Samuel T. Boston. 
Aspinwali, Augustus, Brookline. 
Andrews, John H. Salem. 
Andrews, Ebenezer T. Boston. 
Anthony, James, Providence. 
Adams, Samuel, Milton. 
Andrews, Ferdinand, Lancaster. 
Atkinson. Amos, Brookline. 
Adams, Daniel, Newbery. 
Appleton, Samuel, Boston. 
Adams, Charles F. Quincy. 
Adamson, John, Roxbury. 
Andrews, William T. Boston. 

Bartlett, Enoch, Roxbury. 

Brewer, Thomas, " 

Brimmer, George W. Boston. 

Bradlee, Joseph P. " 

Breed, Ebenezer, " 

Breed, Henry A. Lynn. 

Bigelow, Jacob, Boston. 

Breed, Andrews, Lynn. 

Bailey, Kendall, Charlestown. 

Brown, James, Cambridge. 

Buckminster, Lawson, Framingham, 

Buckminster, Edward F. " 

Bradford, Samuel D. Boston. 

Breck, Joseph, " 

Bailey , Ebenezer, " 

Bishop, N. H. Medford. 

Brewer, Eliab Stone, Boston. 

Badlam, Stephen, M 

Beal, George W. Quincy. 

Boott, William, Boston. 

Brown, J. M. " 

Brimmer, Martin, " 

Bangs, Edward D. " 

Balch, Joseph, Roxbury. 

Bond, George, Boston. 

Billings, Joseph H. Roxbury. 

Brown, Charles, Boston. 

Bussey, Benjamin, Roxbury. 

Buckingham, Joseph T. Cambridge. 

Bond, George W. Boston. 

Bowen, Charles, " '."': " 



Cook, Zebedee, jr. Boston. 
Codman, John, Dorchester. 
Clapp, Nathaniel, " 
Coolidge, Joseph, Boston. 
Copeland, B. F. Roxbury. 
Cogswell, J. G. Northampton. 
Champney, John, Roxbury. 
Cowing, Cornelius, ts 
Cowing, Howland, jr, Boston. 



Carter, William, Cambridge. 
Curtis, William, Newton. 
Coolidge, Josiah, Cambridge. 
Cowan, Wm. H. Brighton. 
/Cruft, Edward, Boston. 
Chandler, Daniel, Lexington. 
Callender, Joseph, Boston. 
Chase, Hezekiah, Lynn. 
Clapp, John, South Reading. 
Carter, Horatio, Lancaster. 
Carnes, Nathaniel G. Neio York. 
Curtis, Edward, Pepperill. 
Chandler, Samuel, Lexington. 
Capen, Aaron, Dorchester. 
Crowninshield, Benjamin W. Boston. 
Cotting, William, West Cambridge. 
Cabot, Samuel, Brookline. 
Coffin, Hector, Rock Farm, Newbury. 
Curtis, Nathaniel, Roxbury 
Clapp, Isaac. Dorchester. 
Crafts, Ebenezer, Roxbury. 
Coolidge, Samuel F. Boston. 
Cowing, N. H. Brookline. 
Crane, Joshua, Boston. 
Coolidge, Thomas B. Boston. 
Child Joshua, " 



-"- 



Dearborn, H. A. S. Boston/ 
Davis, Isaac P. " 

Downer, Samuel, Dorchester. 
Dudley, David, Roxbury. 
Doggett, John, Boston. 
Davenport, Nathaniel, Milton. 
Davis, Charles, Roxbury. 
Dorr, Nathaniel, " 
Dodge, Pickering, jr. Salem. 
Derby, E. H. " 

Dickson, James A. Boston. 
Davis, John, " 

Downes, John, " 

Dyer, E. D. " 

Davis, N. Morton, Plymouth. 

Emmons, Robert, L. Boston. 
Everett, Edward, Charlestown. 
Eustis, James, South Reading. 
Ellis, Charles, Roxbury. 
Edwards, Elisha, Springfield. 
Eldredge, Edward, Boston. 
Eager, William, " 
_j Endicott, Wm. P. Salem. 

French, Benjamin V. Boston. 
^Fessenden, Thomas G. " 
Frothingham, Samuel, " 



iilh 



32 



Forrester, John, Salem. 
Fisk, Oliver, Worcester. 
Fosdick, David, Charlestown 
Fletcher Richard, Boston. 
Field Joseph, Weston. 
Fitch, Jeremiah, Boston. 
Francis, J. B Wanoick, R. I. 
Freeman, Russell, Sandwich. 
Fay, Samuel P. P. Cambridgeport' 
Faxon, Nathaniel, Boston. 
Felt, Oliver S. " 

Gray, John C. Boston. 
Greenleaf, Thomas, Quincy. 
Gourgas, J . M. Weston. 
Green, Charles W. Roxbury. 
Gore, Watson, " 

Gannett, T B. Cambridgeport. 
Gould, Daniel, Reading. 
Gardner, W. F. Salem. 
Gardner, Joshua, Dorchester. 
Goodwin, Thomas J. Charlestown. 
Guild, Benjamin, Boston. 
Gibbs, Benjamin, Cambridgeport. 
Grant, Benjamin B. Boston. 
Gould, Benjamin A. " 
Gray, John, " 

Grosvenor, L. P. " 

Harris, Samuel D. Boston. 
Haskins, Ralph, Roxbury. 
Heard, John, jr. Boston. 
Hill, Jeremiah, " 
Hollingsworth, Mark, Milton. 
Harris, Wm. T. Cambridge. 
Holbrook, Amos, Milton. 
Howe, Rufus, Dorchester. 
Hayden, John, Brookline. 
Howes, Frederick, Salem. 
Haggerston, David, Watertown. 
Howland, John. jr. New Bedford. 
Hayward, George, Boston. 
Higginson, Henry, " 
Hall. Dudley, Medford. 
Hartshorn, Eliphalet P. Boston. 
Houghton, Abel, jr. Lynn. 
Hovey, P B. jr. Cambridgeport. 
Hurd, William, Charlestown. 
Howe, Hall, J. Boston. 
Hodges, J.L. Plymouth, 
Hodge, Isaac L. Plymouth. 
Hovey, Charles M Cambridgeport. 
Hayward, Charles, Boston. 
Hayden, Frederick, Lincoln- 
Hyde, Samuel, jr. Neicton. 
Hammond. H. H. Lexington. 
Howard, John C. Brookline. 

Ives, John M.Salem. 

Jaques, Samuel, jr. Charlestown. 
Jackson, Patrick T. Boston. 
Joy, Joseph G. " 

Jackson, James, " 

Josselyn, Lewis, " 

Johonnot, George S. Salem. 
Jones, L. D. Neic Bedford. 

Kenrick, William, Newton. 
King, John, Medford. 
Kidder, Samuel, Charlestown. 
Kuhn, George II Boston. 
Kendall, Abel, jr. " 
Kenrick, John A. Newton. 
Kenrick, Enoch B. " 

Lincoln, Levi, Worcester. 
Lincoln, William, <: 



Lowell, John, Roxbury. 
Lee, Thomas, jr. " 
Lemist, John, " 

Lyman, Theodore, jr. Boston. 
Lowell, John A. 
Lawrence, Abbott, " 

Lyman, George W. 
I.oring, W J. 
Lowell, John jr. 
Lawrence, Charles, Salem. 
Leland. Daniel, Sherburne, 
Leland! J. P. 
Low, John J. Boston. 

Manning, Robert, Salem. 

Manners, George, Boston. 

Minns, Thomas, " 

Morrill, Ambrose, Lexington. 

Munroe, Jonas, M 

Mussey, Benjamin, " 

Motley, Edward, Boston. 

Mason, Lowell, " 

Montague, Wm. H. " 

Morse, S. F. " 

Means, James, " 

Mackay, John, ■* 

Mead Isaac, Charlestown , 

Mead, Samuel O. West Cambridge. 

xVIason, Thomas, Charlestown. 

Miller, Edward, Boston. 

Mason, Jeremiah, " 

Murphy, Dennfs, Roxbury. 

Mason, Thomas H. Charlestown. 

Newhall, Cheever, Dorchester. 
Newhall, George, " 

Nichols, Otis, M 

Nuttall, Thomas, Cambridge. 
Newell, Joseph R. Boston. 
Newhall. Josiah, Lynnfield. 
Newman, Henry ; Roxbury. 
Newell, Joseph W. Chariest oicn. 

Otis, Harrison G. Boston. 
Oliver, Francis J. " 
Oliver, William, Dorchester. 
Oxnard, Henry, Brookline. 

Perkins, Thomas H Boston. 
Perkins, Samuel G. 
Putnam, Jesse, *' 

Pratt, George W. " 

Prescott, William, ■' 

Parsons, Gorham, Brighton. 
Pettee, Otis, Newton. 
Prince, John, Roxbury. 
Phinney, Elias, Lexington. 
Prince, John, jr. Salem. 
Peabody, Francis. " 
Perry, G. B. East Bradford. 
Perry, John, Sherburne. 
Pond, Samuel, Cambridgeport. 
Paine, Robert Treat, Boston. 
Pond, Samuel M. Bucksport, Me. 
Prescott, C H. Cornwallis 1 N. S. 
Parker, Daniel P. Boston. 
Pratt, William, jr. " 
Priest, John F. " 

Philbrick, Samuel, Brookline. 
Prouty, Lorenzo, Boston. 
Pickman, D. L. Salem. 
Phipps, Rufus T. Charlestown. 
*- Pool, Ward, Danvers. 

Perkins, Thomas H. jr. Boston. 

fond, Samuel, jr. 
ayne, W. E. " 

Preston, John, '* 

Putnam, Ebenezer, Salem. 



i?3 



33 



Parker, Isaac, Boston., 
Phillips, S. C. Salem. 

Quincy, Josiah, jr. Boston. 

Robbins, E. H. jr. Boston. 

Rullins, William, " 

Rice, John P. « 

Rice, Henry, u 

Read, James, Roxbury. 

Robbins, P. G. « c 

Rowe, Joseph. Milton. 

Rogers, R. S. Salem. 

Rodman, Benjamin, New Bedford. 

Rotch, William, jr. " 

Richardson, Nathan, South Reading. 

Rand, Edward S. Newburyport. 

Richards, Edward M. Dedham. 

Russell, J. L. Salem. 

Russell, James, Boston. 

Russell, George, M. D. Lincoln. 

Rogerson, Robert, Boston. 

Ruggles, M. H. Troy. 

Read, George, Roxbury. 

Russell, Joseph, Boston. 

Silsby, Enoch, Boston. 

Sullivan, Richard, Brookline. 

Senior, Charles, Roxbury. 

Sumner, William H. Dorchester. 

Sawyer, M. P. Boston. 

Sharp, Edward, Dorchester. 

Smith, Cyrus, Sandwich. 

Sutton, William, jr. Danvers. 

Story, F. H. Salem. 

Snidman, Josiah, Newton. 

Stearns, Charles, Springfield. 

Shurtleff, Samuel A. Boston. 

Springer, John, Sterling. 

Saltonstall, Leverett, Salem. 

Shaw, Lemuel, Boston. 

Smith, J. M. " 

Sisson, Freeborn, Warren* R. I. 

Smith, Stephen, H. Providence, R. I. 

Swan, Daniel, Medford. 

Stone, Leonard, Watertown. 

Stone, William, " 

Stone, Isaac, " 

Story, Joseph, Cambridge. 

Sparhawk, E. C " 

Sheaf, Henry, " 

Stevens, Isaac, " 

Stearns, William, " 

Sweetser, Samuel, Cambridgeport. 



Skinner, John, Charlestown. 

Tappan, Charles, Boston 
Tidd, Jacob, Roxbury. 
Thompson, George, Medford. 
Train, Samuel, " 

Thorndike, Israel, Boston. 
Thwing, Supply C. Roxbury. 
Tucker, Richard D. Boston. 
Tilden, Joseph, " 

Toothey, Roderick, Waltham. 
Thomas, Benjamin, Hingham. 
Taylor, Charles, Dorchester. 
Tremlett, Thomas B. " 
Tyler, George W. Charlestown. 

Vose, Elijah, Dorchester. 
Vila, James, Boston. 

Williams, Nehemiah D. Roxbury. 
Wilder, M. P. Boston. 
Williams, Aaron D. Roxbury. 
Worthington, William, Dorchester. 
Webster, J. W. Cambridge. 
White, Abijah, Watertown. 
Wight, Ebenezer, Boston- 
Winship, Jonathan, Brighton. 
Wilder, S. V. S. Bolton. 
Waldo, Daniel, Worcester. 
Wyeth, Nathaniel, jr. Cambridge. 
West, Thomas, Haverhill. 
Willard, Joseph, Lancaster. 
Whitmarsh, Samuel, Northampton. 
Whitmarsh, Thomas, Brookline. 
Warren, Jonathan, jr. Weston. 
Webster, Nathan, Haverhill. 
Wilson, John, Roxbury. 
White, Stephen, Boston. 
Webster, Daniel, " 
Ward, Richard, Roxbury. 
Weld, Aaron D. jr. Boston. 
Walker, Samuel, Roxbury. 
Winship, Francis, Brighton. 
Willett, Thomas, Charlestown. 
Wolcott, Edward, Pawtucket. 
Williams, John, Cambridgeport. 
Ward, Malthus A. Salem. 
Winthrop, Thomas L. Boston. 
Wheelwright, Lot, jr. " 
Wheelwright, John F. Brighton. 
Weston, Ezra, jr. Boston. 
Waldo, Henry, S. " 
Winchester, W. P. " 
Warren, Jonas, Weston- 






14 <L l 



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m^w^m.&w*^ mmrn'mmm, 



ADAMS, Hon. JOHN QUINCY, late President of the United States. 

AITON, WILLIAM TOWNSEND, Curator of the Royal Gardens, Kew. 

ABBOT, JOHN, Esq. Brunswick, Me. 

ABBOT, BENJAMIN, LL. D. Principal of Phillips Academy, Exeter, N.H. 

BUEL, JESSE, Esq. President of the Albany Horticultural Society. 

BODIN, Le Chevalier SOULANGE, Secretaire-General de la Societe 
d'Horticulture de Paris. 

BANCROFT, EDWARD NATHANIEL, M. D. President of the Horti- 
cultural and Agricultural Society of Jamaica. 

BARCLAY, ROBERT, Esq. Great Britain. 

BEEKMAN, JAMES, New York. 

BARBOUR, P. P. Virginia. 

BLAPIER, LEWIS, Philadelphia. 

COXE, WILLIAM, Esq. Burlington, New Jersey. 

COLLINS, ZACCHEUS, Esq. President of the Pennsylvania Horticul- 
tural Society, Philadelphia. 

COFFIN, Admiral Sir ISAAC, Great Britain. 

CHAUNCY, ISAAC, United States Navy, Brooklyn, New York. 

CLAY, HENRY, Kentucky. 

DICKSON, JAMES, Esq. Vice President of the London Horticultural 
Society. 

DE CANDOLLE, Mons. ANGUSTIN PYRAMUS, Professor of Botany 
in the Academy of Geneva. 

De La SAGRA, Don RAMON, Cuba. 

*ELLIOTT, Hon. STEPHEN, Charleston, S. C. 

EVERETT, HORACE, Vermont. 

EVANSON, CHARLES ALLAN, Secretary of King's County Agricul- 
tural Society, St Johns, N. B. 

FALDERMANN, F. Curator of the Imperial Botanic Garden, at St Pe- 
tersburg. 

FISCHER, Dr, Professor of Botany, of the Imperial Botanic Garden, at 
St Petersburg. 

* Those parked thus * are deceased* 



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36 



GALES, JOSEPH, Jr. Vice President of the Washington Horticultural 
Society, Washington. 

*GOLDSBOROUGH, ROBERT H., U. S. Senator, Maryland. 

GREIG, JOHN, Esq. Geneva, President of the Domestic Horticultural 
Society of the Western part of the State of New York. 

*GORE, Mrs REBECCA, Waltham. 

GRIFFITH, Mrs MARY, Charlies Hope, New Jersey. 

*GIRARD, STEPHEN, Philadelphia. 

GIBBS, GEORGE, Sunswick, New York. 

HERICART DE THURY, Le Vicomte, President de la Societe d'Horti- 
culture de Paris. 

*HOSACK, DAVID, M. D. President of the New York Horticultural So- 
ciety. 

HOPKIRK, THOMAS, Esq. President of the Glasgow Horticultura 1 
Society. 

HUNTS, LEWIS, Esq. Huntsburgh, Ohio. 

HILDRETH,S. P. Marietta, Ohio. 

INGERSOLL, JAMES R. [President of the Hor ticultural Society of 
Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. 

JACKSON, ANDREW, President of the United States. 

JOHONNOT, Mrs MARTHA, Salem. 

KNIGHT, THOMAS ANDREW, Esq. President of the London Horti- 
cultural Society. 

LOUDON, JOHN CLAUDIUS, Great Britain. 

LUDWIG, BARON H. CAROL VON, Cape Town, Cape of Good Hope. 

♦LAFAYETTE, General, La Grange, France. 

LASTED R1E, Le Compt de, Vice President de la Societe d'Horticulture 
de Paris. 

LITCHFIELD, FRANKLIN, Consul of the United States at Porto Ca- 
bello. 

LORRILLARD, JACOB, President of the New York Horticultural So- 
ciety, New York. 

LONGSTRETH, JOSHUA, Philadelphia. 

LONGWORTH, NICHOLAS, Cincinnati. 

*MADlSON, Hon. JAMES, late President of ihe United States, Virginia 

*MONROE, Hon. JAMES, late President of rhe United States, Virginia. 

MICHAUX, Mons. F. ANDREW, Paris. 

MENTENS, LEWIS JOHN, Esq Bruxelles. 

*MITCHELL, SAMUEL L., M. D. New York. 

MOSSELLMAN, , Esq. Antwerp. 

MERCER, Hon. CHARLES F. Virginia. 

M'CAULEY, D. SMITH, Consul General United States, Tripoli. 

McKIM, Hon. ISAAC, M. C. Baltimore, Maryland. 

OTTENI'ELS, Baron, Austrian Minister to the Ottoman Porte. 

POITEA.U, Professor of the Institut Horticole de Fromont. 

POWELL, JOHN HARE, Powellton, Pennsylvania. 

PRINCE, WILLIAM, Esq4-Tong Island, New York. 



Y-?7 



37 



PRATT, HENRY, Philadelphia. 

PALMER, JOHN, Esq. Calcutta. 

ROSEBERRY, ARCHIBALD JOHN, Earl of, President of the Caledo- 
nian Horticultural Society. 

SABINE, JOSEPH, Esq. Secretary of the London Horticultural Society. 

SHEPHERD, JOHN, Curator of the Botanic Garden, Liverpool. 

*SCOTT, Sir WALTER, Scotland. 

SKINNER, JOHN S. Baltimore. 

TURNER, JOHN, Assistant Secretary of London Horticultural Society. 

THACHER, JAMES, M. D. Plymouth. 

THORBURN, GRANT, Esq. New York. 

TALIAFERRO, JOHN, Virginia. 

THOURS, M. DU PETIT, Paris, Professor Poiteau of the Institut Horti- 
cole de Fromont. 

TOWSON, NATHANIEL, President of the Washington Horticultural 
Society, Washington. 

VILMORIN, Mons. PIERRE PHILLIPPE ANDRE, Paris. 

VAUGHAN, BENJAMIN, Esq. Hallowell, Me. 

VAN MONS, JEAN BAPTISTE, M. D. Brussels. 

VAUGHAN, PETTY, Esq. London. 

VAN RENSELLAER, STEPHEN, Albany. 

VAN ZANDT, JOSEPH R. Albany. 

VANDERBURG, FEDERAL, M. D. New York. 

WELLES, Hon. JOHN, Boston. 

WILLICK, NATHANIEL, M. D. Curator of the Botanic Garden, Cal- 
cutta. 

WADSWORTH, JAMES, Genesee, New York. 

WARD, MALTHUS A. Franklin College, Athens, Georgia. 

WOLCOTT, FREDERICK, Litchfield, Connecticut. 

YATES, ASHTON, Esq. Liverpool. 



@©2E2E5!^5P® JSTDUM© ®S 1^ ESS 5B 21 S& ^ ■ 

ADLUM, JOHN, Georgetown, District of Columbia. 
ASPINWALL. Col. THOMAS, United States Consul, London. 
APPLETON, THOMAS, Esq. United States Consul, Leghorn. 

ALPEY, . 

AQUILAR, DON FRANCISCO, of Moldonoda, in the Banda Oriental 

Consul of the<United States. 
BARNET, ISAAC COX, Esq United States Consul, Paris. 
BRUSH, Dr NEHEMIAH, East Floriia. 
BURTON, ALEXANDER, United States Consul Cadiz. 
BULL, E. W. Hartford, Connecticut. 



Hn 



38 

BROWN, JOHN W. Fort Gaines, Georgia. 

CARR, ROBERT, Esq. Philadelphia. 

COLVILLE, JAMES, Chelsea, England. 

CARNES, FRANCIS G. Paris. 

DEER1NG, JAMES, Portland, Me. 

COBELLEW, Dr TINIO VINCENT, Horticultural Garden, Palermo. 

EMMONS, EBENEZER, M. D. Williamstown. 

FLOY, MICHAEL, New York. 

FOX, JOHN, Washington, District of Columbia. 

FELLOWS, NATHANIEL, Cuba. 

FOSTER, WILLIAM REDDING, Baltimore. 

GARDNER, ROBERT H. Esq. Gardiner, Me. 

GIBSON, ABRAHAM P. United States Consul, St Petersburg. 

GARDNER, BENJAMIN, United States Consul, Palermo. 

HALL, CHARLES HENRY, Esq. New York. 

HAY, JOHN, Architect of the Caledonian Horticultural Society. 

HALSEY, ABRAHAM, Corresponding Secretary of the New Tfork Hor- 
ticultural Society, New York. 

HARRIS, Rev. T. M., D. D. Boston. 

HUNTER, , Baltimore. 

HOGG, THOMAS, New York. 

HENRY, BERNARD, Gibraltar. 

HITCHCOCK, I. I. Baltimore. 
JOHNSON, WM. J , M. D. Fort Gaines, Georgia. 

LANDRETH, DAVID, jr. Esq. Corresponding Secretary of the Pennsyl- 
vania Horticultural Society. 
LEONARD, E. S. H., M. D. Providence. 
MAURY, JAMES, Esq. Virginia. 
MILLER, JOHN, M. D. Secretary of the Horticultural and Agricultural 

Society, Jamaica. 
MILLS, STEPHEN, Esq Long Island, New York. 
MELVILLE, ALLAN, New York. 
M'LEAY, WILLIAM SHARP. 
NEWHALL, HORATIO, M. D. Galena, Illinois. 
OFFLEY, DAVID, Esq. United States Consul, Smyrna. 
OMBROSI, JAMES, United States Consul, Florence. 
PARKER, JOHN, Esq. United States Consul, Amsterdam. 
PAYSON, JOHN L. Esq. Messina. 
PORTER, DAVID, Charge de Affaires, Constantinople. 
PRINCE, WILLIAM ROBERT, Esq. Long Island, New York. 
PRINCE, ALFRED STRATTON, Long Island. 
PERRY, M. C. United States Navy, Charlestown. 
PALMER, JOHN J. New York. 

ROGERS, WILLIAM S. United States Navy, Boston. 
REYNOLDS, M. D. Schenectady, New York. 
ROGERS, J. S« Hartford, Conn. 
RICHARDS, JOHN H. Paris 



i-Py 



39 



ROTCH, THOMAS, Philadelphia. 

*SHALER, WILLIAM, United States Consul General, Cuba. 

SMITH, DANIEL D. Esq. Burlington, New Jersey. 

SMITH, GIDEON B. Baltimore. 

SHAW, WILLIAM, New York. 

STRONG, Judge, Rochester, New York. 

STEPHENS, THOMAS HOLDUP, United States Navy, Middletown, 

Connecticut. 
SMITH, CALEB R. Esq. New Jersey. 
SPRAGUE, HORATIO, United States Consul, Gibraltar. 
SUMMEREST, FRANCIS. 
STRANGEWAY, WILLIAM FOX, British Secretary of Legation a t 

Naples. 
THORBURN, GEORGE C. New York. 
TILLSON, JOHN, jr, Illinois. 

TENORE, Professor, Director of the Botanical Garden at Naples. 
THOMPSON, ROBERT, Esq. London. 
WILSON, WILLIAM, New York. 
WINGATE, J. F. Bath, Me. 
WINGATE, JOSHUA, Portland. 
WINTHROP, JOSEPH AUGUSTUS, South Carolina. 
WAEL, EM1LIEN DE, Antwerp. 



H^b 



^91 



AN 



ADDRESS 



DELIVERED BEFORE THE 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 



AT THEIR 



NINTH ANNIVERSARY, 



SEPTEMBER 20, 1837. 



BY WILLIAM LINCOLN, 

OF WORCESTER. 



Boston: 

DUTTON AND WENTWORTH, PRINTERS, 

Nos. 10 and 12 Exchange Street. 

1837. 



f f-3- 



*7S 



BOSTON, SEPTEMBER 23, 1837 . 

Dear Sir — At a meeting of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society, held this 
clay, the President in the chair, the following - votes were passed, which we beg" leave 
to communicate : 

Voted, That the thanks of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society be presented 
to William Lincoln, Esq. for his able and interesting Address, delivered at its Anni- 
versary meeting, on the 20th instant : and that he be respectfully requested to fur- 
nish a copy for publication. 

Voted, That Messrs. Isaac P. Davis, L. P. Grosvenor, and Ezra Weston, Jr., be 
requested to carry the foregoing vote into effect. 

We are, with respect, yours, &c, 



William Lincoln, Esq. 



I. P. DAVIS, ^ 

L. P. GROSVENOR, > Committee. 

E. WESTON, Jr. ) 



WORCESTER, SEPTEMBER 26, 1837. 

Gentlemen — I have had the honor and pleasure of receiving your note, en- 
closed in a beautiful envelope of fruits and flowers. The good opinion the Massa- 
chusetts Horticultural Society have been pleased to express, of the Address deliv- 
ered on their Ninth Anniversary, is so valuable, that I much desire to avoid the risk 
of the loss of precious approbation, by refusing to appeal from the indulgence ex- 
tended over spoken words, to the deliberate judgment which may review printed 
sheets. But, in compliance with your wish, and the established custom, I place the 
manuscript at your disposal. 

With respectful regard, 

I am, Gentlemen, your friend, 

WILLIAM LINCOLN. 
Messrs. I. P. Davis, 

L. P. Grosvenor, 

E. Weston, Jr. 



¥<W 



y?J 



ADDRESS 



Another annual period of our course is finished. 
Once more we have met, with grateful humility to 
implore the continued benediction of Providence on 
the cause of improvement ; with heartfelt rejoicing 
to review the useful results we have been permitted 
to accomplish ; with cheerful confidence to renew 
united efforts for the common benefit ; and again to 
endeavor to fulfil the measure of duty, by doing all 
the good in our power to every fellow being. 

The close of a year, that wide space, in social as 
in human existence, is an era of very familiar, but 
of peculiar interest. Whether falling, according to 
the computation of the calendar, amid the storms of 
winter, or stealing on our path when spring unfolds 
the multitude of buds, and unrols the broad carpet 
of verdure over valley and hill side ; or overtaking 
us when autumn spreads her robe of many colors 
over the green dress of field and forest, and the 
plant wraps itself up for its long sleep ; it brings a 
mingled crowd of sad and joyous reflections. Each 
anniversary gives us a point, where we may pause, 
to look backward over the past, upon the progress 
we have made, and onward through the future, to 
estimate the extent of usefulness which separates us 
from the termination of our pilgrimage. It stands 
like a milestone along the highway of time. When 



6 

we reach the boundary of each returning period, 
there is the indulgence of a brief stopping place, 
where we may repose for a moment before we are 
hurried away on the next stage of our rapid journey. 

It w T as the fanciful conception of Linneus, to mea- 
sure the flight of time by a dial of flow 7 ers. The 
graduated circle was constructed of chosen plants ; 
clusters of blossoms stood for the figures on the 
plate ; and the coming or departing hours of his 
well improved days glided on, thus marked, as if 
with the fragrance of their own good works. A 
happy thought has perfected the invention of the 
great naturalist, and blended utility with its beauty, 
by gathering the richest fruits of the orchard and 
the fairest flowers of the garden into annual exhibi- 
tions. As the shadow of the declining year moves 
over the rare collections, the index points to the in- 
creasing skill which matures the products of cultiva- 
tion, and to the generosity bestowing on the public 
examples of excellence for the imitation of all. 

Could some learned interpreter faithfully trans- 
late to the ear the language addressed to the eye 
by each member of the autumnal convention of the 
offspring of the earth, no other words could be 
needed to illustrate success, itself the best reward 
of exertions ; nor could other discourse enforce the 
admonition of that eloquent, though voiceless con- 
gregation, that continually increasing usefulness may 
rightly be demanded in the ratio of enlarging capa- 
city to benefit the community. The apple and pear 
offer conclusive arguments : the plum and peach 
contain convincing reasons : the grape and necta- 
rine present unanswerable pleading : the vases of 



^?7 



flowers and the baskets of fruits join their persua- 
sions : and all unite, to win admiration and seduce 
attention to the pursuits of horticulture. 

A native feeling responds cordially to the appeal 
of the loveliness of the children of the border. 
There springs in every heart the hope to crown a 
life of earnest industry with an old age of tranquil re- 
pose. Amid the busy stir of the world, those who 
are most active in its turmoil, are cheered by the 
prospect of a serene evening, when they may con- 
nect themselves with the earth by the affectionate 
relation of improvement. Repressed and confined 
by weary avocations, the universality of the senti- 
ment is attested, by the laburnum and honey-suckle 
nestling among the walls of the city, by the myrtle 
and geranium nursed on the carpeted floors of the 
town, by the rose and the daisy peeping from the 
windows of the artisan's home and the manufactur- 
er's cottage. 

When man's first abode was planted in Eden, an 
inspired precept was inculcated, and a sacred ex- 
ample held out, of the best condition of existence, 
and of the happiness to be sought among the types 
of purity and the emblems of innocence. He who 
will walk in the garden with humility, may yet hear 
the voice of God in its bowers. From that ground, 
still springs the knowledge of good without the bit- 
ter connexion of the perception of evil. The tree 
of life, with its foliage of unfading verdure, may 
still take root in that soil. It is an elevated wor- 
ship to trace the perfection of the works of crea- 
tion's Architect. On the perishing forms of the ma- 
terial frame, is mirrored the undying freshness of 



+1* 



the better land. If the feebleness of finite intellect 
can ever approach to any remote conception of the 
Divinity, of whose wisdom and benevolence the 
course of nature is the dim revelation, it must be by 
the contemplation of the order and harmony, visi- 
ble evidence of his presence in the external world. 
Coming to the fair fields where many able reap- 
ers have already banded up the abundance of their 
sheaves of golden grain, I can only hope to glean 
the straws neglected by predecessors, whose sickles 
gathered full harvests of wheat. To devote the 
hour to the discussion of the character of deceased 
evils, would waste the time of those who detected 
and reformed errors. The explanation of amended 
systems to the discoverers of improvements, would 
not be profitable employment. To detail practical 
operations, familiar to others in daily use, might 
seem to be imitation of the ingenious persons who 
treat of the peculiarities of breeds of cattle from ob- 
servation of the deportment of the sober animal fil- 
ling the milk pail of domestic economy and residu- 
ary legatee of the few pet cabbages crowding about 
the door step : or who grow profound in agriculture 
by virtue of raising a beet and a turnip in two 
earthen dishes : or comprehend the mysteries of the 
varieties of fruits in consideration of the handful of 
pears purchased at the market house. Dissertations 
on theories w T ould be impertinent before those whose 
knowledge is derived from experience, the great 
teacher, pouring on the world a flood of light to 
extend the vision of the eye of observation. Com- 
pelled to abandon the broad and beaten ways, it 
only remains to explore some unfrequented by-paths, 



Wj 



9 



and solicit indulgence for some imperfect recollec- 
tions of the past, and brief considerations of the 
present condition of the art to whose prosperity the 
festival is dedicated. 

The first step of civilized man on the New Eng- 
land shore is so recent, that the outline of his ear- 
liest footprint is still uneffaced. Through the anti- 
quity of two centuries, we may view the origin of 
cultivation almost as distinctly, as if we could turn 
back the wave of improvement which has swelled 
over the continent, until it again sunk down into the 
little ripple by the rock of Plymouth. 

Stoughton eloquently says, " God sifted a whole 
nation, that he might send choice grain over into 
this wilderness/ ' When the wheat winnowed from 
the old world was cast upon the new, the earth was 
not entirely unprepared for its reception. The 
smoke curled upward in blue wreathes over the 
wigwam of the Indian, and around the bark tents 
were spots where the husbandry of the native in- 
habitants had been exercised. He, whose cup was 
filled from the fountain, whose store house in the 
wild was ample, whose hordes of deer roved through 
boundless woods, who found a banquet where the 
oak strewed acorns or the stream poured from its 
urn, needed no great extent of arable land to 
supply his simple wants. Agriculture must have 
been rude, w r hile the hatchet of stone chipped down 
the trees, and the spade of shell scooped in the 
sod. Yet vast tracts of ground had been then 
opened to the sun. Agents more powerful than 
human strength and diligence had wrought in the 
2 



Soo 

10 

wilderness. " There be," says William Wood, 1 
" in divers places near the plantations, great, broad 
meadows, wherein grow neither shrub nor tree, ly- 
ing low : in which plains, grows as much grass as 

may be thrown out with a scythe, thick and long" 

"It being, " he continues, " the custom of the In- 
dians, to burn the woods, in November, when the 
grass is withered and leaves dried : it consumes 
all the underwood and rubbish, which, otherwise, 
would overgrow the country, making it unpassable, 
and spoil their much affected hunting : so that, by 
these means, in those places where the Indians in- 
habit, there is scarce a bush or bramble, or any 
cumbersome underwood to be seen in the more 
champaign country/ ' 

The indolence, if not the good taste, of the abor- 
iginal lords of the forest, confided the charge of the 
nurture of the vegetable luxuries of their sylvan 
homes, to the dames and damsels of their birchen 
household. There is testimony, that the maize, the 
bean, and the pumpkin, grew every where under 
their patronage, and the neatness of the cultivation 
is attested by a faithful observer. " Another work/' 
writes Wood, " is, their planting of corn, wherein 
they excel our English husbandmen, keeping it so 
clean, with their clam shell hoes, as if it were a 
garden rather than a corn field ; not suffering a 
choking weed to advance his audacious head above 
their infant corn, or an undermining worm to spoil 
his spurs." 

The skill of those, whose white sisters, says an 

(1) New England Prospect, being 'a true, lively, and experimental description of 
that part of America commonhj called New England. London ; 1634, page 18i 



11 

old writer, are "so delicately conformed, that like 
the humble bird, they should live always among 
flowers," produced a supply ample enough for the 
consumption of the tribes, and a surplus to impart 
to the English emigrants. 

The acquaintance of the colonists with the maize, 
began at an early period. In the earliest expedi- 
tion of the company of the Mayflower, November 
25, 1620, the explorers discovered, in the language 
of Mourt, an eye witness and most credible narra- 
tor, "a heap of sand : it was newly done: we 
might see how they paddled it with their hands : 
which we digged up, and in it, we found a little old 
basket, full of fair Indian corn : and digged further, 
and found a fine, great, new basket, full of very fair 
corn, of this year, with some six and thirty goodly 
ears of corn, some yellow, and some red, and other 
mixt with blue : which was a very goodly sight/' 1 

In a second excursion, larger stores were dis- 
closed, " which, " he affirms in the narrative, "will 
serve us sufficiently for seed." "And sure," ex- 
claims the excellent annalist, with a fervid glow of 
piety, " it was God's good providence that we found 
this corn : for else we know not how we should 
have done : for we knew not how we should find or 
meet with any of the Indians except it be to do us a 
mischief. Also we had never, in all likelihood, seen 
a grain of it, if we had not made our first journey : 
for the ground was now so frozen, that we were fain 
with our cutlasses and short swords to hew and 



(1) Journal of a Plantation settled at Plymouth, &c, reprinted in Massachusetts 
Historical Society's Collections, series i 7 vol. viii, page 210. 



SC3U 

12 

carve the ground a foot deep, and then wrest it up 
with levers, for we had forgot to bring our tools.' " 

The harvests which ripen on the fields of Massa- 
chusetts, in defiance of the premature invasion of 
the frosts of winter, may be lineal descendants of 
the fair corn ears borrowed from the Indian, as the 
virtues of their cultivators are the heirlooms, trans- 
mitted from sire to son along the generations of the 
planters of New England. 

The tobacco, which might be suspected of hav- 
ing imbibed one trait of our national character, from 
the obstinacy of its resistance to the counterblasts 
of kings, the denunciations of lawgivers, and the 
anathemas of physicians, still holding its place re- 
solutely, as the anodyne of care, the solace of sor- 
row, and the cheerful companion of prosperity, de- 
corated the garden and furnished the pipe of the 
red chieftain. 2 

Before the Pilgrims hewed down the primeval 
forest spreading an immeasurable shade over the 
land of their adoption, they laid the foundation of 
civil liberty on the imperishable basis of the rock, 
provided general education as its safeguard, and 
planted those institutions, which, in vigorous matu- 
rity, bestow ripened benefits on us. The founders 
of an empire, struggling with the savageness of 
man and nature, and contending against the obsta- 
cles of physical and moral difficulty, with the wing 
of pestilence overshadowing their dwellings, and 
famine scowling around their young village, must 
have been more occupied with the stern trials and 
hard realities of life, than in drawing its luxuries 

(1) 1 Mass. Hist. Col. vol. viii. page 234. See note I. (2) See note II. 



JTo3 



13 



around their habitations. Yet the beet, the carrot, 
and the plants of common culinary use, soon sprang 
up in the gardens of Plymouth. The acquisition 
of the comforts and conveniences of the mother 
land was by a slow process. " I have myself heard 
some say," writes Wood in 1634, " they had heard 
it was a rich land, a brave country : but when they 
came there, they could see nothing but a few canvas 
booths and old houses ; supposing, at the first, to 
have found walled towns, fortifications, and corn- 
fields ; as if towns could have built themselves, or 
cornfields have grown without the husbandry of 



man." 



The days of feebleness, of depression, and of pov- 
erty, went by. The colony grew strong and popu- 
lous : and as its vigorous offsets were thrown out, 
the wilderness began to blossom, and improvement 
urged on her renovating work with accelerated 
pace. 

The record of history contains evidence, that the 
production of fruits in the colony of the Massachu- 
setts, commenced, where it has been most happily 
prosecuted, around Boston. When John Winthrop 
and his company of planters reached Charlestown, 
in the summer of 1630, an honored occupant pos- 
sessed the whole peninsula of Shawmut. William 
Blackstone had formed his garden, at the foot of the 
three mountains : on the firm authority of Gov. 
Hopkins, it may be considered as established, that 
this pioneer of cultivation, "had been there so long 
as to have raised apple trees, and planted an 
orchard" the first of Massachusetts. The virtue of 
independence, which impelled one of the most ex- 



s*i 



14 



traordinary men of his age to retire beyond the op- 
pression of the " lord bishops," in its excess, de- 
generating into the vice of eccentricity, drove him 
from the society of the " lord brethren/' About 
1635, Blackstone sought asylum for his own unbend- 
ing spirit from collision with the inflexible senti- 
ments of other minds, in the calm solitude of Study 
Hill, fast by the good stream which bears his name. 
u There," says Hopkins, " he had the first of 
that sort called yellow sweetings, that ever were in 
the world : perhaps the richest and most delicious 
apple of the w T hole kind." When the infirmity of 
age came over the venerable hermit, and his steps 
could no longer sustain the accustomed missions of 
benevolence, he rode forth on the tamed bull train- 
ed to supply the place of gayer steed, and bore with 
him the first fruits of Rhode Island, to encourage 
by the distribution, the youthful disciples, whose 
faith was warmed by the precepts he inculcated. J 

Two hundred years, save one, have passed, since 
John Josselyn, who calls himself " gentleman," but 
who might have written another addition, visited 
the bay of Massachusetts. That he possessed an 
enlarged capacity of vision and imagination, we 
agree, w^hen we read, that in his day, among the 
rarities of New England, were " pond frogs, which 
chirp in the spring like sparrows, and croak like 
toads, in the autumn, sitting, when upright, a foot 

(1 ) See the account of Providence in 2 Mass. Hist. Col. vol. ix. page 174, and the 
biography of Blackstone, in the excellent History of Rehoboth, by Leonard Bliss, 
Jun., Esq., page 2, &c, and in Daggett's Attleborovgh, page 24. The place of 
Blackstone's residence in Rhode Island was in Cumberland, near the east bank of 
the river, about three miles above Pawtucket, and a mile and a half above Valley 
Falls, on the west side of the road from Pawtucket to Worcester. 



JOt> 
15 

high." We doubt the authority of the Indian hunt- 
ers, who told him, " that up in the country/' there 
are some of these creatures " as big as a child a 
year old/' The fidelity of the voyager, who in- 
dorses such statements, cannot be received, without 
corroborative testimony of his own veracity. In 1638, 
having enjoyed the hospitality of Maverick, "the 
tenth day of October, " he says, "I went aboard, 
and we fell down to Nantascott . . . The next day, 
Mr. Luxon, our master, having been ashore upon 
the governor's island, gave me half a score very fair 
pippins, which he brought from thence : there being 
not one apple tree, nor pear, planted yet, in no part 
of the country, but upon that island/' 1 

Denying, as we may well do, that no apple or 
pear tree had been before reared, there is reason to 
admit, that his knowledge and assertions were cor- 
rect, to the extent of his having made trial of the 
exquisite flavor of the earliest pippin of our country. 

The Winthrop name, connected with the origin, 
has been stamped upon the maturity of institutions, 
spreading benign influence over the present, and 
destined to extend beneficent action through com- 
ing time. The memory of the first governor of 
Massachusetts is hallowed, by the piety and learn- 
ing, the integrity and benevolence, the wisdom and 
prudence, shining in his daily life and casting their 
reflected glow on succeeding years. Could we 
trace the fruit back to that island garden where the 
golden apples first ripened which refreshed the tired 
spirit of the father of the colony, we might yet pay 

(1)3 Mass. Hist. Col. vol. iii. page 231. See note III. 



S6 Q> 

16 

one poor instalment of the debt of gratitude, by 
dedicating the tree to its earliest planter. 1 

The testimony of the venerable fathers, of the 
vigor of improvement and the exuberant fertility 
around Salem, the first born of the towns of the 
Massachusetts colony, is most express. 

" The aboundant encrease of corne," writes the 
Rev. Mr. Higginson, in 1629, 2 " proves this coun- 
trie to bee a wonderment. Thirtie, fortie, fiftie, 
sixtie, are ordinarie here. Yea, Joseph's encrease 
in Egypt, is outstript here, with us. Our planters 
hope to have more than an hundred fould this yere. 
And all this while, I am within compasse. What 
will you say of two hundred fould and upwards ? 
It is almost incredible what great gaine some of our 

English planters have had by our Indian corne" 

" There is not such greate and plentifull eares of 
corne, I suppose, any where else to bee found, but 
in this countrie : Because also of varietie of colours, 
as red, blew, and yellow : and of one corne their 

springeth four or five hundred" "Our governor hath 

store of green pease growing in his garden, as good 
as ever I eat in England. The countrie aboundeth 
naturally with store of rootes of great varietie and 
good to eat. Our turnips, parsnips, and carrots, 
are here, both bigger and sweeter than is ordinary 
to be found in England. Here are store of pom- 
pions, cowcumbers, and other things of that nature, 

which I know not' ' "Excellent vines are here, 

up and down in the woodes. Our governor hath al- 
ready planted a vineyard with great hope of en- 

(1) See note IV. 
(2) New England's Plantation, in 1 Mass, Hitt. Col. vol. i, page 118. 



17 

crease. Also mulberries, plums, rasberries, cor- 
rants, chesnuts, filberds, walnuts, smalnuts, hurtle- 
berries, and hawes of whitethorn, neere as good as 
our cherries in England ; they grow in plentie 
here." 

Governor Endicott, whose horticultural prosperi- 
ty is thus commemorated, added to the vineyard and 
pea-garden, at some later period, the orchard, of 
which one venerable survivor still bears the patri- 
archal honors of two centuries, in green old age. 1 

Master Graves, in his letter appended to " New 
England's Plantation,'' gives a glowing description 
of the luxuriance of vegetation, in 1629. 

"Thus much I can affirme in generall, that I 
never came to a more goodly country in all my life, 
all things considered. If it hath not at any time 
been husbanded, yet it is very beautifull in open 
lands mixed with goodly woods, and again open 
plains, in some places five hundred acres, some 
places more, some lesse, not much troublesome for 
to cleare for the plough to go in ; no place barren 
but on the tops of the hills : the grasse and weedes 
grow up to a man's face ; in the lowlands and by 
fresh rivers, aboundance of grass, and large med- 
dowes without any trees or shrubbe to hinder the 
scythe. I never saw such, except in Hungaria, unto 
which I alwayes parallel this countrie, in allmost 
all respects : for every thing that is here eyther 
sowne or planted, prospereth far better than in Old 
England. The increase of corne is here far beyond 
expectation, as I have seene here by experience in 
barley, the which, because it is so much above your 

(1) See note V. 



18 

conception I shall not mention' ' — " Vines doe grow 
here plentifully laden with the biggest grapes that 

ever I saw : some I have seen four inches about" 

"We abound with such things which, next under God, 
doe make us subsist : as fish, foule, deere ; and sun- 
drie sorts of fruits, as musk millions, water millions, 
Indian pompions, Indian pease, beanes, and many 
other odde fruits that I cannot name." 1 

Governor Bradford, whose prudence, piety, and 
wisdom, were more signalized than his poetical in- 
spiration, has preserved the most perfect inventory 
of the treasures of the gardens of our forefathers, 
in lines whose initial letters are capitals, and which 
must therefore be considered as verse. No skill of 
pronunciation can reduce to rhythmical melody the 
roughness of his catalogue of the cultivated plants 
at the conclusion of the first twenty years of New 
England's improvement. 2 

" And truly it was admirable to know, 

" How greatly all things here began to grow. 

" All sorts of grain which our own land doth yield, 

" Were hither brought, and sown in every field : 

"As wheat and rye, barley, oats, beans, and pease, 

" Here all thrive, and they profit from them raise. 

" All sorts of roots and herbs in gardens grow, 

" Parsnips, carrots, turnips, or what you'll sow j 

" Onions, mellons, cucumbers, radishes, 

" Skirits, beets, coleworts, and fair cabbages. 

" Here grow fine flowers, many, and 'mongst those, 

11 The fair white lilj-, and sweet fragrant rose. 

"Many good wholesome berries here you'll find, 

il Fit for man's use, almost of every kind. 

" Pears, apples, cherries, plums, quinces, and peach, 

" Are now no dainties, you may have of each. 

" Nuts and grapes of several sorts are here, 

" If you will take the pains them to seek for." 

(1) 1 Mass. Hist. Col. vol. 1, page 124. 
(2) Descriptive and Historical Account of New England, published from William 
Bradford's MS. in 1 Mass. Hist. Col. vol. 3, page 77. The date when this whimsi- 
cal tract was written, is not certainly ascertained. From internal evidence it may 
be presumed to have been composed about 1640. 



19 

It would be delightful to trace, step by step, the 
progress of cultivation as it has advanced on our 
native land, with slow but certain course, strewing 
the earth with beauty. But there are limits to the 
patient endurance of long suffering, if there be no 
boundaries to kind indulgence. Turning reluctantly 
from the pleasant memories of the past, let us look 
at the brightness of the present. 

Never before have the means and facilities of im- 
provement been more easily accessible or more free- 
ly diffused. In other centuries, philosophy was shut 
up in cloistered cells, or held cold and formal exer- 
cises in the halls of universities, or gave lectures in 
solitary groves to her favorite followers. In our 
own age, science has come down from her dignified 
retirement, and walks abroad among the daily haunts 
of men. The best treatises on horticulture are spread 
wide open by the way sides, in the well ordered gar- 
dens. The flowers hold weekly levees, and the 
fruits deliver Saturday lectures, in the high places of 
the metropolis, the central heart, circulating influ- 
ences, for good or for evil, through the whole social 
body. The lessons of experience are faithfully re- 
corded by the pen of the poet of " Terrible Trac- 
toration," and his able associates in the observation 
of nature, or registered in the journals of those who 
distribute good seeds for the mind and the soil. The 
rich stores of two magazines, invite to those reposi- 
tories where living beauty addresses the under- 
standing. In the nurseries of the Winships, the 
Kendricks, and of Manning, there are whole volumes 
of examples : long lines of information are ranged 
along their walks : and the interesting leaves of 



St* 



20 

their compositions are illustrated with plates of frank 
hospitality. Amid the vines of modern times we 
can scarcely hope that the grapes which allure us 
are sour : and as we look on the orchards, we cease 
to wonder that the temptation of the fair apples 
should have seduced the mother of mankind. 

Yet, the wide extension of the frontier lines of 
art, is but the beginning of a far off end. Every 
fact of acquired knowledge is a prolific seed : buried 
in the good soil, it rests dormant for a time : then it 
is quickened and shoots up, bearing, in the fullness 
of days, hundred fold increase : the grains of its 
production again scattered, in due season, are re- 
productive beyond the power of numbers to repre- 
sent. Each discovered principle, stands like an 
arch, sustaining the structure of an immediate ben- 
efit, while through the curve beneath is opened a 
vista of good extending through the eternity of the 
future. Truth is inclosed within truth, as each ex- 
panding petal of the rose-bud folds another bright 
leaf beneath. 

It is humiliating to human pride to confess how 
narrow is the span of our real possessions. The 
natural sight can scarcely embrace with distinctness 
one single square mile of the area of the earth's 
surface : the intellectual vision ranges with certain- 
ty over a space comparatively less broad. To the 
eye of the body, the horizon seems to close down 
upon the hills that overshadow our own homes : as 
we advance towards the receding circle of the skies, 
beyond the most distant step of our journey, spread 
continents and oceans of unvisited lands and unex- 
plored waters. To the eye of the mind, the hori- 



S i\ 



21 



zon of perception is circumscribed by a line at no 
remote distance. Some perfected results, some in- 
itial principles, many rudiments, have been obtain- 
ed ; beyond them, expands the boundless extent of 
science through the infinite of material and spiritual 
existence. 

The most familiar operations of vegetation yet 
remain unexplained mysteries. In the flower pots, 
next to the wife and children, the best ornaments of 
the parlor, there is an intricate radiation of fibres : 
above them rises the plant, with a complex organi- 
zation of veins and arteries circulating the vital fluid 
to the remotest extremities. A delicate apparatus 
of valves and cisterns, with invisible chemistry, de- 
composes the atmosphere and supplies respiration. 
Who can tell us the process draining invigorating 
streams from the elements and pouring nourishment 
through thread-like conduits ? What mechanism 
converts lifeless dust into living forms more graceful 
and tints more glowing than human genius ever 
struck from the marble or spread on the canvass ? 

The effects of soil, exposure, and temperature, 
upon the qualities of plants yet remain undefined. 
While the orange withers beneath the touch of frost, 
the moss which relieves the rein-deer's hunger flour- 
ishes beneath the ice, and the pines raise their green 
heads above the snows in perennial verdure. The 
Mezereon spreads its purple cups to the earliest 
breath of spring, while the Witch Hazel, when all the 
companions of its summer hours have faded, fringes 
with a yellow drapery the desolated fields of the 
waning year. Some species of plants seem frozen 
into animation, while others can only exist in the 



J7X 

22 

fiercest heat of the hot bed. We know not the cause 
of the diversity, although we may admire with grati- 
tude its beneficent operation. 

Theory and practice have too long held coquetish 
courtship : it is time they should lie united by an 
undissoluble union, that the crucible may lie side by 
side with the spade, and analysis complete the re- 
sults of experience. 

Discoveries may be made by accident, as the seeds 
of good may be wafted by the waves, or borne by 
the winds to our feet. But unless some providential 
concurrence of circumstances speed them on their 
way, they must be sought out with careful diligence, 
and gathered by patient toil. The close observation 
of nature, more wonderful in its minuteness than its 
majesty, opens new regions for reflection and be- 
stows new resources for improvement. We need 
the keen examination, which explores the forests 
rising on the down of the leaf; counts the tribes 
that pasture on its surface ; distinguishes the ser- 
pents which roll in the drop of water from the mon- 
sters that float on the sharp edge of the acid ; num- 
bers the herds that range the declivity of the fig ; 
and measures the angles subtended by the crystals 
of the snow flake. 

Instead of the fallacious pursuit of wealth among 
the pines of the East or the wide prairies of the 
West, he who would dig the treasures from our own 
fields, or draw forth the riches of the realms of sci- 
ence, might secure possessions better than have ever 
brightened the dreams of speculation. 

Already have active minds and willing hands ef- 
fected changes which almost approach to creations. 



3~~ 13 
23 

The simple cup of an unsightly weed has been trans- 
formed into the most delicate of the favorites of the 
garden. Austere fruits have been compelled to 
adopt delicious flavors. The emigrants of the 
equator, the tropics, and the circles, have been nat- 
uralized inmates of bower, of border, and of green- 
house. The reformers of the vegetable kingdom 
have pushed their innovations to the' very verge of 
revolution. The queenly Rose, who for ages has 
reigned over the realm of the beautiful with the un- 
disputed sovereignty of loveliness, may soon be 
compelled to divide the empire of the year with her 
rising rival, the Dahlia. The Poppy, which spreads 
its gorgeous flowers over the territory of one of the 
proprietors of Cambridge, may be enabled to add 
the fragrance of a perfumed breath to the splendor 
of its brilliant coloring. The broad good humored 
disk of the sunflower, which the Duke of Saxe 
Wiemar wrongly supposed was the principal orna- 
ment of the garden scenery of Worcester, 1 may yet 
turn to the light a globe of yellow leaves as com- 
pact as the circling florets of the Snowball. 

The soil of New England is sterile when compar- 
ed with the exuberant fertility of regions blessed 
with higher external advantages. The harvest wind 
does not here roll to the green margin of the field 
so heavy waves of grain as those which it heaves 
on the plains of the west. The productiveness of 
our territory is derived from the hardy industry 

(1) This great error of the German traveller, is contained in the following' passage, 
extracted from his description of Worcester, in 1825 : 

" The gardens we passed had rather a wild appearance. They cultivate kitchen 
vegetables, a few water mellons. and fruit : we saw no flowers excepting the sun- 
flower." Travels. Philadelphia, 1828, vol. 1, page 53. 



24 

which covers every thing it touches with beauty, and 
the vigorous enterprise converting the very granite 
of its mountains and the ice of its lakes into re- 
sources of wealth : its best production is a people, 
reasoning and determining for themselves, loving 
their native land, honoring the memory of their 
brave ancestors, fearing no danger but the peril of 
doing wrong, obeying no power but the supremacy 
of their own laws and their own consciences, bend- 
ing in humble submission to God, but to God alone. 

"'Tis a rough land of earth, and stone, and tree, 

" Where breathes no castled lord or cabined slave ; 
" Where thoughts, and tongues, and hands, are bold and free, 

" And friends will find a welcome, foes a grave ; 

"And where none kneel, save when to heaven they pray, 

" Nor even then, unless in their own way." 

Halleck. 

The climate of New England is stern and severe. 
The wintry blasts extend their stormy inclemency 
far over the ancient, prescriptive dominion of the 
sunny months, and turn their destroying edges on 
vegetation. But we would not exchange the chil- 
ling breath of the arctic circles for the luxurious 
temperature of milder zones. 

" Ours, are not Tempe's, nor Arcadia's spring, 

" Nor the long summer of Calhayan vales, 
" The vines, the flowers, the air, the skies, that fling 

" Such wild enchantment o'er Boccaccio's tales 
" Of Florence and the Arno. Yet the wing 

" Of life's best angel, Health, is on the gales 

" Through sun and snow ; and in the autumn time 

" Earth hath no purer and no lovelier clime." 

Halleck. 

We want not the splendor of Italian skies, or the 
enervating softness of southern gales, even though 
they may winnow fragrance from the groves of the 



25 

olive and the orange. The moral and intellectual, 
and physical vigor of the race nurtured amid snow- 
crowned heights and frost bound streams, is better than 
the indolent repose and delicate refinement of realms 
fanned by more genial breezes. Truth, knowledge, 
independence, are the fruits ripened on our northern 
hills : they require the peculiar effects of cold to give 
the maturity of their most excellent flavor. 

The ruggedness of soil, and the asperity of cli- 
mate, may afford to the cultivator, as many triumphs 
of skill, as trials of resolution. That flexibility of 
constitution which has supported the human race 
in wide wanderings from the plains where the ark 
rested, extending through the vegetable popula- 
tion, may enable us to assemble together the pro- 
ductions of every parallel of latitude, and to draw 
from the medicinal herbs, remedies for every dis- 
ease, and from the esculent plants, luxuries for ev- 
ery taste. These are achievements yet to be ac- 
complished by the Gardener. The notion is as false 
as it is common, that he is occupied only, with legis- 
lation in the kingdom of cabbages, or in educating 
turnips, or bestowing elegant accomplishments on 
squashes. It is a most unworthy conception of a 
noble art, which limits its ends and uses, to supply- 
ing the table with delicacies and the vase with dec- 
orations, or expediting the mysteries and furnishing 
materials for the miracles of the great culinary ar- 
tists. It would be as correct to suppose, that the 
element of fire expended its boundless energy in 
warming the mess of pottage, or brightening the par- 
lor grate. 

4 



26 

The earth is the inheritance of man, from the 
broad expanse of field and forest to the narrow 
freehold of his last repose. The Agriculturalist is 
proprietor of the great domain, of which the Gar- 
dener occupies the little enclosures. When he who 
tills the soil, shall realize, correctly, the responsible- 
ness and the dignity of his station, he will need no 
other restraint from pride, no other excitement to 
exertion. All the members of society stretch ten- 
drils for support to him. While some are standing as 
sentinels on the wall of the constitution ; while some 
hold watch and ward around the laws, the ramparts 
of equal rights ; while the guardians of health are 
pouring oil on the wounds of misfortune ; and the mes- 
sengers of heaven are proclaiming the glad tidings 
of the gospel ; while some are ameliorating life by 
the arts, and others improving its condition by the 
sciences ; he will solicit from the earth a supply so 
full, and make a distribution so free, that plenty 
may cover every board, and content smile around 
every fire side. 



4-tJ 



NOTES. 



I. First discovery of Indian Corn by the Pilgrims. 

The testimony of Morton, whose New England Memorial has been 
preserved in the best possible form, in Judge John Davis's excellent 
edition, corroborates the narrative of Mourt. 

" Proceeding further, they found new stubble, where Indian Corn 
had been planted the same year ; also, they found where lately a house 
had been ; where some planks and a great kettle were remaining, and 
heaps of sand, newly paddled with their hands, which they digged up, 
and found in them diverse fair Indian baskets filled with corn ; some 
whereof was in ears, fair and good, of diverse colors, which seemed to 
them a very goodly sight, having seen none before; of which varie- 
ties they took some to carry to their friends on shipboard, like as 
the Israelitish spies brought from Eshcol some of the good fruits of 
the land." — Davis's Morton, page 40. 

The place where the corn was found, which received the appropri- 
ate appellation of Cornhill, is in Truro. 

The relation of Mourt has been adopted in the text for its minute 
fidelity, and his authority for the date, stated according to new style, 
preferred, as being that of an elder writer than Morton. 



II. The Tobacco Plant. 



The tobacco plant seems to have been cultivated by the northern 
Indians. The seeds were found in the wigwams of Plymouth Colo- 
ny, by the first settlers. It was present when the great sagamore of 
the Massachusetts and the magistrates of the new born state, met, in 
April, 1621, to link the chain of friendship. The ceremonial of 
the reception of Massasoit on the frontier had passed, and the king 
had been escorted into the plantation with all the parade which could 
be exhibited in that day, to honor the reception of a prince : " then," 
says Mourt, " instantly came our governor^ [Carver,] with a drum and 
trumpet after him, and some few musketeers ; after salutations, our 
governor kissed his hand ; the king kissed him ; and so they sat down. 
The governor called for some strong water, and drunk to him, and he 



Si* 



28 

drunk a great draught, that made him sweat all the while after." 
1 Massachusetts Historical Society's Collections, vol. viii. page 230. The 
gratitude of the sachem was stirred, on feeling the superior potency 
of the beverage of the white man to the cool flow of the fountains of 
the wilderness, and he requited the libation, by the exchange of solid 
for fluid exhilaration. From the little bag of tobacco, which hung be- 
hind his neck, he took that, which, says Mourt, " he drank, and gave 
us to drink ; " a potation, probably, as sudorific to the stranger as the 
fiery liquid he bestowed. 

The expression, " drinking tobacco," is of frequent use in old writers. 
Gerard says, " some use to drink it in wantonnesse, or rather custom, 
and cannot forbeare it ; no, not in the middest of then dinner." 

One of the most bitterly eloquent maledictions ever pronounced, was 
king James's anathema of smoking. " It is a custom, loathsome to the 
eye, hateful to the nose, harmful to the brain, dangerous to the lungs, 
and in the black fume thereof, nearest resembling the horrible stygian 
smoke of the pit that is bottomless." His royal majesty is pleased to 
express the opinion, " that tobacco was the lively image and pattern 
of hell ; for that it hath by allusion, on it, all the parts and vices of 
the world, whereby hell may be gamed, to wit : " 

" First, It was a smoke ; so are the vanities of this world." 

" Secondly, it delighteth them who take it ; so do the pleasures of the 
world delight the men of the world." 

" Thirdly, it maketh men drunken and light in the head ; so do the 
vanities of the world: men are drunken therewith." 

"Fourthly, he thattaketh tobacco, saith he cannot leave it, it doth be- 
witch : even so the pleasures of the world make men loath to leave 
them, they are, for the most part, so enchanted with them." 

" And further, besides all this, it is like hell in the very substance of 
it ; for it is a stinking, loathsome thing ; and so is hell." 

Considering how to entertain the prince of the powers of the air, the 
king indicates a sumptuous banquet, with courses worthy of the hos- 
pitality of a monarch ; declaring, that, " were he to invite the devil to 
dinner, he should have three dishes : 1, a pig ; 2, a pole of ling and 
mustard ; 3, a pipe of tobacco for digestion." 



VI. Wood's account of the gardens and orchards of Massachu- 
setts, about 1633; and Jossedtn's description, about 1670. 

The earliest, printed, descriptive account of Massachusetts, is that of 
William Wood, who came to this country in 1629, and returned to 
England, August 15, 1633. The first edition of his " New England's 



J 
29 

Prospect? was published in London, in 1634 This interesting tract 
is written with elegance, and contains the observations of an intel- 
ligent and sagacious observer. A vein of graceful humor pervades 
the work, and renders its relations as amusing as they are authentic. 

He describes the settlements existing at the time of his visit, with 
apparent fidelity. Dorchester is said to have " very good arable ground, 
and hay grounds, fair cornfields, and pleasant gardens, with kitchen 
gardens." " The inhabitants " of Roxbury "have fair houses, store of 
cattle, impaled cornfields, and fruitful gardens." Of Boston, he writes : 
" This place hath very good land, affording rich cornfields, and fruit- 
ful gardens, having, likewise, sweet and pleasant springs " He speaks 
of the Governor's Island, " where is planted an orchard and a vine- 
yard." Of Lynn, it is asserted, " there is more English tillage than in 
New England and Virginia besides : which proved, as well as could 
be expected, the corn being very good, especially the barley, rye and 
oats." 

During the sojourn of Josselyn with Maverick, where East Boston 
has been built in modern days, the voyager experienced the unhappy 
flavor of one of the woodland productions of New England. 

In his journal, October 9, 1638, he says : " In the afternoon, I walked 
into the woods on the back side of the house, and happening into a 
fine broad walk, which was a sledge way, I wandered, till I chanced to 
spy a fruit, as I thought, like a pine apple, plated with scales ; it was 
as big as the crown of a woman's hat; I made bold to step unto it 
with an intent to have gathered it ; no sooner had I touched it, but 
hundreds of wasps were about me ; at last 1 cleared myself from them, 
being stung only by one upon the upper lip : glad was I that I 'scaped 
so well ; but, by that time I was come into the house, my lip was 
swelled so extremely, that they hardly knew me, but by my gar- 
ments." — 3 Mass. Hist. Col. vol. iii. page 231. 

In the journal of Josselyn's second voyage and residence, begun in 
]663, this writer, of great credulity and little authority, states many par- 
ticulars of the gardens and orchards of New England. 

" Gilliflowers," he says, " thrive exceedingly there, and are very 
large ; the collibuy, or humming bird, is much pleased with them." . . 
" Radishes I have seen there as big as a man's arm." . . " Our wheat, i.e., 
summer wheat, many times changeth into rye." ..." Flax and hemp 
flourish gallantly." 

" Our fruit trees prosper abundantly, apple trees, pear trees, 
quince trees, cherry trees, plum trees, barberry trees. I have ob- 
served, with admiration, that the kernels sown, or the succors 
planted, produce as fan* and good fruit, without grafting, as the tree 
from whence they were taken. The country is replenished with fair 
and large orchards. It was affirmed by Mr. Woolcut, a magistrate in 
Connecticut colony, at the captain's messe, of which I was, aboard the 



Sxo 



30 



ship I came home in, that he made five hundred hogsheads of syder 
out of his own orchard in one year. Syder is very plentiful in the 
countrey, ordinarily sold for ten shillings a hogshead. At the tap- 
houses in Boston, I have had an ale quart, spiced and sweetened with 
sugar, for a groat." 

" The quinces, cherries, damsons, set the dames a work ; marmalade 
and preserved damsons are to be met with in every house." 

Among the islands of Massachusetts Bay, he mentions " the Gov- 
ernor's Garden, where the first apple trees in the countrey were plant- 
ed, and a vineyard." 

He describes Dorchester as " having houses to the number of two 
hundred and more, beautified with fair orchards and gardens." Rox- 
bury, as being " a fair and handsome countrey town, the streets large, 
the inhabitants rich, replenished with orchards and gardens." Ded- 
ham, as "abounding with garden fruit." Charlestown, as having a 
" market place not far from the water side, surrounded with houses, 
forth of which issue two streets orderly built, and beautified with or- 
chards and gardens." Lynn and Ipswich are said to have similar or- 
naments. 3 Mass. Hist Col. vol. iii. pages 320, 336. 



IV, Governor Winthrop's Garden. 

Gov. John Winthrop, in consideration of the intended marriage of 
his son Adam, with Elizabeth Glover, granted the Governor's Island 
to Henry Dunster, President of Harvard College, in trust, for the use 
of Adam and his wife, and their joint hens, remainder to Adam and 
his heirs, by an indenture, dated February 1, 164.1-2. The reserva- 
tion to the governor, and his wife Margaret, of " one third of the ap- 
ples, pears, grapes, and plums yearly growing," shows that the orchard 
was flourishing at that time. — Savage's Winthrop, vol. 1, page 68. 



V. The Endicott Pear Tree. 



Tradition connects the planting of the Endicott pear tree and the 
foundation of Salem, with the same date, 1628. Historical evidence 
renders it certain, that the existence of the tree could not have been 
so early as the origin of the first town of Massachusetts. 

The late reverend and learned Doct. William Bentley, " desirous," 
in his own words, " to honor the man, who, above all others, deserved 



31 

the name of the father of New England," addressed three letters to 
President John Adams, in relation to the antiquity of the survivor of 
the orchard of Governor John Endicott. These manuscripts are pre- 
served in the archives of the Massachusetts Historical Society, and 
have been kindly communicated by Rev. Doct. Thaddeus M. Harris. 

Doct. Bentley, in his letter, dated October 10, 1809 writes thus : 

"The tree is near the site of the first mansion of the governor, and 
the land and tree always have been, and now (1809) are, the property 
of his direct heirs, being in the possession of Mr. John Endicott, 
nearly four score years of age, and of the sixth generation. To as- 
certain its age, near it, stood a dial, which was fixed upon a pedestal, 
which, the governor said, bore the age of the tree. That dial has 
been, for years, in my possession. It is in copper, square, horizontal, 
three inches, a very fair impression, and in the highest order. It was 
marked " William Boyer, London, Clockmaker, fecit, 1. 1630. E." the 
initials of the Governor's name." 

As collateral testimony of the age of the tree, reference is made to 
a letter from the company in England to Governor Endicott, April 17, 
1629, printed in Hazzard's Collections, vol. i. page 262, in which is 
written : " As for fruit stones and kernels, the time of the year fits 
not to send them now ; so we purpose to do it per next" The infer- 
ence is made, that this intention was executed, and that the seed, from 
which sprung the venerable tree, was sown in the spring of 1630. 

It is very improbable, that the first fruits of New England were 
reared from seeds originally strewed on our soil. The emigrants were 
well informed, by their own experience as cultivators, of the accele- 
rating operation of the process of transplanting ; and they could not 
avoid understanding, that its application would aid the formation of 
orchards on the fields of the new world, as it had done on those of 
the eastern continent. The early maturity of the Wintlvrop Pippins 
shows, that the trees of the governor of Massachusetts must have been 
imported from the nurseries of Europe, and gives solid ground for the 
conclusion, that Endicott would have availed himself of the same 
means of anticipating the slow course of vegetation, by bringing to 
his plantation, trees of such advanced age as to bestow immediate pro- 
ductions, instead of waiting through a quarter of a century, until seeds 
yielded their increase. 

One circumstance conflicts with the traditions of the era when the 
pear tree was first fixed on the site it occupies. The farm where it 
stands, situated in that part of the ancient territory of Salem, now 
Danvers, was not granted to John Endicott, until July 3, 1632. It is 
improbable that the excellent governor would have commenced the 
cultivation, before he had obtained the legal right of possession of the 
land. A year, at least, must have gone by, before the forest could 
have been cleared away, and the soil prepared for the reception of an 



5^- 



32 



orchard. The tree could not have well been set before 1633 or 1634. 
As the apple trees of Winthrop were in bearing, as early as 1638, it 
is probable that they had priority in their planting to the pears of En- 
dicott, 

In 1796, Doct. Bentley visited the Endicott farm, and gives the fol- 
lowing description of the oldest living fruit tree of Massachusetts: "It 
now bears the name of the Endicott Pear, but in the family, the Sugar 
Pear. This is the tree which stood not far behind the dial, and has 
its age reported from it. It is in front of the site of the house, and 
rises in three trunks from the ground, and is Considerably high. It is 
much decayed, within, at the bottom, which gives it the appearance 
of three trunks ; but the branches at top are sound." 

Most interesting descriptions of the present condition of the aged 
tree, have been procured by the kind attention of the Rev. Dr. John 
Brazer, of Salem. The first account has been furnished by the lineal 
descendants of Governor Endicott : the second is communicated by 
Professor John Lewis Russell. 

" Account of the present condition of the Endicott Pear Tree? 

" This " Old Pear Tree" is situated on the southern side of a gen- 
tle slope of land, and sheltered by it, in some measure, from the 
piercing northerly and northwest winds, in what was once the garden 
of Gov. Endicott. The surrounding soil is a light loam, with a sub- 
stratum of clay. Its appearance, at this time, is rather dwarfish, being 
only 18 feet high, and 55 feet in the circumference of its branches. 
The trunk exhibits all the marks of extreme old age, being entirely 
hollow, and mostly open on the south side, with just sufficient bark 
to convey sap to the branches. It is 7 feet 4 inches in circumference 
near the roots, and is divided into three parts ; two of which are 
connected, to the height of about 18 inches ; the other is entirely dis- 
tinct, from the ground upwards. There is bark only on the outside 
of these divisions, until they reach the height of 7 or 8 feet, where 
they are completely encircled with it, and form distinct limbs, with 
numerous lateral branches, all of which appear in a perfectly sound 
and healthy state. Two suckers have sprung up from the roots, one 
on the northeast, and the other on the southwest side, each 10 or 12 
feet in length, and I presume it is known, that this tree has never 
been grafted, but is natural fruit." 

"No doubt, the dilapidated condition of the trunk is owing, in some- 
measure, to the want of care dming the most part of the two first 
centuries of its existence, being situated in an open field, without 
any protection, and often browsed by cattle, and injured by storms. 
This patriarch, within the last forty years, has often suffered severely 
from easterly and southerly gales. In October, 1804, it was nearly 
laid prostrate, being shorn of all its branches, and its trunk split and 



^""•2-3 



33 



divided in the manner before spoken of. In the heavy gale of Sep- 
tember, 1815, it was again doomed to a similar fate ; almost all its 
limbs at that time were either split or broken, and it appeared doubt- 
ful, for some time, if it would ever recover, — but such was its won- 
derful tenacity of life, that it rose again, phosnix like, as it were, from 
its very ashes. At this time, the soil was loosened about its roots, 
and, for the first time probably since its introduction into this coun- 
try, there was a large quantity of manure spread around it. About 
the year 1823 it was protected by a fence, to prevent the cattle from 
injuring it. It contiuues to produce fruit yearly, and the average 
quantity for several years past has been about two bushels." 

" With proper care and attention this tree may yet continue many 
years, and will serve to remind us, by its own trials, strength, vigor 
and durability, of the enterprize, hardships, perseverance, and untiring 
zeal of our ancestors in the first settlement of this our cherished 
land ; and may we be permitted to encourage the hope that it may 
prove the precursor of the durability of our present free and lib- 
eral institutions. W. P. E. 

Salem, November, 1837. C. M. E." 

« THE ENDICOTT PEAR TREE." 




NORTH ASPECT. 



" The Endicott Pear Tree is evidently of great age. Its main trunk 
is entirely hollow, and much shattered. About a foot from the ground 
it divides into two distinct stems, which, although mere shells, yet 
have produced exceedingly strong limbs. The actual thickness of 
live wood on the main branch, which faces the west, does not exceed 
six inches. The eastern, branch is much sounder, and supports the 
greater part of the spray, which denoted the power of producing an 
abundance of fruit. Proceeding from the root are two suckers, of 
nearly the same size, one on the eastern, and the other on the west- 
5 



34 

ern side of the tree, and which are not more than 15 or 20 years old. 
No perceptible difference can be discovered between them and the 
tree itself, by comparing the wood. This seems to denote the fact of 
the tree being a seedling variety. Indeed, its rude and spiny charac- 
ter seems to denote a native of the soil. If imported by Governor 
Endicott, which is according to family tradition, it must have been a 
seedling variety, and not grafted, none of the usual appearances of a 
grafted tree being visible." 

"Its general form is low and spreading, about twenty feet high, and 
nearly the same in extent of branches. The circumference of the 
stem near the ground, is seven feet and five inches." 



J~*3J 



NINTH ANNIVERSARY 



OF THE 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



The Annual Exhibition of the Massachusetts Horticultural 
Society, which has just closed, commenced on Wednesday, the 
20th instant, and continued during four days, until Saturday. 
The new and spacious Hall of the Society, No. 23, Tremont 
street, was tastefully and appropriately decorated on the occasion. 

REPORT ON FRUITS. 

The great centre table was graced with two large and beauti- 
ful orange trees, from the green houses of the Hon. John Lowell. 
Large pine-apples in a fine growing state, and grape-vines loaded 
with large clusters in a growing state, in decorated pots, by Mr. 
Haggerston, from the houses of Mr. Cushing, attracted very 
particular attention ; as did also the beautifully arranged clusters 
of grapes and other rich fruits, by Mr. Cowan, from the spacious 
houses of the Hon. T. H. Perkins. 

On no former occasion have we witnessed so great a display 
of the most useful, as well as ornamental productions of nature, 
thus brought to so great a degree of perfection by the skill of 
man : of flowers, many new and splendid varieties, of an infinite 
variety of form, color and shade : of fruits also, many new and 
superior kinds, never before witnessed at any former exhibition. 

The days of the exhibition were unusually fine, and the con- 
course of visiters far exceeded that of any former year, including 
a good proportion of the fair, and the fairest of the fair ; and the 
brilliant display, on this occasion, might well serve to remind us 
of Eden. 

The following is a more particular account of the fruits which 
were sent for exhibition : — 

By Mr. Haggerston, from the extensive green and hot houses 
of J. P. Cushing, Esq., Belmont Place, in Watertown : Pears — 



36 

Williams's Bonchretien and Cushing's : Grapes — Black Ham- 
burgh, White Sweetwater or Chasselas, White Frontignac, and 
a vine, trained spirally in an ornamented pot, and loaded with 
fruit; all of which were very beautiful: Pine-apples of large 
size, growing finely in ornamented pots, the first ever witnessed 
at our exhibitions ; Sago Palm, a noble and most useful plant, 
and the same which produces the Sago of Commerce ; a 
plant as valuable in the tropical regions as is corn with us. 

By John Lemist, Esq., of Roxbury : a fine plant of Sago Palm. 

By Mr. W. H. Cowan, gardener to the Hon. T. H. Perkins, 
from his fruit houses in Brookline : Grapes — Frankendale, 
Black Hamburgh, Black Cluster, White Muscat of Alexandria, 
White Frontignac, Grizzly Frontignac, Black Frontignac, Sy- 
rian, White Chasselas, Golden Chasselas : Peaches — Noblesse, 
New Royal George, Freestone Heath, Hill's Madeira, President, 
George IV : Nectarines — Elrouge, Red Roman and Broom- 
field, all finest specimens of the most skilful cultivation : also, 
a variety of Pearmain, newly introduced, a handsome red fruit ; 
varieties of Mush Melon. 

By Mr. Jacob Tidd, of Roxbury : two bunches of Regner 
de Nice Grapes, the largest bunch weighing 6 1-2 pounds. 

By Aaron Mitchell, Esq., of Nantucket : a bunch of White 
Chasselas Grapes, and two bunches of Black Hamburgh, from a 
girdled vine — very large and beautiful, each bunch weighing 
two pounds, raised by his gardener, Mr. Wellwood Young. 

By Mrs. T. Bigelow, from her green house in Medford : 
Lemons and Oranges, very beautiful : Yellow Rareripe seedling 
Peaches, very fine : also, fine looking French Apples, name un- 
known; and Seven Years Pumpkins, very large, so called from 
the great length of time they will keep. 

By Hon. E. Vose, President of the Society : Pears — Napo- 
leon, Urbaniste, Wurtemberg, eminently beautiful ; Williams's 
Bonchretien or Bartlett, Andrews, Wilkinson, Lewis, Easter 
Beurre or Bergamotte de la Pentecote, Passe Colmar : Peaches 
— Grosse Mignonne. All these fruits were fine specimens of 
finest kinds. Also, Lady Haley's Nonsuch, a beautiful fruit, 
and Acorn Squash, very fine, and keeps well a year. 

By Enoch Bartlett, Esq., of Roxbury, Vice-President of the 
Society : Pears — Williams's Bonchretien or Bartlett, and 
Wurtemberg, both kinds eminently beautiful ; also, Cushing, 



37 

Striped Doyenne or Verte Longue, and Fulton : Apples-— 
Gravenstien, Hawthorndean, Monstrous Pippin ; also, long Cu- 
cumbers, from Trieste. 

By Mr. Manning, from his garden in Dearborn-street, in Sa- 
lem : Pears — 34 kinds, many of them new, and such as have 
never yet been seen with us before : Jalousie, Harvard, Saun- 
ders Beurre, Belle Lucrative, Beurre Von Marum, Beurre Knox, 
Napoleon, Maria Louise; Beurre Duval, just come into bearing 
and bears well ; Surpasse Virgalieu, Figue de Naples, Saint 
Ghislain, Summer Rose, Valle Franche, Pastorale, Fulton, 
Beurre Bosc, Wilkinson, Autumn Superb, Henry IV., Styrian, 
Urbaniste, Verte Longue or Mouille Bouche, Green Pear of 
Yair, Julienne ; Gloria, not the Gloria of any former exhibition, 
a fine looking fruit from Mr. Parsons' s tree, sent by Mr. Knight ; 
Beurre Spence, a celebrated new kind, now unripe, the tree 
bore this year for the first, time ; Chair a dame, Dearborn's 
Seedling, Beurre Cohnar D'Automne, Pope's Scarlet Major, 
Naumkeag; Jackman's Melting, anew fruit of a dark red color, 
very oblong and conical, or calabash formed, (it is doubtful 
whether this is the right name;) also two varieties of Pears with- 
out names, the one of a yellow, and the other of a red color. 
Many of these kinds being now unripe, will be reported again 
on a future occasion : Apples — Swaar, a name which signifies 
heavy, a fine looking fruit, fine and productive ; Gravenstein, 
fine ; New Red Crab : Plums — Green Gage, German Prune ; 
French long Blue, name lost, a large, oblong, blue fruit, very 
productive and fine ; Diamond Plum, a large, blue, and beautiful 
fruit, the flavor good ; a branch of the tree bore for the first time 
exceedingly full ; Sharp's Emperor, another new fruit, very 
large, pale yellow in the shade, and red next the sun, and beau- 
tiful ; a small limb of the young tree bore this year a large crop 
for the first time. 

By Mr. Downer, from his place in Dorchester : Pears — 
Duchesse D'Angouleme, Seckel, Beurre Diel, Wurtemberg, 
very beautiful ; Urbaniste, Bleecker's Meadow, Andrews, Dix, \ 
Cushing, Fulton, Harvard, Lewis, Washington, Passe Colmar, 
Bezi Vaet, Saint Ghislain, Moorfowl's Egg, Iron : Apples — 
Pumpkin Sweeting, Porter, Nonsuch, Sweeting, Seaver Sweet- 
ing, River Apple, Lady Apple, Pie Apple, Spitzenberg, Pear- 
main, Rhode Island Greenings, Yellow and Red Siberian Crab 



S*t 



38 



Apples, and branches loaded with the fruit of the same : 
Peaches — Rareripes. The fruits of Mr. Downer were of the 
finest kinds. 

By B. V. French, Esq., from his place in Braintree : Pears — 
Williams's Bonchretien, fine ; Arch Duke of Austria, which has 
been before noticed, form turbinate, faintly striped and beautiful, 
the quality but ordinary ; Tillington, Bleecker's Meadow : Ap- 
ples — Porter, Monstrous Pippin, or Gloria Mundi, Yellow Bell- 
flower, Garden Striped, Dutch Codlin, River Apple, Ruggles 
Apple, Siberian Crab, and branches of the same, covered with 
the fruit, very ornamental : Plums — Coe's Golden Drop, and 
Smith's Orleans, both superior kinds : Squashes — Autumnal 
Marrow, fine large specimens of this fine kind : Sugar Beets, 
very large and handsome, of a white color and of the true kind, 
the seeds received from France. 

By Mr. E. M. Richards, from his garden in Dedham : Pears — 
Seckel, Verte Longue or Mouthwater, Grise Bonne : Apples — 
Benoni, William's Favorite, American Summer Pearmain, Red 
Juneating, Orange Sweeting, Hawthorndean, Summer Gilli- 
flower, and other kinds, all very handsome : Peaches — of five 
fine varieties. 

By Mr. Thomas Mason, of the Charlestown Vineyard, from 
his peach houses : Peaches — Early Royal George, and Royal 
Kensington : Nectarines — El Rouge, Brignon, and Broomfield : 
Grapes — From his grape houses ; Black Hamburgh, Black St. 
Peters, Lombardy, Sweetwater or White Chasselas, and Golden 
Chasselas. All the fruits of Mr. Mason were fine, and afford 
good evidence of his skill as a cultivator : Also, Lima Squashes. 

By Mr. S. Pond, from his garden in Cambridgeport : Pears 
— Williams's Bonchretien, Andrews', Julienne, handsome speci- 
mens : Plums — Semiana or Imperatrice Violette, a fine produc- 
tive kind. 

By Ebenezer Breed, Esq., from his fruit houses in Charles- 
town : Pears — Wurtemberg, Seckle, Williams's Bonchretien, 
Swan's Egg : Grapes — Black Hamburgh, all of the same fine 
quality which this gentleman has usually offered for exhibition. 
Valparaiso Squash. 

By Judge Heard, from his estate in Watertown : Roxbury 
Russeting Apples, of the growth of 1836. 



3~£f 



39 



By Mr. Hamilton Davidson, of Charlestown : A handsome 
basket of Williams's Bonchretien and Rouselette de Rheims 
Pears, and Musk Melons ; the basket decorated with branches 
of fruit of the Red Siberian Crab : Also, fine specimens of 
Cucumbers. 

By Mr. Thomas Willot, of Roxbury : A large basket of fruit, 
singularly decorated, and surmounted by a branch of a tree and 
fruit, enveloped in the house of the hornet tribe. The fruits, 
consisting of Pears — Williams's Bonchretien, and Wurtemberg ; 
Apples — York Russett, Black Gilliflower, Blue Pearmain and 
Baldwin ; Rareripe Peaches, and Green fleshed Melon, were all 
very fine. 

By Mr. Dennis Murphy, of Roxbury : Grapes— Black Ham- 
burgh, from his grapery, very fine : Pears — Williams's Bon- 
chretien, and Dearborn's Seedling : Plums — White Magnum 
Bonum, and Smith's large Orleans. 

By Mr. R. Ward, of Roxbury : Pears— Williams's Bonchre- 
tien, and Seckel : a basket of fine Peaches and White Gage 
Plums. 

By Mr. John D. W. Williams, from his estate in Roxbury : 
Pears — Williams's Bonchretien, very fine, and Apples. 

By Mr. Samuel Phipps, of Dorchester : Specimens of beau- 
tiful Nectarines. 

By Messrs. Winships, from their garden and nurseries in 
Brighton : Branches and clusters of the Shepardia, very beau- 
tiful ; also, Passiflora edulis, with its curious and beautiful blos- 
soms, and eatable fruit. 

By Dr. S. A. Shurtleff : Clingstone Peaches, also Tremont 
Peach, a fine looking, large native seedling, from his residence 
in Tremont-street. 

By Mr. John A. Kenrick, from his garden and nurseries in 
Newton : Pears — Williams's Bonchretien, Mogul Sumner : 
Peaches — Early York Rareripe, Prince's Red Rareripe, and 
Yellow Red Rareripe : Apples — Hubbardston Nonsuch, Bald- 
win, Kenrick's Red Autumn, Pumpkin Sweeting, Fenner Sap- 
sons. 

By Mr. Samuel R. Johnson, from his garden in Charlestown : 
White Sweetwater, or Chasselas, and White Frontignac Grapes, 
both very fine, from out of door culture. The White Gage 
Plums, which Mr. Johnson exhibited, are found to be identically 



S3* 



40 



the same with Prince's Imperial Gage, a kind wonderfully pro- 
ductive. These were from his celebrated tree, the fruit large 
and very fine. The tree, though not large, is annually loaded 
with fruit, and produced this year, by estimation, three barrels. 
His Bolmer's Washington Plums of the largest size, measured 
seven inches in circumference. The tree produced about 1200 
fruits this season, of superior size ; though this kind is not re- 
puted so productive. 

By Mr. Sweetser, from his garden in Cambridgeport : Mogul 
Sumner Pears. 

By Mr. Alexander McLennen, from " Oaklands," in Water- 
town, the garden of William Pratt, Esq. : Black Hamburgh 
Grapes, fine specimens of his skill as a cultivator : Also, Green 
Persian Melons. 

By Mr. Jonathan Warren, of Weston : Apples — African, a 
dark red fruit ; American Nonpareil : Also, Hercules Club 
Gourd, very curious form, cylindrical, about three inches in di- 
ameter, and two or three feet long. 

By Mr. John T. Wheelwright, from his garden in Newton : 
Pears — St. Michael, Bonchretien and Pound : Apples — York 
Russetting : Peaches — Two baskets of fine fruit. 

By Messrs. E. Dana & Co., No. 100, Faneuil Hall Market : 
Pears — apparently the Urbaniste. 

By Mr. John Hill, No. 103, Faneuil Hall Market, from the 
farm of Mr. David Hill, in West Cambridge : Peaches — Red 
Rareripes, fine ; Lemon Peach, very large and beautiful, and 
evidently a synonyme of the Yellow Red Rareripe. 

By Mr. A. D. Williams, from his farm in Roxbury : Or- 
leans Apple, a large and beautiful yellow fruit : Pears — 
Williams's Early, juice abundant, and of exceeding fine flavor. 
By John Brown, Esq., of Concord : Purple Detroit Apples. 
By Mr. Wm. B. Sweet, of Roxbury: Varieties of Apples, 
Pears and Plums. 

By William Oliver, Esq., from his residence in Dorchester : 
Pears — St. Ghislain, Seckel, and Brocas Bergamot. 

By Mr. James Hunnewell, of Charlestown : Grapes — Sweet- 
water, of fine appearance, and grown in the open air from a vine 
which yields 103 bunches this year ; Isabellas, very fine, from a 
vine which produced 300 bunches last year. 

By Mr. John Rayner, of Boston : St. Michael Pears. 



<*~3i 



41 

By Mr. J. Newhall, of New Ipswich, N. H. : Ripe Figs of 
open culture ; the fruit was formed the previous year, and ma- 
tured in this ; the small unripe figs were of the third crop of 
this season. 

By Mr. J. L. L. F. Warren, from his garden in Brighton : 
Pears — Seckel, from a bud of two years' growth : Apples — 
Porter, Seek-no-further, Golden Russetts, Joseph Sweetings, 
Lady Apple, Siberian Crab Apple : Peaches — Warren's Native 
Peach, and Royal Kensington : Tomatoes — beautiful specimens 
of this truly invaluable vegetable, which should be an inhabitant 
of every garden : Also, a very large Savoy Cabbage. 

By Mr. Jacob Deane, of Mansfield : Apples — Seek-no-further, 
Wine Apple, Pumpkin Sweeting, very large; Hay boy, a large 
flat fruit, of a dark yellow color, very sweet, fine and productive ; 
Superb Sweet, a red striped fruit of medium size, very delicious 
and productive, and highly esteemed by him ; Spice Sweeting, 
a large and eminently beautiful fruit, and now nearly ripe, of a 
round form, skin smooth, of a delicate straw color, with a blush 
next the sun, flavor sweet, spicy and delicious ; the tree is stated 
to be a most abundant bearer : Peaches — large early Peach. 

By John Mackay, Esq., of this city, from his farm in Weston : 
Pears — Seckel, two baskets : Apples — Pearmain, Hawthorn- 
dean, very beautiful ; Porter and Williams's Favorite, the two 
last named very fine. 

By Joseph Balch, Esq., of Roxbury: Seedling Peaches, very 
fine : Pears — Cushing and Williams's Bonchretien, both hand- 
some fruits. 

By Mr. E. P. Hathorne, of Boston : Sweetwater Grapes, the 
produce of out-of-door cultivation. 

By Mr. E. Hathorne : Cream Apples, from Salem, a middle 
sized fruit, from Ossipee originally, of a fine flavor. 

By Mr. J. M. Ives, from his garden in Dearborn-street, in 
North Salem : Autumnal Marrow Squashes, an oval yellow 
fruit, of the finest grain and sweet flavor, the best summer squash 
yet known, and one of the finest for keeping, as they are easily 
preserved till June. 

By Mr. Guild, from his summer residence in Brookline : 
Specimens of Turnip Cabbage, a singular production, of a glo- 
bular form, solid like a turnip, and said to be fine. 

By Doct. J. C. Howard, of Brookline : Grapes — large fine 
6 



53^ 

42 

clusters of Black Hamburgh ; also, fine Sweetwater, the produce 
of open culture. 

By Mr. John Lewis Russell, of Salem : Apples — High Top 
Sweeting; also, Long Stem Apple, raised by Mr. Andrew 
Cushing, of South Hingham : Pears — Gushing, the fruit of 
extra size, raised by Capt. Charles Shute, of South Hingham, 
from a sucker of the original tree, now about thirty years old. 
Also, another fruit, without name, pear shaped, skin covered 
with very dark yellow russet, from a tree nearly a century old, 
from Mr. David Cushing, of South Hingham. 

By Mr. C. Ford, of Dorchester : Large Blue Pumpkins. 

By Mr. Cole L. Kendall, of Charlestown : Summer Squash, 
from Constantinople, a large, oblong, pale, ribbed vegetable. 

By Mr. A. H. Safford, of Cambridgeport : Pine-apple Squash, 
so called, very large and oblong. 

A curious Cucumber was offered for exhibition, about seven 
or eight feet long ; its form reminded many of a serpent ; it was 
from Mrs. Boott, Lowell. 

By John Breed, Esq., from Belle Isle : A remarkably large, 
blue Squash, of an oblong or truncated form, weighing 80 
pounds, apparently of the Valparaiso kind. 
For the Committee, 

WILLIAM KENRICK, Chairman. 

REPORT ON FLOWERS. 

It has again become our duty to make a Report of the An- 
nual Exhibition of Flowers, at the Rooms of the Massachusetts 
Horticultural Society. The contributors were numerous; the 
contributions were liberal ; and many of the specimens, of sur- 
passing beauty. As a detailed report of the fruits, and some 
general remarks of the flowers, have already appeared in the 
report of Mr. William Kenrick, Chairman of the Committee on 
Fruits ; and as it is understood a detailed report of the Plants 
and Flowers will be given in the respective magazines of Messrs. 
Breck & Co., and the Messrs. Hovey, we shall report in general 
terms. 

The plants from the Hon. John Lowell, of Roxbury, in addi- 
tion to two very splendid Orange Trees, were in fine order, and 
were much admired. 



S~33 

43 

The Palms and other plants from the garden of J. P. Cushing, 
Esq., of Watertown, by Mr. D. Haggerston, added much to the 
general effect of the exhibition. Mr. Haggerston also supplied 
the tables with several rich vases, and a profusion of cut flowers, 
wreaths, &>c. 

From the Hon. T. H. Perkins, of Brookline, by his gardener, 
Mr. W. H. Cowan, a splendid display of cut Flowers, arranged 
on stands with great taste. Mr. Cowan deserves our thanks for 
his very liberal supply. 

The beautiful Acacias, and other plants, in all about 70 speci- 
mens, from Marshall P. Wilder, Esq., of Dorchester, were very 
fine. The delicate foliage of the Acacias was much admired. 

John Lemist, Esq., of Roxbury, decorated our tables with 
some of his choice and rare plants, — Sago Palms, Heaths, &c. 

John D. W. Williams, Esq., of Elm Hall, Roxbury, sent some 
very choice specimens by his gardener. The plants were not 
only rare, bat they were in a state of high cultivation. The 
best specimens of China Asters, in the rooms, were from Mr. 
Williams. 

Dr. J. C. Howard, Woodland, Brookline: A splendid Plant ; 
Dahlias, and other cut flowers, bouquets, &c. 

B. V. French, Esq., from his garden at Braintree: A large 
supply of cut flowers, evergreens, &,c. 

From the garden of Mr. John Richardson, of Dorchester : A 
variety of cut flowers. 

By Mr. J. Towne, of Boston : Several extremely fine speci- 
mens of choice and rare Heaths. 

Mr. Samuel Sweetser, of Cambridge : Some charming flow- 
ers in pots. 

The Messrs. Winship, of Brighton : Two wagon loads of pot 
plants and cut flowers, some of them of great beauty. Mr. Sto- 
ry will please accept our thanks for his kind attention, and for 
his liberal supply of evergreens. 

By Mr. William Wales, of Dorchester : Twenty fine speci- 
mens of green house plants. We noticed particularly a very 
fine Heath, and a yellow Tea Rose ; there were several other 
plants in Mr. Wales' collection of great beauty. Also, a splen- 
did bouquet. 

Several fine plants from the Messrs. Hovey : A yellow Tea 
Rose of great beauty. 



5 2 >i 



44 



From the Botanic Garden, Cambridge, by Mr. W. E. Carter : 
A large supply of plants, many of them fine specimens. 

Mr. Mason, of Charlestown : A choice variety of pot plants, 
some rare and fine. Also, a liberal supply of cut flowers, and 
some handsome bouquets, &c. 

Mr. D. Murphy, of Roxbury, furnished upwards of twenty 
choice plants ; two splendid bouquets, and some cut flowers. 

Dahlias. The display of Dahlias was extremely fine, and 
greatly surpassed our expectations. To give a list of the names 
of all the varieties exhibited, would exceed our limits ; we shall 
therefore confine ourselves to the names of a few in the collec- 
tion of the principal growers, viz : — 

In the collection of M. P. Wilder, Esq. : Conqueror of Eu- 
rope, Dodd's Mary, Dodd's Mary Queen of Scots, Mrs. Broad- 
wood, Elphinstone's Purple Perfection, Lavinia, Bride of Aby- 
dos, King Otho, Stone's Yellow Perfection, Golden Sovereign, 
Desdemona, Queen Elizabeth, Hermione, Sir Henry Fletcher, 
Lady Fordwich, Gem, M'Kenzie's Contender, King of Beauties, 
Marquis of Northampton, Douglass' Glory, Dictator, Widnall's 
Clio, Inwood's Ariel, Criterion, Jupiter, Garnier's Princess Vic- 
toria, &/C. 

In the collection of the Messrs. Hovey : Princess Victoria, 
Marchioness of Tavistock, Mary Queen of Scots, Mary, Con- 
queror of Europe, Sulphurea elegans, Mrs. Broadwood, Juliet, 
Elphinstone's Purple Perfection, Gem, Sir Henry Fletcher, Her- 
mione, Golden Sovereign, Rosa Superba, Red Rover, Stone's 
Yellow Perfection, Bride of Abydos, King Otho, Lavinia, Ariel, 
Beauty of Dulwich, Fisherton's Rival, Star, Jupiter, Glory, Mrs. 
Wilkinson, Lady Fordwich, Exemplar, Crcesus, &c. 

In the collection of Mr. S. R. Johnson : British Queen, 
Elphinstone Polyphemus, Duchess of Buccleugh, Augusta, Mrs. 
Wilkinson, Rainbow, Widnall's Clio, Princess Victoria (Gar- 
nier's) ; Douglass' Criterion, Metropolitan Perfection, Brown's 
Desdemona, Gaines' Harlequin, Royal Adelaide, Rosea Speci- 
osa, Widnall's Perfection, Smith's Napoleon, Lady Brougham, 
Newbey's Duke of Bedford, Jupiter, Mountjoy's Burgundy, 
Angelina, Lady Fordwich, Duchess of Bedford, Countess of 
Berresford, Erecta. 

In the collection of Mr. S. Sweetser : Apollo, Augusta, 
(Douglass'); Beauty of Sheffield, Bride of Abydos, Beauty of 



s~3 5 

45 

Stow, Countess of Cork, Countess of Liverpool, Criterion, 
(Douglass'); Desdemona, (Brown's) ; Douglass' Glory, Granta, 
Jupiter, Golden Sovereign, Jackson Rival, Lady Fordwich, La- 
vinia, Metropolitan Calypso, Mrs. Wilkinson, Napoleon, 
(Smith's) ; Othello, Pindarius, Queen of Dahlias, Springfield 
Rival, Stone's Yellow Perfection, Lady of the Lake. 

In the collection of Mr. D. Maclntire : Juliet, Dodd's Mary, 
Mrs. Broadwood, Mary dueen of Scots, Conqueror of Europe, 
Golden Sovereign, Stone's Yellow Perfection, Red Rover, Star, 
Rising Sun, Young's Black Ajax, Exemplar, Marquis of North- 
ampton, Dictator, Bride of Abydos, Angelina, Douglass' Glory. 

There were also some very fine specimens of the Dahlia, and 
splendid bouquets, from Messrs. John A. Kenrick, J. Breck &, 
Co., Howard, Carter, Winship, W. Kenrick, Weld, Mason, 
Murphy, Wilson, and Walker. 

The celebrated Cobbett states that he was asked, (and the 
question has often been put to ourselves,) what is the use of 
flowers? Mr. Cobbett replied by asking another question. 
What is the use of any thing ? We shall answer the inquiry in 
the language of Miller, " Who would wish to live without flow- 
ers? Where would the poet fly for his images of beauty, if 
they were to perish forever? Are they not the emblems of 
loveliness and innocence — the living types of all that is pleasing 
and graceful? We compare young lips to the rose; and the 
white brow to the radiant lily ; the winning eye gathers its glow 
from the violet, and the sweet voice is like a breeze kissing its 
way through the flowers. We hang delicate blossoms on the 
silken ringlets of the young bride, and strew her path with fra- 
grant bells, when she leaves the church. We place them around 
the marble of the dead, in the narrow coffin ; and they become 
symbols of our affections ; pleasures remembered, and hopes 
faded, wishes flown, and scenes cherished the more that they 
can never return. Still we look to the far off spring in other 
valleys ; to the eternal summer beyond the grave, when the flow- 
ers which have faded shall again bloom in starry fields, where 
no rude winter can intrude. They come upon us in spring like 
the recollections of a dream, which hovered above us in sleep, 
peopled with shadowy beauties, and purple delights, fancy broi- 
dered. Sweet flowers ! that bring before our eyes scenes of 
childhood ; faces remembered in youth, when Love was a stran- 



£ % 

46 

ger to himself! The mossy banks by the way side, where we 
so often sat for hours drinking in the beauty of the primroses 
with our eyes ; the sheltered glen, darkly green, filled with the 
perfume of violets, that shone in their intense blue, like another 
sky spread upon the earth ; the laughter of merry voices ; the 
sweet song of the maiden — the downcast eye, the spreading 
blush, the kiss ashamed at its own sound — are all brought back 
to the memory by a flower." 

For the Committee, 

SAMUEL WALKER, Chairman. 



6"3 7 



OFFICERS 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



ELECTED OCTOBER 7th, 1837. 



PRESIDENT. 

ELIJAH VOSE, Dorchester. 

VICE-PRESIDENTS. 

ENOCH BARTLETT, Roxbury. 
JONATHAN WINSHIP, Brighton. 
THEODORE LYMAN, Jr., Waltham. 
JOHN PRINCE, Roxbury. 

TREASURER. 

SAMUEL WALKER, Roxbury. 

CORRESPONDING SECRETARY. 

ROBERT TREAT PAINE, Boston. 

RECORDING SECRETARY. 

EZRA WESTON, Jr., Boston. 

COUNSELLORS. 

AUGUSTUS ASPINWALL, Brookline. 
THOMAS BREWER, Roxbury. 
HENRY A. BREED, Lynn. 
GEORGE W. BRIMMER, Boston. 
JOSEPH S. CABOT, Salem. 
E. HERSY DERBY, Salem. 
'* N. MORTON DAVIS, Plymouth. 
NATHANIEL DAVENPORT, Milton. 
THOMAS G. FESSENDEN, Boston. 
DAVID HAGGERSTON, Watertown. 
JOSEPH G. JOY, Boston. 



■ *7 '2^ 



48 



WILLIAM KENRICK, Newton. 
JOHN LEMIST, Roxbury. 
WILLIAM LINCOLN, Worcester. 
- THOMAS LEE, Brookline. 

CHARLES LAWRENCE, Salem. 
WILLIAM PRATT, Jr., Watertown. 
BENJAMIN RODMAN, New Bedford. 
SAMUEL A. SHURTLEFF, Boston. 
M. P. SAWYER, Boston. 
JACOB TIDD, Roxbury. 
CHARLES TAPPAN, Boston. 
AARON D. WILLIAMS, Roxbury. 
JONATHAN WINSHIP, Brighton. 
WILLIAM WORTHINGTON, Dorchester. 
THOMAS WHITMARSH, Northampton. 

PROFESSOR OF BOTANY AND VEGETABLE PHYSIOLOGY. 

Rev. JOHN L. RUSSELL. 

PROFESSOR OF ENTOMOLOGY. 

T. W. HARRIS, M. D. 

PROFESSOR OF HORTICULTURAL CHEMISTRY. 

J. W. WEBSTER, M. D. 



£~3.J 



m&MW£w<® ©©mmsMm 



COMMITTEE ON FRUITS. 



WILLIAM KENRICK, Chairman. 
ROBERT MANNING, 
SAMUEL DOWNER, 
BENJA. V, FRENCH, 
EDWARD M. RICHARDS, 
JOHN A. KENR1CK, 



JOHN M. IVES, 
P. B. HOVEY, Jr., 
LEMUEL. P. GROSVENOR, 
J. L. L. F. WARREN, 
SAMUEL POND. 



COMMITTEE ON THE PRODUCTS OF KITCHEN GARDEN. 



SAMUEL POND, Chairman. 
DANIEL CHANDLER, 
JACOB TIDD, 



NATHANIEL DAVENPORT, 
AARON D WILLIAMS, 
RUFUS HOWE. 



COMMITTEE ON FLOWERS, SHRUBS, ETC. 



SAMUEL WALKER, Chairman. 
CHARLES M. HOVEY, 
JOSEPH BRECK, 
SAMUEL SWEETSER, 



DAVID HAGGERSTON, 
SAMUEL R. JOHNSON, 
MARSHAL P. WILDER, 
WILLIAM CARTER. 



COMMITTEE ON THE LIBRARY. 



ELIJAH VOSE, Chairman. 
ROBERT T. PAINE, 
WILLIAM KENRICK, 
EZRA WESTON, Jr., 



CHARLES M. HOVEY, 

M. P. WILDER, 

THOMAS G. FESSENDEN. 



COMMITTEE ON SYNONYMS OF FRUIT. 



JOHN LOWELL, Chairman. 
ROBERT MANNING, 



WILLIAM KENRICK, 
SAMUEL DOWNER. 



EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE. 



ELIJAH VOSE, Chairman. 
CHEEVER NEWHALL, 
BENJA. V. FRENCH, 



EDWARD M. RICHARDS, 
ENOCH BARTLETT. 



ELIJAH VOSE, Chairman. 
BENJA. V. FRENCH, 

7 



COMMITTEE ON FINANCE. 

LEMUEL P. GROSVENOR. 



s^ 



assfflra®&&. ! 5i?5! mium^h^ 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



MEMBERS FOR LIFE. 



Armstrong, Samuel T. Boston. 
Aspinwall, Augustus, Brookline. 
Bradford, Samuel D. Boston. 
Breed, Andrews, Lynn. 
Breed, Henry A. " 

Brewer, Eliab Stone, Fort Oaiyies, Geo. 
Chase, Hezekiah, Lynn. 
Crafts, Ebenezer, Roxbury. 
Edwards, Elisha, Springfield. 
French, Benjamin V. Braintree. 
Gardner, W. F. Salem. 
Hedge, Isaac L. Plymouth. 
Howland, John, Jr., New Bedford. 
Lincoln, Levi, Worcester. 
Lincoln, William, " 
Lyman, Theodore, Jr. Boston. 
Newhall, Cheever, Dorchester. 
Newman, Henry, Roxbury. 



;- 



Paine, Robert T. Boston. 
Parker, Daniel P. " 
Parsons, Gorham, Brighton. 
Perry, John, Sherburne. 
Prescott, C. H. Cornwallis, N. S. 
Rotch, William, New Bedford. 
Silsby, Enoch, Bradford. 
Smith, Stephen H. Providence, R. 1. 
Springer, John, Sterling. 
Story, F. H. Salem. 
Story, Joseph,. Cambridge. 
Thorndike, Israel, Boston. 
Waldo, Daniel, Worcester. 
Webster, Nathan, Haverhill. 
West, Thomas, " 

Winthrop, Thomas L. Boston. 
Wolcott, Edward, Pawtucket. 
Worthington, William, Dorchester, 



ANNUAL MEMBERS. 



Adams, Benjamin, Boston. 
Adams, Charles F. Quincy. 
Adams, Daniel, Newbury. 
Adams, Samuel, Milton. 
Adamson, John, Roxbury. 
Andrews, Ebenezer T. Boston. 
Andrews, Ferdinand, Lancaster. 
Andrews, William T. Boston. 
Anthony, James, Providence. 
Appleton, Samuel, Boston. 
Atkinson, Amos, Brookline. 

Badlam, Stephen, Boston. 
Bailey, Ebenezer, " 
Bailey, Kendall, Charlestown. 
Balch, Joseph, Roxbury. 
Bangs, Edward D. Worcester. 
Bartlett, Enoch, Roxbury. 
Beal, George W. Quincy. 
Bigelow, Jacob, Boston. 
Billings, Joseph H. Roxbury. 
Bishop, Nathaniel H. Medford. 
Bond, George, Boston. 
Bond, George W. " 
Boott, William, " 
Bowen, Charles, Newton. 
Bradlee, Joseph P. Boston. 
Breck, Joseph, Brighton. 
Breed, Ebenezer, Charlestown. 
Brewer, Thomas, Roxbury. 
Brimmer, George W. Boston. 
Brown, James, Cambridge, 



Brown, J. M. Boston. 
Buckingham, Joseph T. Cambridge. 
Buckminster, Lawson, Framingham, 
Buckminster, Edward F. " 
Burridge, Martin, Medford. 
Bussey, Benjamin, Roxbury. 

Cabot, Joseph H. Salem. 
Cabot, Samuel, Brookline. 
Callender, Joseph, Boston. 
Capen, Aaron, Dorchester. 
Carter, Horatio, Lancaster. 
Carter, William E. Cambridge. 
Chamberlin, Edward, Jr. Boston. 
Champney, John, Roxbury, 
Chandler, Daniel, Thompson's Island. 
Chandler, Samuel, Lexington. 
Clapp, Isaac, Dorchester. 
Clapp, John, South Reading. 
Clapp, Joshua, Boston. 
Clapp, Nathaniel, Dorchester. 
Cobb, Elijah, Boston. 
Codman, John, Dorchester. 
Cogswell, Joseph G. New York City. 
Coolidge, Joseph, Boston. 
Coolidge, Samuel F. " 
Coolidge, Thomas B. " 
Copeland, B. F. Roxbury. 
Cotting, William, West Cambridge, 
Cowan, William H. Brighton. 
Cowing, Cornelius, Roxbury. 
Cowing, Howland, Jr. " 



J~i-l 



51 



Cowing, N. H. Brookline. 
Crane, Joshua, Boston. 
Crowningshield, Benjamin W. Boston. 
Curtis, Edward, Pepperell. 
Curtis, Nathaniel, Roxbury. 
Curtis, William, Newton. 

Daniell, Josiah, Boston. 
Daniell, Otis, " 

Davenport, Nathaniel, Milton. 
Davis, Charles, Roxbury. 
Davis, E. S. Lynn. 
Davis, Isaac P., Boston. 
Davis, N. Morton, Plymouth. 
Dearborn, H. A. S. Roxbury. 
Derby, E. H. Salem. 
Dickson, James A. Boston. 
Dodge, Pickering, Salem. 
Doggett, John, Boston. 
Dorr, Nathaniel, Roxbury. 
Downer, Samuel, Dorchester. 
Downes, John, Boston. 
Dyer, E. D. " 

Dudley, David, Roxbury. 
i^-v Duncan, James, Haoerhill. 

Eager, William, Boston. 
Eastburn, John H. " 
Eldredge, Edward, " 
Ellis, Charles, Roxbury. 
Emmons, Robert L. Boston. 
Endicott, William P. Salem. 
Eustis, James, South Reading. 
Eustis, William T. Boston. 
Everett, Edward, " 

Faxon, Nathaniel, Boston. 
Fay, Samuel P. P. Cambridge. 
Felt, Oliver S. Boston. 

Fessenden, Thomas G. " 
Field, Joseph, " 

Fitch, Jeremiah, " 

Fletcher, Richard, " 

Freeman, Russell, Sandwich. 
Frothingham, Samuel, Boston. 

Gannett, T. B. Cambridge. 
Gardner, Joshua, Dorchester. 
Gibbs, Benjamin, Cambridge. 
Goodwin, Thomas J. 
Gore, Watson, Roxbury. 
Gould, Benjamin A. Boston. 
Gould, Daniel, Reading. 
Gourgas, J. M. Weston. 
Gray, John, Boston. 
Gray, John C. " 
Green, Charles W. Roxbury. 
Greenleaf, Thomas, Quincy. 
Grosvenor, L. P. Boston. 
Guild, Benjamin, " 

Haggerston, David, Watertown. 
Hall, Dudley, Medford. 
Hammond, fl. H. Lexington. 
Harris, William T. Cambridge. 
Hartshorn, Eliphalet P. Boston. 
Haskins, Ralph, Roxbury. 
Hayden, Frederic, Lincoln. 
Hayden, John, Brookline. 
Hayward, Charles, Boston. 
Hay ward, George, " 
Heard, John, " 

Higginson, Henry, " 
Hill, Jeremiah, " 

Hodges, James L. Taunton. 
Holbrook, Amos, Milton. 
Hollings worth, Mark, " 
Houghton, Abel, Jr. Lynn. 



Hovey, Charles M. Cambridge. 
Hovey, P. B., Jr. " 

Howard, John C. Brookline. 
Howe, Hall J. Boston. 
Howe, Rufus, Dorchester. 
Howes, Frederick, Salem. 
Hunnewell, James, Charlestown. 
Hurd, William " 

Hyde, Samuel, Jr. Newton. 

Ives, John M. Salem. 

Jackson, Charles T. Boston. 
Jackson, James, 
Jackson, Patrick T. " 
Jaques, Samuel, Jr. Charlestown. 
Johnson, Otis, Lynn. 
Johonnot, George S. Salem. 
Jones, Llewellyn D. Great Britain. 
Josselyn, Lewis, Boston. 
Joy, Joseph G. " 

Kenriok, Enoch B. Newton. 
Kenrick, John A. " 

Kenrick, William, " 
Kidder, Samuel, Charlestown. 
King, John, Medford. 

Lawrence, Abbott, Boston. 
Lawrence, Charles, Salem. 
Lee, Thomas, Jr. Roxbury. 
Leland, Daniel, Sherburne. 
Leland, J. P. « 

Lemist, John, Roxbury. 
Loring, William J. Boston. 
Low, John J. " 

Lowell, John, Roxbury. 
Lowell, John A. Boston. 
Lyman, George W. " 

Mackay, John, Boston. 
Manners, George, " 
Manning, Robert, Salem. 
Mason, Thomas, Charlestown. 
Mason, Thomas H. " 
Mead, Isaac, " 

Mead, Samuel O. West Cambridge. 
Miller, Edward, Boston. 
Moffat, Joseph L. " 
Morrill, Ambrose, Lexington. 
Motley, Edward, Boston. 
Munroe, Jonas, Lexington. 
Murphy, Dennis, Roxbury. 
Mussey, Benjamin, Lexington. 

Newell, Joseph R. Boston. 
Newell, Joseph W. Charlestown. 
Newhall, George, Dorchester. 
Newhall, Josiah, Lynnfield. 
Nichols, Otis, Dorchester. 
Nuttall, Thomas, Cambridge. 

Oliver, Francis J. Boston. 
Oliver, William, Dorchester.^ 
Otis, Harrison G. Boston. 
Oxnard, Henry, BrooklinCm 

Parker, Isaac, Boston. 
Parris, Alexander, " 
Parsons, Theophilus, " 
Payne, William E. " 
Peabody, Francis, Salem. 
Perkins, Samuel G. Boston. 
Perkins, Thomas H. " 
Perry, Rev'd G. B., East Bradford. 
Pettee, Otis, Newton. 
Philbrick, Samuel, Brookline. 
Phillips, Stephen C. Salem. 



5fx 



52 



Phinney, Elias, Lexington. 
Phipps, Rufus T. Charlestown. 
Phipps, Samuel, Dorchester. 
Pickman, Dudley L. Salem. 
Pond, Samuel, Cambridge. 
Pond, Samuel, Jr. Boston. 
Pond, Samuel M. Bucksport, Me. 
Pool, Ward, Danvers. 
Pratt, George W. Boston. 
Pratt, William, Jr. Watertown. 
Prescott, William, Boston. 
Preston, John, " 

Priest, John F. " 

Prince, John, Roxbury. 
Prince, John, Salem. 
Prouty, Lorenzo, Boston. 
Putnam, Ebenezer, Salem. 

duincy, Josiah, Jr. Boston. 

Rand, Edward S. Newburyport. 

Read, George, Roxbury. 

Read, James, Boston. 

Rice, Henry, " 

Rice, John P. " 

Richards, Edward M. Dedham. 

Richardson, Nathan, South Reading. 

Robbins, Edward H. Boston. 

Robbins, P. G. Roxbury. 

Rodman, Benjamin, New Bedford. 

Rogers, R. S. Salem. 

Rogerson, Robert, Boston. 

Rollins, William, " 

Rowe, Joseph, Milton. 

Ruggles, Micah H. Fall River. 

Russell, George, M. D. Lincoln. 

Russell, John L. Salem. 

Russell, Joseph, Boston. 

Saltonstall, Leverett, Salem. 
Sawyer, M. P. Boston. 
Senior, Charles, Roxbury. 
Sharp, Edward, Dorchester. 
Shaw, Francis G. Boston. 
Shaw, Lemuel, " 

Sheafe, Henry, " 

Shurtleff, Samuel A. " 
Sisson, Freeborn, Warren, R. I. 
Skinner, Francis, Boston. 
Skinner, John, Charlestown. 
Smith, Cyrus, Sandwich. 
Smith, J. M. Boston. 
Sparhawk, E. C. Cambridge. 
Stearns, Charles, Springfield. 



Stearns, William, Boston. 
Stedman, Josiah, " 
Stevens, Isaac, " 

Stone, Leonard, Watertown. 
Stone, William, " 
Sullivan, Richard, Brookline. 
Sumner, William H. Roxbury. 
Sutton, William, Jr. Danvers. 
Swan, Daniel, Medford. 
Sweetser, Samuel, Cambridge. 

Tappan, Charles, Boston. 
Thaxter, Levi, Watertown. 
Thomas, Benjamin, Hhigham. 
Thompson, George, Medford. 
Tidd, Jacob, Roxbury. 
Tiluen, Joseph, Boston. 
Train, Samuel, Medford. 
Tremlett, Thomas B. Dorchester. 
Tucker, Richard D. Boston. 
Tyler, George W. Charlestown. 

Vila, James, Boston. 
Vose, Elijah, Dorchester. 

Walker, Samuel, Roxbury. 
Ward, Richard, " 

Warren, J. L. L. F. Brighton. 
Warren, Jonas, Weston. 
Warren, Jonathan, Jr. " 
Webster, Daniel, Boston. 
Webster, John W. Cambridge. 
Weld, Aaron D., Jr. Boston. 
Weston, Ezra, Jr. " 

Wheelwright, John F. " 
Wheelwright, Lot, Jr. " 
White, Abijah, Watertown. 
White, Stephen, Boston. 
Whitmarsh, Samuel, Northampton. 
Whitmarsh, Thomas, " 

Whitney, Benjamin D. Cambridge. 
Wight, Ebenezer, Dedham. 
Wilder, Marshal P. Dorchester. 
Wilder, S. V. S. Bolton. 
Willard, Joseph, Boston. 
Williams, Aaron D. Roxbury. 
Williams, John, Cambridge. 
Williams, Nehemiah D. Roxbury. 
Wilson, John, " 

Winchester, William P. Boston. 
Winship, Francis, Brighton. 
Winship, Jonathan, " 
Wyeth, Nathaniel, Cambridge. 



S*$3 



m©m©w,^.w^ mmmmmm 



HON. JOHN Q. ADAMS, Quincy. 

WILLIAM T. A1TON, Esq., Curator of the Royal Gardens, Kew. 

JOHN ABBOT, Esq., Brunswick, Me. 

BENJAMIN ABBOT, LL D., Exeter, N. H. 

JESSE BUEL, Esq., Albany. 

LE CHEVALIER SOULANGE BODIN, Secretaire-General de la Societe 
d'Horticulture de Paris. 

EDWARD N. BANCROFT, M. D., President of the Horticultural and Agricul- 
tural Society of Jamaica. 

ROBERT BARCLAY, Esq., Great Britain. 

JAMES BEEKMAN, Esq., New York. 

HON. P. P. BARBOUR, Virginia. 

ZACCHEUS COLLINS, Esq., Philadelphia: 

ADMIRAL SIR ISAAC COFFIN, Great Britain. 

ISAAC CHAUNCY, Esq., Washington. 

HON. HENRY CLAY, Kentucky. 

JAMES DICKSON, Esq., Vice-President of the London Horticultural Society. 

MONS. ANGUSTIN PYRAMUS DE CANDOLLE, Professor of Botany in the 
Academy of Geneva. 

DON RAMON DE LA SAGRA, Cuba. 

HON. HORACE EVERETT, Vermont. 

CHARLES A. EVANSON, Esq., St. Johns, N. B. 

F. FALDERMANN, Curator of the Imperial Botanic Garden, at St. Petersburg. 

DR. F. E. FISCHER, Professor of Botany of the Imperial Botanic Garden, at 
St. Petersburg. 

JOSEPH GALES, Jr. Esq., Washington. 

JOHN GREIG, Esq., Geneva, State of New York. 

MRS. MARY GRIFFITH, Charlies Hope, New Jersey. 

HERICART DE THURY, Le Vicomte, President de la Societe d'Horticulture 
de Paris. 

THOMAS HOPKIRK, Esq., President of the Glasgow Horticultural Society. 

LEWIS HUNTS, Esq., Huntsburgh, Ohio. 

S. P. HILDRETH, M. D., Marietta, Ohio. 

JAMES R. 1NGERSOLL, Esq., Philadelphia. 

GEN. ANDREW JACKSON, Nashville, Tenn. 

MRS. MARTHA JOHONNOT, Salem. 

THOMAS A. KNIGHT, Esq., President of the London Horticultural Society. 

JOHN C. LOUDON, Esq., London. 

BARON H. CAROL VON LUDW1G, Cape Town, Cape of Good Hope. 

LE COMPTE DE LASTEYRIE, Vice-President de la Societe d'Horticullure 
de Paris. 

FRANKLIN LITCHFIELD, Esq., Porto Cabello. 

JACOB LORRILLARD, Esq., New York. 



$H± 



54 



JOSHUA LONGSTRETH, Esq , Philadelphia. 

NICHOLAS LONGWORTH, Esq. ; Cincinnati. 

MONS. F. A. MICHAUX, Paris. 

LEWIS J. MURTENS, Esq. ; Brussels. 

MOSSELLMAN, Esq. 7 Antwerp. 

HON. CHARLES F. MERCER, Virginia. 

U. S. M'CAULEY, Esq., Tripoli. 

HON. ISAAC McKIM, Baltimore, Maryland. 

MRS. CHARLOTTE MARRYATT, Wimbledon, near London. 

BARON OTTENFELS, Austrian Minister to the Ottoman Porte. 

MONS. POITEAU, Professor of the Institut Horticole de Fromont. 

JOHN H. POWELL, Esq., Powellton, Pennsylvania. 

WILLIAM PRINCE, Esq., Long- Island, New York. 

HENRY PRATT, Esq., Philadelphia. 

JOHN PALMER, Esq., Calcutta. 

ARCHIBALD JOHN, Earl of Roseberry, President of the Caledonian Horticul- 
tural Society. 

JOHN SHEPHERD, Esq., Curator of the Botanic Garden, Liverpool. 

JOHN S. SKINNER, Esq., Baltimore. 

JOHN TURNER, Esq., Assistant Secretary of London Horticultural Society. 

JAMES THACHER, M. D., Plymouth. 

GRANT THORBURN, Esq., New York. 

HON. JOHN TALIAFERRO, Virginia. 

M. DU PETIT THOURS, Paris, Professor Poiteau of the Institut Horticole de 
Fromont. 

NATHANIEL TOWSON,Esq., Washington, D. C. 

MONS. P. P. A. VILMORIN, Paris. 

J. B. VAN MONS, M. D., Brussels. 

PETTY VAUGHAN, Esq., London. 

HON. STEPHEN VAN RENSELLAER, Albany. 

JOSEPH R. VAN ZANDT, Esq., Albany. 

FEDERAL VANDERBURG, M. D., New York. 

HON. JOHN WELLES, Boston. 

NATHANIEL WILL1CK, M. D., Curator of the Botanic Garden, Calcutta. 

JAMES WADS WORTH, Esq., Geneseo, New York. 

MALTHUS A. WARD, Professor Franklin College, Athens, Georgia. 

FREDERICK WOLCOTT, Esq., Litchfield, Connecticut. 

ASHTON YATES, Esq., Liverpool. 



JOHN ADLUM, Esq., Georgetown, District of Columbia. 

THOMAS ASPINWALL, Esq., London. 

THOMAS APPLETON, Esq., Leghorn. 

DON FRANCISCO AQUILAR, of Moldonoda, in the Banda Oriental. 

ISAAC C. BARNET, Esq., Paris. 

DR. NEHEMIAH BRUSH, East Florida. 

ALEXANDER BURTON, Esq., Cadiz, 



55 



£. W. BULL, Esq., Hartford, Connecticut. 
^^^~JOHN W. BROWN, Esq., Fort Gaines, Georgia. 
ROBERT CARR, Esq., Philadelphia. 
JAMES COLVILLE, Esq., Chelsea, England. 
FRANCIS G. CARNES, Esq., Paris. 
JAMES DEERING, Esq , Portland, Me. 
DR. TINIO V. COBELLEW, Horticultural Garden, Palermo. 
EBENEZER EMMONS, M. D., Williamstown. 
MICHAEL FLOY, New York. 
JOHN FOX, Esq., Washington, D. C. 
NATHANIEL FELLOWS, Esq., Cuba, 
WILLIAM R. FOSTER, Esq., Baltimore. 
ROBERT H. GARDNER, Esq., Gardiner, Me. 
ABRAHAM P. GIBSON, Esq.. St. Petersburg. 
CHARLES H. HALL, Esq., New York. 

JOHN HAY, Esq , Architect of the Caledonian Horticultural Society. 
ABRAHAM HALSEY, Esq., New York. 
REV. T. M. HARRIS, D. D., Boston. 

HUNTER, Esq., Baltimore. 

THOMAS HOGG, New York. 

BERNARD HENRY, Esq., Philadelphia. 

1. 1. HITCHCOCK, Esq., Baltimore. 

WM. J. JOHNSON, M. D., Fort Gaines, Georgia. 

DAVID LANDRETH, Jr. Esq., Philadelphia. 

E. S. H. LEONARD, M.D., Providence. 

JAMES MAURY, Esq., Virginia. 

JOHN MILLER,, M. D., Secretary of the Horticultural and Agricultural Society, 

Jamaica. 
STEPHEN MILLS, Esq., Long Island, New York. 
DR. JAMES MEASE, Philadelphia. 
ALLAN MELVILLE, Esq., New York. 
WILLIAM S. M'LEAY, Esq. 
HORATIO NEWHALL, M. D., Galena, Illinois. 
DAVID OFFLEY, Esq., Smyrna. 
JAMES OMBROSI, Esq., Florence. 
JOHN PARKER, Esq., Amsterdam. 
JOHN L. PAYSON, Esq., Messina. 

HON. DAVID PORTER, Charge de Affaires, Constantinople. 
WILLIAM R. PRINCE, Esq., Long Island, New York. 
ALFRED S. PRINCE, Esq., Long Island. 
M. C. PERRY, Esq., U S. Navy. 
JOHN J. PALMER, Esq., New York. 
WILLIAM S. ROGERS, Esq., United States Navy. 
M. D. REYNOLDS, Esq., Schenectady, New York. 
J. S. ROGERS, Esq., Hartford, Conn. 
JOHN H. RICHARDS, M. D., Paris. 
THOMAS R. ROTCH, Esq., Philadelphia. 
DANIEL D. SMITH, Esq., Burlington, New Jersey. 
GIDEON B. SMITH, Baltimore. 
WILLIAM SHAW, Esq., New York. 
JUDGE STRONG, Rochester, New York. 



56 



THOMAS H. STEPHENS, Esq., United States Navy, Middletown, Connecticut. 

CALEB R. SMITH, Esq., New Jersey. 

HORATIO SPRAGUE, Esq., United States Consul, Gibraltar. 

FRANCIS SUMMEREST, Esq. 

WILLIAM F. STRANGE WAY, Esq., British Secretary of Legation at Naples. 

GEORGE C. THORBURN, New York. 

JOHN TILLSON, Jr., Esq., Illinois. 

PROFESSOR TENORE, Director of the Botanical Garden at Naples. 

PROFESSOR TINIO, Director of the Botanical Garden at Palermo, 

ROBERT THOMPSON, Esq., London. 

WILLIAM WILSON, Esq. New York. 

J. F. WINGATE, Esq., Bath, Me. 

JOSHUA WINGATE, Esq., Portland. 

JOSEPH A. WINTHROP, Esq., South Carolina. 

MONS EMILIEN DE WAEL, Antwerp. 



4"V7 



TENTH ANNIVERSARY 



OF THE 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL 

SOCIETY, 

SEPTEMBER, 1838. 



REPORT 



OF THE 



TRANSACTIONS 



OF THE 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL 

SOCIETY, 



FOR 



THE YEAR 1837 — 8, 



WITH 



PRELIMINARY OBSERVATIONS 



BY JOHN LEWIS RUSSELL, 

PROFESSOR OF BOTANY AND VEGETABLE PHYSIOLOGY TO THE SOCIETY. 



BOSTON: 

TUTTLE, DENNETT & CHISHOLM, PRINTERS. 

1839. 



5*0 












H 









' 






\ 



-6~S3 



-- 






7UA, ~ *& &* /r ^^ **^ w 




v4 fit eCe*^ el<*st~~ • 







6"^S 



REPORT 



OF THE 



EFFORTS OF HORTICULTURE BY THE SOCIETY 

FOR 1837-8. 



The fast fading glories of vigorous vegetation, or the yet 
lingering tokens of autumnal splendor, o'er forest and hill- 
side, in the parterre and flower border, are reminding us of 
a season of unusual character, as regards a tardy spring, an 
almost tropical summer, and a mild, warm and bland autumn. 
Scarcely had the last tones of a voice* eloquent on antiqua- 
rian research, which recounted from the brief and scattered 
notes of history, the successful efforts of horticultural skill 
on an untamed soil, two hundred years ago, died in our ears, 
than we were again reminded by the united offerings of 
Flora and Pomona, of renewed efforts and acquired triumphs 
in the field of our own industry. Meagre as may seem to 
us the effects of such enterprise, the vista opens to us 
objects of interest as connected with the culture of the soil. 
On the very sites where whilom grew the native and intro- 
duced fruits of New England industry, are now gardens and 
orchards, vineyards and green-houses, the ever-green glades 
of rural enterprise or the renovated forests of arboricultural 
skill. On a soil once enfeebled by negligent culture or from 
a lack of knowledge of the laws of vegetation, in the 
immediate vicinity of Plymouth Bay may be yearly seen in 
the gardens of the amateur and florists the gorgeous pro- 
ducts of other climes, or in its orchards the luscious high 
top sweeting apple which, as has been suggested, perhaps 

* See Ninth Anniversary Address by William Lincoln, Esq. 



gf<> 



6 

owes its origin to an English climate, introduced at an early- 
period into the colony, and scarcely straying out of the pre- 
cincts of the county. Profusely scattered over hill-top and 
under pine shades, or bedecking the transparent borders of 
fairy lakes, are native flowers too, of rare occurrence, whose 
prototypes perchance gladdened the eyes of the pilgrims as 
does their vernal or aestival blossoms now, those of their 
descendants ; plants of great interest and gradually intro- 
ducing themselves into culture. The light, warm soil of 
Nantucket, productive of little else than a depauperated 
growth of oak, has been rendered the subject of horticultu- 
ral skill, with whose choice products of the vine under 
green-house culture, few other districts can compare. Family 
tradition has given to Salem a venerable relic yet in compar- 
ative vigor of growth — perhaps the first imported English 
pear, (in the garden of Endicott,) while not only the fruit list, 
but even the flower catalogue, will mark that its soil has not 
degenerated in the produce of Horticultural Science. The 
bold and rugged promontory of Nahant, washed by the per- 
petual spray of the ocean, is already blooming with sheltered 
flower borders, and destined to be again covered with some 
hardy tenant of forest growth.* 

A view thus retrospective, even in the extended vista of 
two centuries, and over an area so thrilling with mementos 
of olden times cannot be without practical benefit. Little 
remains to us of the original features of such times, save 
here and there a traditionary and revered relic, a few hoary 
and moss grown trunks of the primitive forest, or the endu- 
ring, never changing feature of geological formation ; yet the 
thought that other flowers and fairer fruits have been introduced 
and naturalized, to add wealth and the comforts to existence, 
not only to our day and generation, but to those who will suc- 
ceed ; that the asperities of an almost boreal clime, and the 
harshness of a rude soil have been overcome, that each year 

* See notes. 



SS7 



is bringing something new and still more rare and valuable — 
should incite to greater efforts and constant improvement. 

So progressive and rapid are the present advances of Hor- 
ticulture, aided by the co-operation of its kindred studies, 
that the annual festival of a Society reminds the observer of 
new facts and important acquisitions. It has therefore been 
deemed advisable, that the review of the past year, be in- 
stituted ; and whatever facts have transpired, or suggestions 
made, be furnished as the Annals of the Massachusetts Hor- 
ticultural Society. In order to insure the success of this 
first effort to publish a condensed view of its Acts in every 
department of flower and fruit, a committee has been judi- 
ciously appointed, whose interest in each portion of horticul- 
tural skill, will be able to effect the purpose. By the co- 
operation of this Committee the following is offered : 

1. The Open Flower Garden. 

2. The Green-house and Stove. 

3. The Nursery and Fruit Department. 

4. The Vegetable Department. 

5. The Native Flora and its Culture. 

6. Remarks and Notices. 

7. Weekly Exhibitions. 

8. Annual Festival. 

1. THE OPEN FLOWER GARDEN. 

Pre-eminent in interest at the present time, and rivalling in 
beauty of contour the queenly rose, the Dahlia of Mexico 
claims our early notice. Notwithstanding so much has been 
said and written on this superb production of Flora under its 
countless varieties, touching its history, culture, and numer- 
ous topics connected with it, yet not a season has transpired 
without producing to the amateur florist or to the general 
naturalist, something new or peculiar. From two or three 
comparatively insignificant varieties of two supposed species 



5£% 

8 

more cultivated in France, than in England, (the flower gar- 
den of Europe,) in the space of less than half a century, 
have sprung under the fostering and ingenious hand of Flo- 
ricultural Art, varieties and sub-varieties vieing each year 
with each other in elegance of contour, delicacy of petal or 
transcendant tint and dye. Not a little remarkable the fact, 
that a plant so liable to sport, that often a proportion of one 
to five thousand gives the chance of a flower capable of 
standing the severe test of merit and taste, should have called 
into the field of enterprise so many competitors for the rear- 
ing of a fine variety ! But when on reflection it is perceived 
with what precision the very laws of vegetable organization 
are rendered subservient to the demand and artificial taste of 
the florist, he expecting of Nature an implicit obedience, 
regulating the curvature of a flower, the expansion of the 
lamina of its petals, the convexity of its disk, the fulness of 
its form, shading with ruby or purple a golden or ivory fljret 
or deepening its color, that its crystalline and pulpy granules 
may reflect some ever changing hue — when such results are 
to be anticipated, we can appreciate the zeal and patience, 
which such efforts develope. 

The Dahlia for the past season has succeeded less in dis- 
play of flowers than in any previous, for many years. The 
extreme heat of a summer such as has not been known for 
several years, has proved extremely unfavorable to inflores- 
cence, and has deprived the autumn of its usual floral charms. 
Compared with the last, the annual Exhibition of the Society 
was meagre in display as regards this choice production and 
universal favorite. Whoever witnessed the profusion of 
blooms, which gave a dazzling brilliancy to the flower stands 
and to the very walls, must have been struck with the sensi- 
ble deficiency of this season. New and choice varieties, im- 
ported by the ever active zeal and enterprise of those forward 
in the introduction of fine and new plants, failed to produce 
flowers, of which many were anticipating a gratified inspec- 



6" 5f 



9 



tion. From the experience of several previous cool sum- 
mers exuberant in these floral gems, and from their universal 
dearth amidst the bright sunny days of an almost unclouded 
sky, it would appear, that the several varieties even under 
the effect of partial acclimation and a long absence from a 
native habitat, have lost none of the peculiarities of consti- 
tution, with which a high and humid region had endowed the 
original species. Some of the finest flowers on the Society's 
tables, were produced, as we understand, by a constant and 
profusive syringing over the foliage and tops, evidently an 
accidental imitation of the natural temperature ; while other 
plants copiously supplied with water daily, at the roots, 
shared the same common fate in a depauperation or total 
absence of bloom. Facts like ihese should serve as valuable 
hints, if not for practice, at least for further experiment, and 
we feel assured that on the minds of the investigating and 
studious they will not be lost. 

Summers, of great heat, are favorable to the insect race. 
The past has been a striking instance. Myriads of those 
minute foes, from the various species of Caterpillar to the 
almost invisible fly of every genus, have ravaged equally our 
gardens and fields. Each year introduces a new species, or 
developes a new instinct in some well known species, render- 
ing its ravages more deleterious or difficult of evasion. The 
Dahlia has not escaped : but some insidious insect has blight- 
ed the hope of the cultivator, or some new form of disease 
has been traced to the silent depredations of an unseen foe. 
In one instance, falling under our observation, no less than 
four or five distinct larvae of moths, better known as Cater- 
pillars, have rendered assiduity necessary to preserve a luxu- 
riant foliage, so essential to the vigor and health of the plant, 
while leading shoots and expectant buds have been prema- 
turely ruined. Such discouragements are inevitable and to 
be expected, until some project can be devised for extirpa- 
tion or insurance against their presence. Undoubtedly a 
2 



5 



~&o 



10 

better and wider diffused knowledge of the exact species, 
and a studious investigation of their habits, might enable the 
florist to resist such vexing inroads on his time and labor. 
The gladsome visitants of spring, and the familiar denizens of 
our gardens, in the several kinds of insect-eating birds, should 
be made the welcome inmates and guests of our lawns, parterres, 
and orchards ; nor should indiscriminate warfare be urged on all 
insects, as not a few are in turn, carnivorous in their propen- 
sities, and devouring the more obtrusive and offensive. 
A peculiarly destructive insect has been so abundant the past 
season, as to destroy not only the Dahlia, but even choicer 
sorts of asters, zinnias and the like. It were desirable that 
specimens of every such foe could be collected and preserv- 
ed for the Society's inspection, in order for their better 
recognizance. Every gardener and florist, every cultivator 
and amateur, could furnish information, falling under his 
notice, of decided utility and practical value. 

On recurrence to the report of the Committee on Flowers, 
we find that for two successive weeks, after the Annual Fes- 
tival of 1837, very superior varieties and exquisite specimens 
of Dahlias were exhibited by several growers and florists. 
The last display was on the seventh of October, soon after 
which, a frost of sufficient severity, destroyed the floral offer- 
ing of autumn. 

The advertising sheet of the Magazine of Horticulture, for 
April 1-838, conducted by C. M. Hovey, of the firm of 
Messrs Hovey & Co., furnishes a list of twentytwo new va- 
rieties, raised in England, and offered for sale. Of these, 
many were highly commended in the English floricul- 
tural publications, as standard flowers of exceeding merit and 
great perfection. Other individuals had possessed themselves 
of some of these and of other new, superb varieties ; thus 
attesting, by their prospective provision, a laudable zeal in 
the introduction into our own culture, of the most perfect of 



u 



11 



this flower. From June 30th, we perceive the Dahlia had 
been exhibited, at each weekly display, with greater or less 
perfection, by the several members of the Society, until the 
recurrence of the Annual Festival, on the 19th, 20th, 21st of 
September, when, among the rich productions of each de- 
partment of gardening, this exquisite plant was represented, 
if not in numbers, yet in considerable perfection. Subjoined, 
in its proper place, will be found the detailed account of that 
meeting, to which we refer our readers. We cannot, how- 
ever, close the present notice on this head without adverting 
to an incident, by way of encouragement to Dahlia growers. 
A box of eighteen seedlings was forwarded from Billerica, by 
Mr Gardener Parker, of which the proprietor of the New 
England Farmer thus speaks : u Six varieties are very good, 
and two extra fine. One, the Village Belle, is a fine white 
flower very delicately tipped with purple. Another variety 
we named the Billerica Rival will pass for a superb flower. 
It is large, fine shaped cupped petals, and of a fine rosy 
crimson. A third flower resembles Newick Rival, is named 
the Beauty of Middlesex. "— (N. E. Farmer, Vol. xvii. No. 
14, p. 110.) It cannot be presumed, however, that these 
flowers would bear the same severe criticism which is ap- 
plied to first rate flowers, yet the result of such an experi- 
ment may be deemed an important one. 

The universal favorite of the garden, so easily improvable 
by culture, so ornamental in its every form, and useful to the 
household economy, the rose next claims our attention. 
Disseminated over almost every portion of the temperate 
zones of the globe, or rendered a denizen of every garden, 
its varieties have become as numerous as taste could dictate 
or ingenuity devise. Particularly regarded as the flower of 
June, still it loses none of its charms, when rendered a con- 
spicuous ornament, in earlier or later months. Several new 
and superb sorts have been noticed, in the collections of the 



j y^- 



12 



curious, during the past year. Some distinct and original 
species too, in all their unadorned simplicity, seem to be 
gaining admirers. The choice productions of the French 
cultivators are not uncommon among us. The finer and more 
superb Tea Scented Chinese are attracting favor. The 
method of budding on stronger growing kinds those of 
more difficult culture, has been crowned with signal success. 
Many new varieties have been originated in the neighborhood 
of the cities of New York and Philadelphia, which, though 
they do not particularly fall under the subject of our remarks, 
yet may serve as encouraging hints to growers and florists 
among ourselves. Certain we are, that many good seedlings 
are raised in this immediate vicinity, which do not meet the 
public eye, and perhaps, would escape notice, but for some 
casual admirer. The process of vegetation, it has been long 
proved, is not so tardy as has been supposed, and by cross 
impregnation, some choice results might be looked for. 
What the Noisettes of France have done in one section of 
rose culture, our own florists can accomplish in another. 
Our native species claim some attention, and a double variety 
of the lovely Rosa rubifolia, would repay the trouble of a 
thousand experiments. A single plant of this Southern 
species is before our mind's eye, whose exquisite gems of 
flowers riveted our attention. A not unapt synonyme might 
be, the American Multiflora. Perfectly hardy and of most 
luxuriant habit it is admirably suited to out-door culture, and 
may prove a dangerous rival to the purple Noisette or the 
showy Boursault. Another climber of great beauty, is the 
Double Ayrshire, Syn. Eriophylla, whose odor is slightly 
tea-scented, and whose snowy inflorescence, is universally 
admired. Fine specimens of this, of great size, have fallen 
under our cognizance the past season. 

We observed, with much pleasure, the successful treatment 
of one species heretofore shy in flowering, Rosa microphylla, 
which turned out into the open border last year, stood the 



&3 



13 



winter unharmed, and after making a fine growth, flowered 
abundantly. The size and fulness of blossom, its delicate 
color and crimped petal, although devoid of fragrance, will 
restore to favor this singular and unique production. Impa- 
tient of the restraint of the pot, greater latitude for root and 
moresubsistence from out-door cultivation seem essential. 
This latter fact has also been noticed by one of the popular 
magazines of Horticulture. 

For many years the old double yellow, (Rosa sulphurea, 
fl. pi.) was considered of great merit and a triumph of floral 
art. A comparatively recent variety of Rosa spinosissima, 
(the Harrison's double yellow,) has completely usurped its 
place and not without good reasons. Budded on tall stocks 
after the manner of tree roses, it forms an elegant and showy 
head of golden flowers. Perhaps a similar treatment may 
restore to favor the Rosa sulphurea, venerable in the annals of 
Floriculture for cultivation, during a period of more than two 
hundred years. 

Very fine collections of the rose in its numerous forms, it 
is well known, are in the possession of many members of the 
Society. The following are the prizes gained by the con- 
tributors to this branch of culture, viz : 

M. P. Wilder, the prize of five dollars for the best dis- 
play, and for the best twentyfour blooms, the prize of three 
dollars. 

A. Aspinwall, the prize of two dollars for the best twelve 
blooms. 

S. R. Johnson, the prize of three dollars for the best 
twelve blooms of Chinese and other tender varieties. 

We have understood that Messrs Winships at their gardens 
and nurseries, in Brighton, have raised seedlings, of which 
great promise of good kinds may be anticipated for the next 
year. 



5M 



14 



In the culture of the Tulip, Samuel Walker, u Chair- 
man of the Committee on Flowers, &c," must take the pre- 
cedence. On the 29th of May, 1838, his second annual 
exhibition of this superb garden flower, took place and was 
continued for ten days. By the addition of upwards of forty 
new varieties to his show bed, the splendor of this year's 
exhibition was greatly enhanced. Allusion has already been 
made to this display in many of the public prints. A few of 
the finer varieties are subjoined. 

Rosa. — Rose Blanca, Madame Vestris, Domingo, Rose 
Ephegene, Triomphe Royale, Thalestris. 

Bibloems. — Ambassador d'Holland, Roi de Siam, Vio- 
let, Alexander, Incomparable d'Holland, Bugby's Queen, 
Louis XVI. 

Bizarres. — Lord Duncan, Earl St. Vincent, Cicero, 
Wildbore's Golden Fleece, Sir J. Moore, Sir Francis Bur- 
den, Neal's Captain Marryatt, Polyphemus, &c. 

The taste, beauty and perfection of culture displayed by 
this gentleman, seem to bid fair in raising among us the Tulip 
to that standard of merit, which it has formerly held in 
Europe. To those who have had the pleasure of attending 
these floral fetes, any further remarks in this section were 
superfluous. It is to be anticipated that greater and wider 
attention will be paid among florists, to this superlatively fine 
plant, encouraged by the success so signally manifested in 
this instance. 

Next in relative importance as a floral gem, in open cul- 
ture, is the Hyacinth, among whose double and superb 
varieties, can scarcely be recognized the prototype of Hya- 
cinthus orientalis of the East. The annual importations of 
the choicer varieties, and of good, merchantable quality by 
two or three Florists and Seedsmen in Boston, have greatly 
improved the character of this kind of floriculture, in this 



s&s 



15 



vicinity. Instead of meagre and impoverished specimens, 
those, which might be co-rivals with those of Belgian culture, 
are not unfrequently observed. The peculiarity of cultiva- 
tion in the produce of first rate bulbs, seems yet a secret in 
this country. Series of experiments should be instituted to 
the attainment of this important end. Science aided by 
skill and perseverance will undoubtedly overcome every 
obstacle, and the present deficiency of knowledge on this 
point should be sufficient incitement for continued trial. It 
has been our good fortune to repeatedly meet with very choice 
specimens in pots, and during the past year to visit the large 
bed, when in its full splendor, under the culture of Messrs 
Hovey. To these florists, the lover and admirer of the 
hyacinth is in no small degree indebted, for valuable hints 
and experiments. Upwards of twenty named varieties were 
exhibited at the Society's Hall's on the 19th May, a few of 
which are subjoined. 

White. — LaCandeur, (single,) Gloria florum suprema, &c. 

Blue. — L'Emperor, (single,) Lord Wellington, Habit 
Brilliant, Bonaparte, &c. 

Red and Rosy. — La Ballaine, (single,) LaEclatante par- 
fait, (single,) Mars, (single,) Compte de Coste, Bouquet 
tendre. 

Yellow. — La Heroine, &c. &c. 

A considerable increase of taste in favor of the Carnation 
and its co-species the Pink, has been manifested among flo- 
rists. Dependent however on foreign seed and on foreign 
varieties, it necessarily requires great expense and much 
trouble to possess a good collection. Specimens exhibited 
at the Society's rooms have been uniformly of a high char- 
acter. Several excellent collections have been already made 
and are in progress of further improvement. We would 
invite the attention of the lovers of these fine flowers to the 



16 

production of new varieties from seed of their own raising. 
We suspect that by proper pains, and by the use of means 
well known to florists, well ripened seed may be procured. 
Fortunate in this respect in one instance, and that the first 
trial, we have reason to anticipate a tolerable degree of suc- 
cess in subsequent efforts. Another favorable instance was 
offered to our notice in the production of several seedlings, 
which, however, will not show flower until the next season. 
Artificial impregnation and the removal of the superfluous 
petals, will cause the germ to swell and perfect its seed. By 
these means, also, the chance of good crossed flowers is in- 
creased. The Society's prizes for the current year were 
awarded in the following order, viz : 

To Messrs Winship, Brighton, for the best display, a 
premium of five dollars. 

To T. Mason, Charlestown, for the best six specimen 
blooms, a premium of three dollars. 

To W. Meller, Roxbury, for the best seedling, a premium 
of three dollars. 

The finest pinks we have ever seen are in the possession 
of Mr Walker, Roxbury, with some seedlings of his own ; 
and have been frequently offered for exhibition. Indeed to 
him may be accredited the first successful efforts in their intro- 
duction. It has been his aim to extend the culture of these favo- 
rites. To Mr Meller, however, belongs the merit of the first 
attempt at a public show of the pink, in his garden in Roxbury, 
during the past year. He has raised several seedlings of 
value, from imported seed. These were offered for sale, 
last spring. Thirtytwo seedling varieties, embracing the 
purple and red laced, black, and white, and red, and white 
star, were designated in his advertisements. A few of the 
number were considered very fine. 

Till within a very few years we have been ignorant of the 
humble beauties of the Pansey, the varieties of two distinct 



3"L 7 

species are now considered important items in our flower 
borders. Whoever is in the least degree conversant with 
these floral gems, must have noticed a great difference in size 
of flower and also of foliage. The three colored Violet 
(Viola tricolor) possesses a fragrance, while the finer Pansies 
originating from Viola Grandiflora are destitute of this pleas- 
ing character. The former, though nearly banished from the 
garden to make way for the latter, will still retain its favor 
with the general cultivator. Capable of great improve- 
ment by culture and by the selection of good seed, its 
more hardy constitution and delicate fragrance will not 
be soon overlooked. Very dark purple flowers, with a golden 
eye, of great attraction, we have heretofore noticed in several 
collections. To the latter species we were introduced through 
the old purple and old white, and subsequently through a fine 
hybrid between these two, from the seed-bed of William 
E. Carter at the Botanic Garden. Within two or three 
years, the great flowering Pansies have been multiplied to a 
considerable extent. Superb varieties have been raised by 
several individuals, and exhibited by the Society. During 
the past year we have noticed from the large collection of S. 
Walker, the following of his seedlings on which much com- 
mendation has been bestowed. 

A seedling of great beauty named Village Maid. A very 
dark variety called Othello. A new seedling, exhibited on 
the 20th December, 1837, called Victoria, considered one 
of the best ever raised by him. A very large number of 
seedlings of the present year, will be probably opened to 
public exhibition in the course of next spring. Should this 
occur, it will be considered a new and interesting feature in 
floriculture. 

We believe, little or nothing has been attempted within 
the past year, in the cultivation of the Turkish Ranunculus and 
Anemone. The ordinary heat of our early summer weather 

3 



5tf 



18 

and the usual severity of our winters, preclude the possibili- 
ty of much success. 

We invite a moment's attention to the repeated flowering 
of that lovely Alpine plant of Europe, Gentiana acaulis. 
We have for several years noticed it, in rather feeble condi- 
tion, at the Botanic Garden, giving occasional flowers, but 
under the management of Mr Walker and of the Messrs 
Hovey, it seems to thrive with vigor. Its comparative rarity 
in herbaceous collections, and its impatience of our tempera- 
ture, have induced us to present its claims in this place, to 
rank among the choicer subjects of floricultural skill. 

Two varieties and one species of Phlox have been added 
to the list of garden plants. Of the former a beautiful 
white has been raised by William E. Carter, and a hybrid 
seedling, of P. paniculata, by Joseph Breck, blooming late 
and of a good altitude of growth. Of the species (P. Drum- 
mondii,) the first specimen was furnished by Mr Johnson of 
Charlestown, at the annual exhibition in 1837. This was 
the pale purple variety. Since that time this little annual 
has increased in quantity and favor. Extremely brilliant 
crimson varieties were raised from seed, direct from London, 
by T. Lee, Esq. at Jamaica Plains. Like its numerous co-spe- 
cies, it seems much inclined to depart in its colors of inflores- 
cence from its original type, which is represented as rosy 
red. Of several varieties reared in Britain, six are consid- 
ered choice, known as venustum, formosum, pulchellum, 
bellissimum, speciosum, carnescens. Cultivated with great 
facility by seed and by cuttings, there seem no good reasons 
why it should not become one of the most attractive flowers 
of the open border. 

Nor devoid of similar interest, are the lovely Petunias, so 
lately employed in the embellishment of the parterre. 
Trained to light trellisses or to other ornamental structures, 



S£<j 



19 



they present a constant and profuse bloom. We have seen 
several sorts planted in mixed clumps, producing a most 
happy effect. A seedling after the style of an edged auricu- 
la, has been raised by Messrs Hovey, which promises some- 
thing unique in its kind. A lovely rose colored variety of 
P. nyctaginiflora, from an unknown source, has been met 
with in several collections. We anticipate great accessions 
to our floriculture in this universally admired flower. 

To the genus Verbena one or two new species and several 
varieties have lately been added. For a long time V. auble- 
tia was considered a flower of no ordinary interest. On the 
first acquaintance with V. chamsedrifolia, favor seemed to 
lean towards it, as a decidedly new and valuable addition. 
Its intense brilliancy and humble habit, its strong inclination 
for hot and dry situations and constant inflorescence, com- 
mended it to general notice. Next came V. Tweedieana, 
claimed as a species, whose rosy-crimson heads of flowers 
and slight tendency to an upright growth were of much 
merit. Two distinctly colored sorts are found in this vicini- 
ty, both claiming the specific character. Another species, 
V. Arraniana, has been introduced, better suited to the more 
uniformly high temperature of the green-house. A seedling 
of a fine lilac color, from seed received from South America, 
under the culture of Messrs Hovey, has been published. 
With the present group of species and varieties obtainable, 
comprising nearly a dozen, the florist, may have at his com- 
mand, the most desirable opportunity for display and effect. 
Masses of the several sorts, arranged with some reference to 
the most happy union of tints, would offer a spectacle scarcely 
inferior to any of the usual subjects of his care. Though 
diminutive in their habits, they may be considered not unapt 
or improper co-rivals of the showy Salvias, of which the 
rich crimson, S. fulgens, and the well known S. splendens 
(Mexican Sage,) are illustrious types. 



S Jo 



20 

Nor can we omit to mention a discovery of the past sea- 
son, which will doubtless be improved. In two differ- 
ent instances, the lovely Oxalis Bowieii, produced superb 
clusters of flowers in the open border, for some weeks before 
the usual autumnal frosts. The first was the result of acci- 
dent, in the springing up of a few bulbs among the sweepings 
and refuse of the green-house, — the latter was from the plant- 
ing out of several in the course of the summer. With a 
little attention to this interesting fact, this beautiful species 
could be made a most pleasing addition to the open flower 
border. 

To the elegant Potentillae, we have noticed in several 
places, the addition of P. Hopwoodiana, Antirrhinum pictum, 
(an old but elegant plant under cultivation with a few^) 
and very lately the charming Antirrhinum major, variety cary- 
ophylloides, has come into repute, as a decided improvement 
in the style of these flowers. As a border flower for the 
summer, Lantana Selowii, has been raised by several, a fit 
companion for the new Verbenae. A beautiful specimen was 
shown at the annual Exhibition, by T. Lee, Esq. 

The first flowering of the Nutallia papaver during the past 
year, in this vicinity, occurred at the green-house of Mr 
Towne, from young seedlings carefully brought by him from 
Philadelphia. One of these was presented to the Botanic 
Garden, where, under the care of William E. Carter, it has 
made vigorous progress. As an interesting addition to the 
former species, it promises to become a favorite plant. 
Another new Californian plant from seed gathered by Mr Nut- 
tall and raised by Mr Buist at Philadelphia, (Diplaceus 
puniceus,) flowered last spring with Mr Towne. 

To interesting annuals, should be added the white variety 
of Clarkia pulchella, first shown by T. Lee, Esq. The 
peculiarity of color, should it prove constant, will cause it to 



S'V 



01 

A/1 

be preferred to the old and original species. Several others 
introduced among us within two or three years, are attracting 
much attention. Of these we mention Nemophilla insignis, 
which, when sown in patches, makes a fine appearance ; and 
Leptosiphon androsaceus and L. Densiflorus, both elegant. 
Several sub-varieties of Zinnia violacea, variety coccinea, 
have been reared from seed, by Joseph Breck. Nico- 
tiana longiflora, has flowered in several collections. A choice 
lot of dwarf double Stock Gilly-flowers, from T. Mason, 
have been observed. 



2. THE GREEN-HOUSE AND STOVE. 

Directing our attention to this part of our subject, we re- 
mark in passing, that several structures have lately been erected 
in the vicinity, evincing a decidedly growing spirit towards in- 
door culture of flowers and fruit. To the older and more 
familiar, our present observations must be confined. Indebted 
to the enterprise of several individuals, who for many 
years have been its distinguished patrons, Horticulture, 
in general, has been continually on the advance. Ac- 
cordingly, neither pains nor expense have been spared to 
render as complete as possible, collections of particular merit. 
In floriculture, we shall have especial cause to speak on this 
point. The fruit department will be referred to in another 
division of our Report. 

In that oriental and superb evergreen, (the co-species of 
the Tea,) Camellia Japonica, the green-houses in the neigh- 
borhood of Boston are particularly rich. Every choice 
variety, whether of foreign or American origin, may proba- 
bly be found among our amateur florists and salesmen. We 
hardly know how to refer to these extensive private collec- 
tions, so numerous are they, and so universal the taste in the 
possession of the finest kinds. The superb one of Col. M. 



5> 



22 

P. Wilder, Dorchester, is familiar to the public. Very- 
large plants of old Double White and Lady Hume's Blush 
meet the eye. Several new varieties flowered, during the 
past winter, for the first time among us. An importa- 
tion of twentyone of the newest varieties from China, 
England, Germany, Belgium, Italy, within the year, 
comprises many of extraordinary value and merit. On a 
very small specimen of C. variety "King," if we mistake 
not, a flower bud had formed. So great a proportion of the 
entire collection of plants consists of these triumphs of flori- 
culture, that the proprietor is enabled to bring them into any 
degree of perfection. 

The collection of S. Sweetser, Cambridgeport, is of great 
merit, in this department. A similar observation may be made 
respecting the sale collection of Messrs Hovey, while 
smaller collections of the choicer or more saleable varieties 
are to be met with in almost every green-house of private 
use or of public trade. The finest and probably the oldest 
plant of the original species, better known as the Single Red, 
may be seen at the Botanic Garden, planted by Prof. Peck. 
Rendered comparatively insignificant in the eyes of the 
amateur florist, by the improvements in the double varieties, 
yet to the botanist and to the lover of simple and native 
beauty, it will present attractive merit. 

Seedling Camellias are by no means rare, and many of 
these, from impregnated plants. From the numerous instances 
among us we may anticipate, at some future time, valuable 
specimens. 

Next to the Camellia, and not dissimilar in many traits of 
cultivation, is the princely Rhododendron, whose daring 
hardihood and gorgeous flowers have, within a few years, 
gained it many admirers. Natives of almost every clime, 
we see in the swamps of New England, evergreen and 
deciduous species, of great beauty, and rivals of those from 
China or NepauL With these original species, the hand of 



S/3 



23 

the florists has been busily employed, and as a recompense 
for patience and skill, the most superb varieties have been 
obtained. Exceedingly valuable collections are common 
among us. We accordingly, in a brief manner, notice under 
green-house cultivation, the instances of Rhododendrons and 
Azaleas, (the latter have been comprehended under the 
generic distinction of the former by botanists,) in the pos- 
session of M. P. Wilder, a hundred or more, some of great 
rareness, — of S. Sweetser, upwards of an hundred : and 
numerous others, which have not come under our observa- 
tion. A gorgeous plant of R. hybridum, belonging to the 
former individual, exhibited nearly one hundred flower buds. 
Another fine plant of the same, in the green-house of T. 
Mason, displayed fifty heads of flowers. At the conversa- 
tory of J. P. dishing, Watertown, a noble plant of R. 
arboreum produced nearly seventy trusses of bloom. 

Those anomalous and leafless vegetables the Cacteae have 
many representatives of their several genera and species. 
Of these we mention a fine group belonging to S. Sweetser, 
considered the most complete, besides others of extent in the 
possession of Col. Wilder, of the Messrs Putnam, of J. P. 
Gushing, at the Botanic Garden and elsewhere. Rarer kinds 
are met with, in almost every structure for plants. Generally 
of easy growth, (though a few need the stove) and of mag- 
nificent appearance in bloom, they have become extensively 
cultivated. Twice within the past year has the Cactus Tri- 
angularis flowered, one specimen at J. P. Cushing's, under the 
management of D. Haggerston, and another in the possession 
of J. W. Boot, Boston. Of rare occurrence, these instances 
are worthy of note. Echinocactus Eyriesii, has flowered in 
many collections. A plant belonging to Mr. Leathe of Cam- 
bridgeport, gave three or four flowers. Cereus phyllan- 
thoides, has been considered unworthy of further culture by 
Mr. Haggerston, by whom it has been bloomed. 



£7¥ 



24 

Cacti, to the number of twenty or more, were brought 
from the West Indies, last spring by the Hon. John Lowell, 
in whose green-house we had the pleasure of seeing them. 
Some of these are new and interesting. From an examination 
of these, with others already familiar, through the kindness of 
this gentleman, we have reasons to think that great confusion 
exists among the species usually cultivated. The attention of 
the botanist should be directed to this subject, that the un- 
doubted liability to error among florists in synonymes, should 
be lessened. With such opportunities, as are afforded by the 
existence of so many groups of varieties and species among 
us, we deem the point an important one. 

To the admirers of the Cape Heaths, we take great pleas- 
ure in referring to the extensive and beautiful representatives 
of that family, belonging to Mr Towne, — while the well 
grown plants of Col. Wilder, under Mr Donald's culture will 
not be overlooked. For other and numerous sale collections, 
we refer to the usual advertisements of Horticultural publica- 
tions. A specimen of Erica baccans, between five and six 
feet high, with several other species of beauty, we find men- 
tioned as particularly good, in the green-house of J. D. W. 
Williams. For many years William E. Carter of the 
Botanic Garden, took the lead in these plants. From the 
assiduity and discrimination of Mr Towne, however, we ex- 
pect great benefit in detecting and exposing incorrect syno- 
nymes, and reducing to order the list of species. He has al- 
ready rejected not a few from his list, and will show no favor 
to any others, of which he is confident of mistaken nomencla- 
ture. His published list, kindly furnished, through the pages 
of the Magazine of Botany, gives a group of eightyfour dis- 
tinct sorts. 

The taste of the geraniums (Pelargonium sp:) has been 
uniformly the same for several years past. Each season 
brings into cultivation many new, choice, and superb varie- 



^76 

25 

ties. Cross impregnation and the seed have rendered the 
chances for elegant sorts comparatively easy. Besides the 
numerous and brilliant series of blossom from different kinds 
of the green-houses of the city and its immediate suburbs, we 
understand that the specimens offered by E. Hersey Derby, 
Esq., from the culture of Mr. Willott, were considered by 
good judges as excellent and well grown. The first display 
in this flower, made by the Society, occurred on the 28th 
April, 183S, as follows. 

Exhibited by M. P. Wilder, about twenty pots, with three 
or four seedlings of his own. 

by Wm. Meller, four or five varieties in pots. 

by T. Mason, cut flowers of various geraniums. 

Some of Mr. Wilder's seedlings were pronounced worthy 
of names and of being introduced to general culture. 

The visitors to the exhibition were numerous, and much 
interest was manifested. 

Having thus briefly taken cognizance of the most brilliant 
and attractive features in the floriculture of our green-houses 
and stoves, we pass to plants of rarer occurrence and of later 
observation. Of these we may be reminded of the ac- 
cession of many of the more curious tropical orchidese. A 
dozen or more species may be found at Mr. Wilder's, some 
of the finest of which, have flowered. Ninetyseven expand- 
ed blossoms, supported on a peduncle twentyseven inches in 
length, appeared on Oncidium flexuosum, and was exhibited 
a year since. This plant showed no inclination to flower du- 
ring the past season ; but a rarer and more curious species, 
produced a superb inflorescence, viz. Stanhopea insignis, ex- 
citing universal admiration . Next to this, the lately collected se- 
ries of Hon. John Lowell, should be borne in mind ; nor in- 
frequent in stoves, are to be met with, several kinds. 

The magnificence of the Amaryliideag, has not been for- 
gotten by the amateur and florist. Crinum amabile may be 

4 



26 



frequently seen. The lovely Passiflora Kermesina, and P. 
phcenicea, not unlike P. alata, and a dangerous rival, have both 
flowered with great profusion, in the conservatory of J. P. 
Gushing. We noticed at the same place, the best grown Di- 
onsea muscipula, under the management of Mr. Haggerston. 
This most interesting American plant deserves more regard 
than it obtains, and in a humid atmosphere, under the tem- 
perature of the stove, it rewards the exertion of the gardener. 
Tropceolum tuberosum had been added, a plant which prom- 
ises great results in out-door culture. We also saw Primu- 
la cortusoides, of rare occurrence. 

Some attention has been directed to the Calceolaria, and 
beautiful seedling varieties are common. The new and truly 
elegant Clematis Sieboldii, flowered at Mr Lowell's, last sum- 
mer. Enkianthus quinqueflorus, has blossomed for several 
seasons with Col. T. H. Perkins. The foreign Magnolias are 
numerous. The lovely Portulaca Gilliesii, it has been as- 
certained, does best as a border plant in a situation exposed 
to great heat. Some of the finer tree Paeonies, have given 
superb inflorescence. We mention a single instance by way 
of illustration, of a plant of Pseonia papaveracea var. Banksiae, 
in the possession of S. Sweetser, bearing at once, upwards of 
fifteen flowers, some of which were eight inches in diameter. 
In the green-house of Mr Pratt, Oakley Place, under the care 
of Mr McLellan, Wistaria Consequana, produced thirty or 
more racemes of flowers, probably the first full grown plant, 
which has flowered in this vicinity. Singular as it may seem, 
this creeper is perfectly hardy in the valley of the Hudson, and 
the writer has had the pleasure of seeing its blossoms, in the 
open air, during the past spring. 

We deem it due to the efforts of Mr Towne, to add the 
following new and valuable plants lately introduced into his 
successful culture. A collection so select and always in the 
advance of the march of floriculture, cannot be too highly 
commended. 



577 



27 

Crowea saligna, a rose colored flowering plant of upright 
habit, and attractive. 

Elichrysum proliferum, singular foliage and brilliant, persis- 
tent flowers. Jacksonia scoparia, (New Holland.) Hovea 
purpurea. Dillwynia multiflora. Platylobium formosum. 
Boronia serrulata. Eriostomum cuspidatum. Chironia li» 
noides. Roellia ciliata, of abundant bloom. Pimelia decus- 
sata, very fine. P. rosea. Aotus villosus, (rare.) Chori- 
zema Henchmanni, very rare- — imported by Mr Boott, and 
raised from cuttings by Mr T. Several of these with other 
plants of great beauty have already flowered in several instan- 
ces for the first time, hereabouts. 

Other rare and unique specimens are to be seen in the sev- 
eral plant structures, and there is no season, which does not 
bear evidence of the progress of this department. 

We add with great satisfaction the flowering of Alpinia 
nutans, (Globba nutans,) so seldom seen in flower, brought 
to perfection and exhibited by Mr D. Haggerston, whose 
skill is so well known among cultivators. 



3. THE NURSERY AND FRUIT DEPARTMENT. 

I. On the first section of this item in the Report, our re- 
marks must necessarily be few. The merits of the princi- 
pal nurseries in the vicinity of Boston, are familiar to all. 
To the practical results of R. Manning, of Salem, Pomology 
is greatly indebted. Indefatigable in his efforts, and constant 
in his researches, we may expect from his labors a correct 
synonymy of fruits— and also many valuable items in the culture 
of the pear, to which his attention has been mainly directed. 
With the co-operation of Wm. Kenrick, of Newton, the new 
and valuable acquisitions in the Pear from the efforts of Van 
Mons of Belgium, are made familiar to the general cultivator. 
The nurseries of Mr Kenrick, keep pace with the wants of 



$1* 



28 

the times. The efforts made by him in the introduction of 
the Moms multicaulis, an article so important in the silk cul- 
ture, have been great in themselves, and honorable to his en- 
terprise. The establishment of Messrs Winship, Brighton, 
has been considered the most perfect of the kind, north of 
Long Island. The collection of forest trees, for sale, is of a 
very high order. A hasty glance at the nursery of John A. 
Kenrick, revealed to us much of interest in trees and shrubs. 
Among the more common, native and foreign, were to be 
seen several of rarity. Of the elms, we were happy to find 
species, of which before, we had never seen specimens. 
The strong soil of the neighborhood seemed admirably adap- 
ted to a vigorous growth, both of deciduous and evergreen 
trees. 

We could wish that the culture of our American forest 
trees from seed were more attended to, among our nursery- 
men. We suspect that the sale for younger specimens, would 
amply repay the trouble and expense of their sowing and 
care. In consequence of this striking deficiency in our 
cultivation, thousands of young seedlings, especially of the 
firs and larches and not a few of the oaks, are annually im- 
ported from England. There are no good reasons why the 
English oaks should be preferred to the American, nor would 
they be, were the facilities for procuring the latter, more 
attainable. Even these and indeed most of the foreign species 
of forest trees, could be introduced into our own nurseries by 
the seed, and afforded at a rate, which, while liberally repay- 
ing the effort and labor, would diminish foreign importation. 
Several hundred of young plants of the English white oak, are 
yearly raised in the private establishment of a patron of agri- 
culture, from acorns, the produce of parent trees imported 
about thirty years since. We are aware that in several nur- 
series this system has been for some years adopted, but we 
could wish that it were more extensive. We deem it at 
least, an experiment worthy of trial. 



jT7f 



The following notes on Pears and Apples, are furnished by 
Mr Manning. 

Pears. — Dutchesse d'Angouleme has done finely as a 
standard, and produced during the summer an abundance of 
fruit. 

Henry 4th may be considered superior. 

Marie Louise, continues to hold its high character. 

Buerre Duval, (new) recently fruited. 

Hooper's Bilboa, very fine, beautiful and abundant bearer. 

Louise Bonne of Jersey, very superior. 

Alpha, fruited last year and also this, (new.) 

Rostiezer, (new) fruited last year for the first time. 

Petres, from Bartram Gardens, Philadelphia, fruited and 
very fine. 

All the above under the culture of Mr Manning. 

Hon. John Lowell exhibited 

Queen Caroline, very fine. 

Beurre Crapaud, very superior. 

Beurre Spence, fine. 

Beurre Bronze, (true) also exhibited by Mr Manning, un- 
der the incorrect names of Fourcroy and Figue of Naples, 
by which they were designated when received by him. 

The Beurre d'Amaulis, exhibited by Samuel G. Perkins, 
Esq. was considered very superior. 

Jlpples. — Mr Manning has raised the early red Margaret, 
new, and the best of the earlier sorts. 

Perinock's red, very superior. 

Murphy, raised in Salem, fruited for the first time eight or 
nine years since ; very fine. 

Also thirty or more new varieties, good, but scarcely wor- 
thy of introduction. 



5i& 






30 



II. — -Fruit Department. 



a. UNDER GLASS. 



This branch of horticulture is evidently on the advance. 
The demand for the finer and more tender fruits, encourages 
new efforts in its growth. Owing to the usual uncertainty of 
our summers, and the repeated failures in out-door crops of 
fruit, especially grapes, the attention of the market gardener 
has been directed to glazed houses, with or without flues, 
adapted to forcing, or to protection from frosts. The more 
valuable grapes have thus been produced in the richest abun- 
dance. In many instances, the green-house has been made to 
contribute its aid in the rearing of fruit as well as plants. We 
presume that the most extensive structures for sale fruit, will 
be found at the garden of William Mason, Charlestown. 
His ranges are principally without flues, and adapted to the 
grape, peach and nectarine. The tables of the weekly ex- 
hibitions, have attested to the success of his labors in this 
department. Dr J. C. Howard, Brookline, has proved that 
the " Miller Burgundy " deserves more notice than hereto- 
fore it has received, and should be treated as a tender kind, 
and cultivated with heat. With such a process he has raised 
fruit of a superior quality ; so fine indeed, as to cause its 
identity to be doubted by cultivators and amateurs, until de- 
cided from certain peculiar data, by an individual, to whom it 
was well known for many years previous. This fact may 
prove a valuable one with the growers of the vine. Others, 
however, think that it may be the "Large Black Cluster. " 
A new series of forcing-houses, under the care of Mr 
McCullough, have been erected at Mount Washington, South 
Boston, which will be devoted to grapes and similar produce. 

The culture of the pine apple has been progressive. The 
efforts of J. P. Cushing are already known. Structures for 
their growth have been erected by Hon. T. H. Perkins, 



3~?l 



31 

and very healthy plants we noticed in the stove of Hon. 
John Lowell. 

b. IN THE OPEN AIR. 

The best specimens of the Peach and Plum, whether as 
standards or on espaliers, will be found in the neighborhood 
of Boston. The past summer, has proved more favorable to 
the former fruit, than many preceding. Some few particular 
kinds were very fine. 

Plums have been very subject to rot during the summer. 
The curculio (Rhynehcdnus, nenuphar, Herbst.,) has not 
diminished in numbers, and its ravages caused the usual drop- 
ping of much fruit. The Green Gage has been thought to 
have succeeded best of any variety, and is by far the most 
profitable. Coe's Golden Drop is highly recommended for a 
late fruit. The experience of a celebrated cultivator, who 
furnishes us with these memoranda, has been with regard to 
Prince's Imperial Gage, that it is apt to decay on the tree. 
The following, new and just fruited by him, are furnished by 
R. Manning. 

Red Apricot Plum, (New Edition, Du' Hamel.) 

Huling's Superb, very fine, large ; fruited for the first time. 

Morocco, early, very delicious ; fruited for the first time. 

Duane's Purple French, fine, and free from rot. 

We subjoin the following description, furnished by J. 
M. Ives, of a new Seedling Cherry, the finest of many sown 
and raised in the year 1821, by Mr R. Manning. 

u Manning's Fine Red' 1 fruit, medium size, sweet and 
good ; flesh firm, and of a fine sprightly flavor ; leaves very 
large, hiding the fruit ; a great bearer ; ripens in the middle of 
July." 

Messrs Mason of Charlestown, and J. L. L. F. Warren 
of Brighton, are celebrated for exhibiting fine Strawberries, 
grown at their gardens. Mr Mason cultivates the Raspberry 
extensively, and has succeeded in raising a seedling, known 



C/ G ^ 



32 



as the "Grape Raspberry," from its prolific character as a 
bearer. 



4. VEGETABLE DEPARTMENT. 

We are not aware that any important additions have been 
made within the past year, to this branch of horticultural 
industry. A summer of very high temperature, like the past, 
was found favorable to the growth of the squash, pump- 
kin, and melon. Extraordinary specimens of the two former, 
were exhibited at the Anniversary, of which an account will 
be found in the Report of the Exhibition. We regret to see 
in several instances, however, a careless way of raising varie- 
ties, from suffering those of superior and inferior qualities to 
grow in contiguity . The best varieties are thus extinguished 
in a few generations. This practice will, however, be 
retained so long as size is preferred to flavor. 

The Rohan potato seems to be considered a variety of 
some merit, introduced from France, and lately submitted to 
culture in this country. 

An instance of the culture of the mushroom, is in the green- 
house of J. D. W. Williams, Roxbury, in a pit em- 
ployed for the simultaneous growth of this rarely cultivated 
vegetable, and of lettuces. The experiment was success- 
ful, and no doubt, could be readily imitated. He has prac- 
tised the forcing of rhubarb in pots, as an early crop, for 
two years past. 

5. NATIVE FLORA. 

Although this branch of floriculture is not so much on the 
advance as we could wish, yet it is evident that a taste for 
the more beautiful or curious productions of the New Eng- 
land flora is gaining ground. The example, which for so 
many years, has been set by T. Lee, Esq., Jamaica Plains, 
will without doubt exert its influence on the public. Speci- 



33 

mens of New England forest trees, may be here found in the 
lawns and woods ; and copses of our flowering shrubs intro- 
duced with pleasing effect. Beside the native flowers of a 
spontaneous growth carefully preserved and from this circum- 
stance brilliantly covering the ground appropriated, the rarer 
and more delicate have been introduced with sedulous care. 
The showy orchideas succeed well. Each year adds some- 
thing new, by transplanting or by seed. Not discouraged by 
failures, repeated experiments have crowned with unexpected 
success the efforts in the exposed growth of the Rhododen- 
dron, Kalmia, Azalea, &c. &c. Such instances of vigorous 
growth in Rhododendron Maximum, are seldom seen. 
Kalmias of profuse inflorescence and of different colors cover 
the ground in large patches. The past season has enabled 
the Rhododendron and Azalea to produce a great quantity of 
buds. In close proximity may be found Laurus Benzoin, 
whose fragrant blossoms in early spring are perfuming the air, 
and the Mystic Witch Hazel, whose golden fringes, are the 
last mementos of the dying epoch of annual vegetation. 
Nor are these fine native shrubs unrepresented by foreign 
co-species, found capable of enduring our climate. To the 
botanist we scarcely know of a spot so interesting in the 
choice grouping of fine plants. We could wish that such ef- 
forts in picturesque gardening were more frequent. The 
winding paths amid the forest trees beneath which are the more 
delicate or hardier flowers, which otherwise deny their pres- 
ence to the pleasure ground, — the rude rock in whose crevi- 
ces are growing the feathery fern, and on whose sides the 
perennial moss,— the delicious perfume of the Clethra min- 
gled with the odor of the Azalea — the snowy or roseate co- 
rols of the Broad-leaved Laurel, and the superb heads of the 
Rhododendron Maximum, the northern Magnolia and its 
southern sister species — flower, shrub, tree, lawn, hill and 
dale, in happy unison, from the co-operation of Nature and 
Art — these we conceive to be worthy of attention in the 
5 



5M 



34 



cause of Horticultural pursuits, in a department hitherto too 
much overlooked. 

In the grounds of John A. Kenrick, Newton, we saw one 
hundred plants of Rhododendron Maximum, in a most healthy- 
state, under a north wall, and seemingly in a condition for 
successful growth. Azaleas of various varieties were doing 
well in a similar exposure. Magnolia glauca and M. longifo- 
lia in good condition. M. conspicua, though a Chinese spe- 
cies, is incidentally mentioned in this connection, as flowering 
well in the open border, by a slight protection in winter. 

J. W. Russell, Superintendent at Mount Auburn, we are 
happy to state, has succeeded in introducing to the grounds 
of the Cemetery some of the more beautiful native flowers, 
hitherto found impatient of culture. We mention particularly 
Epigaea repens, whose deliciously scented gems are among 
the first harbingers of spring. 

Gentians, Lobelias, and a few other showy flowers are not 
unfrequently met with in cultivation among amateur florists. 
J. E. Teschemacher has created not a little interest in 
behalf of several plants, viz. Trillium and its species, Gerar- 
dia, &c. Some of the native liliaceous flowers are attended 
to, as Lilium superbum, Canadense, Philadelphicum, Ery- 
thronium Americanum. Occasionally the rarer western 
flowers may be seen, as Polemonium reptans of lovely blue 
and of a creeping habit, and Claytonia latifolia and Virginica, the 
" Spring beauty." The Polygalse and Oxalises offer beauti- 
ful objects for easy cultivation, while not a county in New 
England, which may not have its peculiar and rarer flowers, 
rivals of these from other climes. 

6. PUBLIC GARDEN. 

Efforts have been making, during the past summer to es- 
tablish a public Garden in the city of Boston, to consist of a 
choice collection of green-house and out-door plants, shrubs, 



s#s 



35 



trees, &c. The plan may be considered good, and may 
promise after a few years, valuable to the cause of horticul- 
ture, and towards creating a taste for one of the most refined 
sources of recreation in society. 

On the 30th May, 1838, a Society was formed in New 
York, styled the " Horticultural Association of the Valley of 
the Hudson," whose objects should be to promote the gen- 
eral cause of Horticulture and to diffuse a taste for rural im- 
provements. The officers are of the first experience and of 
general science, from several counties of the State. Two 
meetings for exhibition are to be held in the year, in June 
and September or October, the former for smaller fruits and 
flowers, the latter for the hardier and usual fruits and produc- 
tions of the season. Its first exhibition was held in the Halls 
of the Lyceum, New York, on September 27th. 

7. NEW PUBLICATIONS. 

October 7, 1837. One hundred copies of Hoare's " Trea- 
tise on the Vine " were presented to the Society by the late 
G. W. Brimmer, Esq. This work has been considered of 
practical value in the culture of foreign varieties, and contains 
many excellent hints, deducible from experiments of several 
years. 

Early in the spring of 1838, Manning's descriptive Cata- 
logue, or " Book of Fruits," was published. Its intention 
being to give correct information respecting varieties, gather- 
ed from his own experience and study in this department of 
horticulture — the work will be found of value. 

About the same time appeared a little work on gardening, 
and the cultivation of flowers, by E. Sayers. Its design 
seems to be to afford a cheap and easy guide to any one, 
whose taste leads them to this department of horticulture, and 
whose knowledge on the subject might be limited. 



36 



8. NECROLOGY. 

Died, in Boston, on the evening of the 10th November, 
1837, Thomas Green Fessenden, Esq., aged 65. Mr F. 
was for fifteen years the editor of the N. E. Farmer, and 
the compiler of several popular works on Agriculture and 
Horticulture. His amiable character and benevolent dispo- 
sition caused him to be esteemed by all who had the pleas- 
ure of his acquaintance. As a patron and constant friend to 
Horticultural pursuits, the Society has met with a serious 
loss. 



Sf 



FLOWERS, FRUITS, VEGETABLES, &c. 

Presented at the Society's Halls, Tremont Row, Boston, from 
Sept. 30th, 1837, to the Tenth Anniversary, ( Sept. 19th, 20th, 
21st,) 1838. 

September 30, 1837. 
FLOWERS. 

From S. Walker, — Dahlias, Zinnias, Verbena chamae- 
drifolia, Gladiolus natalensis, and a variety of Pansies, 
among which were the following : Rainbow, Mrs Crush- 
ing, (new seedling and fine,) Napoleon, Othello, Vulcan 
and Clio ; also fine bouquets. From S. Sweetser, variety 
of flowers. From T. Mason, fine bouquets. From Hovey 
& Co. superb Dahlias, among which were Princess Victoria, 
Marchioness of Tavistock, Mary Queen of Scots, Conquer- 
or of Europe, Gem, Fisherton's Rival, (true) King Otho, &c. 
&c. &c. From D. M'Intyre, Dahlias, among others, Ange- 
lina, Glory, Gem, Queen of Scots, Ariel, Beauty of Dul- 
wich, Juliet, &c. &c. From M. P. Wilder, a variety of Dah- 
lias, among which were Sulphurea, Conqueror of Europe, 
Marquis of Northampton, Mary, Gem, Rainbow, &c. &c. 
From S. R. Johnson, Dahlias, viz. Angelina, Lady Fordwich, 
Red Rover, Queen Elizabeth, Clio, Rainbow, and others. 

FRUITS, ETC. 

Pears. — By Mr Manning, from his Garden in Dearborn 
Street, North Salem, — Cabot Pear, a new variety, raised by 
J. S. Cabot, of Salem, from the seed of the Brown 
Beurre, a brown fruit, of medium size, turbinate form, very 
beurre or melting, flavor delicious ; — the tree a great bearer. 
Washington. Raymond, a very fine fruit. Epine D'Ete. 



ft 

38 

By F. W. Bird, of Walpole, — Mogul Summer or 
Chelmsford ; specimens very large, the largest weighing 1 
1-4 lbs. ; weight of the eight, 7 lbs. 10 oz., circumference of 
the largest 13 inches. 

Jlpples. — By Jacob Pratt, of Sherburne, — Pratt's Fall 
Greening, a very large green fruit, a native of Sherburne, of 
a round form and a blush next the sun ; a noble cooking ap- 
ple, juice of a lively acid ; compares well with the R. I. 
Greening and Monstrous Pippin. 

Peaches. — By Mr Richards, from his Garden in Dedham, 
— Sargent Peach, and two varieties of Seedlings, one a yel- 
low rareripe — large and fine. 

Plums. — By Mr Pond, from his Garden in Cambridge- 
port, — Semiana, or Imperatrice Violette. 

Nectarines. — By Thomas Mason, from his Garden in 
Charlestown, — Beautiful specimens. 

Grapes. — By Mr Mason, of Charlestown, — Black Ham- 
burgh and White Chasselas, from his grape-house. 

By S. R. Johnson, from his Garden in Charlestown, — 
Sweet water or White Chasselas. Also, White Frontignac, 
both the produce of open culture ; these, like all other fruits 
which Mr Johnson exhibits, were very fine. Also, Black 
Hamburgh, very beautiful specimens. These were raised 
under glass. The glasses were opened about the first of 
April, sufficient only to give air, and have never been closed 
or removed since. These fine and perfect clusters have 
there grown and ripened well, with no other care or attention. 

By William Kenrick, — Received of Mr John Carter, of 
the city of Richmond, Va., — Catawba, fine, sweet and de- 
licious. Herbemont's Madeira, a fine native fruit ; the 
bunches large and oblong, with large shoulders, and very 
compact ; the berries small, round, of a blue color, of a 
sweet, vinous and excellent flavor. 



J fy 



39 



Norton's Virginia Seedling, a native fruit, bunches of me- 
dium size, oblong, and very compact ; the berries, small, 
round, of a blue color ; juice of a sweet, vinous, and deli- 
cious flavor. The vine bears almost extraordinary crops. 
Mr Carter, from his long experience, is persuaded that for 
the climate of America, this grape has no equal, either for- 
eign or native, for its fine quality, for productiveness, and for 
wine. The wine made by him at his vineyard of this grape, 
is of the color of Port wine, and of most excellent flavor. 
For the Committee, 

Wm. Kenrick, Chairman. 



October 7, 1837. 
FLOWERS. 

From Hovey& Co., Dahlias, — Princess Victoria, Queen 
of Scots, Mary, Conqueror of Europe. From S. R. John- 
son, — a variety of Dahlias. 

FRUITS, ETC. 

Pears. — By Mr Manning, — Remsen's Favorite, BufFum, 
Verte Longue or long green, St. Ghislain, Naumkeag, Belie 
Lucrative, juice abundant and very sweet and fine ; Golden 
Beurre of Bil